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  • 1.
    Algurén, Beatrix
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rizzi, Maria C.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    In-depth understanding of single bicycle crashes in Sweden: Crash characteristics, injury types and health outcomes differentiated by gender and age-groups2022In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 24, article id 101320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To study in-depth characteristics of single bicycle crashes and type of injuries considering gender and age differences. Methods: Hospital reported bicycle crashes identified in the Swedish national database STRADA were combined with self-reported detailed information regarding crash circumstances and injury outcomes. Gender and age-group differences were investigated using univariate statistics and Pearson Chi- Square test. Results: A total of 616 cyclists injured in single bicycle crashes between 2013 and 2017 were included. Participants (49% women) had a mean age of 58 years (ranged 15–89 years), most rode a comfort bike (54%) and cycled several times a week (81%). The most common crash type was skidding on ice or snow (26%). This crash type was significantly more common among women than men (30% versus 21%). Women more than twice as often lost balance at low or no speed (13% versus 5%). While men's injuries were located more than twice as often at shoulder and upper arm (28% versus 11%), women injured more than four times as often the lower leg and ankle (30% versus 7%). Differences regarding age-groups could be observed as an exponential increase of hip and upper leg injuries with increased age (9, 19 and 38%). Older cyclists were more often injured while losing balance at no or low speed and while getting on or off the bicycle. Conclusions: Concrete countermeasures to prevent injuries in single bicycle crashes can be suggested and directed to different target groups, i.e. women or men or younger or elderly. © 2021

  • 2.
    Amin, Khabat
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Hedlund, Jonathan
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. VTI.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. VTI.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Trafikverket.
    Hurtig, Per
    Trafikverket.
    Larsson, Peter
    Trafikverket.
    Lindholm, Magnus
    Trafikverket.
    Sternlund, Simon
    Trafikverket.
    Rizzi, Matteo
    Trafikverket.
    Analysis of road safety trends 2020: Management by objectives for road safety work towards the 2020 interim targets2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish road safety management is based on the Vision Zero and designated interim targets to track progress towards its achievement. 2020 was the final year for achieving the interim target of halving the number of fatalities between 2007 and 2020, i.e., a maximum of 220 fatalities in 2020. The interim target also specifies that the number of seriously injured in road traffic must be reduced by a quarter. This report describes and analyses the current road safety trends in terms of road safety performance indicators and the numbers of fatalities and seriously injured. 

    As this report is the last for the 2007-2020 interim target period, it can be seen as a final summary of how well the targets were achieved for fatalities and seriously injured and for the safety performance indicators. However, it is also important to remember that the year 2020 coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, which had a profound impact on virtually the entire society. This affected travel in a number of different ways, and consequently it is impossible to estimate the impact this has had on the outcome in 2020, although it probably has led to a slightly lower outcome. 

    The table below shows starting and final values together with an overview of whether the safety performance indicators have met the 2020 targets.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Bondemark, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Peters, Björn
    Ekblad, Johan
    Jpe Konsult AB.
    Regeringsuppdrag synfält: utredning om förutsättningar för undantag från de medicinska kraven för individer med synfältsbortfall2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I regeringsuppdraget (I2021/ 02412) framgår att VTI, i samarbete med Trafikverket och Transportstyrelsen, ska utreda förutsättningarna för undantagshantering från de medicinska föreskrifterna med avseende på synfältsbortfall (B-körkort). Vidare ska tre aspekter beaktas: hur andra länder gör, konsekvenser för den enskilde samt samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser. Slutrapporten påvisar att Sverige med gällande rättsligt ramverk inte kan genomföra de förslag som slutrapporten föreslår. Det innebär att det kommer att krävas juridiska förändringar. Givet att dessa förändringar genomförs och att ett nytt förfaringssätt nyttjas visar slutrapporten på att a) positiva effekter för den enskilde individen uppstår, b) samhällsekonomiska vinster uppstår och c) en rättssäker och rättvis prövning är möjlig. 

    Slutrapporten redovisar dessutom hur ett urval av andra länder har hanterat handläggningen av individer med synfältsbortfall givet samma EU-direktiv som Sverige regleras av. Det framgår också av undersökningen att samtliga länder, som en förutsättning för undantag från de föreskrivna kraven avseende synfält, tillämpar krav eller rekommendationer om att ett praktiskt körprov ska utgöra del i underlaget för bedömning av körförmågan. 

    Kunskapsläget med avseende på körförmågebedömningar för individer med synfältsbortfall redovisas och där framgår med tydlighet att perimetrin som Sverige utnyttjar som underlag för återkallelse av körkort inte kan predicera individers körförmåga. Perimetrin är dock viktig eftersom individer med synfältsbortfall som grupp kan vara olämpliga förare. Slutsatsen som forskningslitteraturen enstämmigt lyfter är att det behövs förarprov (på väg eller i en simulator) för att kunna genomföra en valid bedömning. 

    Slutligen innehåller slutrapporten vilka problem (aktiviteter) som kvarstår för att skapa en lämplig och kvalitetssäkrad process. Dessutom presenteras den kronologiska ordning på aktiviteter som behöver genomföras. Kronologin krävs eftersom resultatet av lämplig metod och aktör påverkar det vidare arbetet med avseende på utformning av körprov och rättsligt ramverk. 

    Slutrapportens slutsats är att Sverige har möjligheten att genomföra en förändring med avsevärda nyttor. Detta eftersom de valda aktörerna och de valda metoderna existerar idag och därför endast behöver utvecklas i viss mån för att säkerställa att individer med synfältsbortfall erbjuds en kvalitetssäkrad, rättssäker och rättvis process som dessutom bedöms vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsam.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE.
    Herslöf, Victoria
    Stockholms stad.
    Hökars, Felicia
    Closer.
    Malmryd, Jonas
    Göteborgs stad.
    Salmi, Anna-Karin
    ViaPM.
    Svedin, Martin
    MLogistics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Smarta urbana trafikzoner: en del av den flexibla staden där fordon rör sig på människors villkor - resultatrapport steg 22022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Smarta urbana trafikzoner har genomfört tre demonstrationer av smarta zoner som kan bli ett kraftfullt verktyg för att bidra till tystare, säkrare och hälsosammare urbana miljöer. Den smarta zonen bygger på digitala verktyg såsom uppkopplade sensorer och geofencing. Ett geofence är ett digitalt definierat område där fordonet styrs av digitalt uppsatta regler, vilket möjliggör kontroll av hur ett fordon körs inom zonen, utan mänsklig inblandning.

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  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindström, Anders
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Schagen, Ingrid van
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, The Hague.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    FERSI position paper: Safety through automation?: ensuring that automated and connected driving contribute to a safer transportation system2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 5-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, the Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI) published a report on automated driving (AD) from a road safety point of view, prepared by a dedicated FERSI Working Group with experts from eleven European countries. The group identified 23 high priority concerns or questions, clustered into four categories, to ensure that connected AD and co-operative ITS successfully contribute to a smart, green, and integrated transport system which at the same time is a safe transport system. The discussions resulted in ten principles to be fulfilled in order to optimise the safety effects of AD. Even if these principles may seem straightforward, the underlying questions are complex, and the identification and realisation of cost-efficient and effective solutions will require considerable effort. Many strong industrial and political driving forces exist, but so far improving road safety seems to get insufficient priority. FERSI therefore recommends a number of focused actions.

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  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Rumble Strips, Continuous Shoulder, and Centerline2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation: Volume 2 - Transport safety and security / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Imperial College, United Kingdom, Oxford: Elsevier, 2021, p. 549-553Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rumble strips in the center of two-lane rural roads and on the shoulder of motorways are a countermeasure aimed to help drivers who unintentionally are about to leave the lane, for example, due to fatigue or inattention. Rumble strips are widely used. They are installed in the raised profile or as in-ground (milled or pressed). The design varies in width, depth, length, and design. The most effective are the in-ground ones. Evaluations show an effect of 10% reduction of all injury crashes and 37% reduction on target crashes (head-on, single crashes to the left, etc.). Rumble strips contribute to speed reduction of 2–5 km/h and an increased distance to them with 10–15 cm, something that is good for vehicle-to-vehicle interactions, but less good for pedestrians and cyclist using the shoulder. To summarize, rumble strips save lives to a rather small cost in relation to other infrastructure-based countermeasures.

  • 7.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Kalman, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cruz del Aguila, Fernando
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Friktions- och texturutveckling på nya beläggningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new pavement should be and be perceived as safe by road users, regardless of the road condition. It is therefore important that the road has a satisfactory level of friction already when the road is opened. There is limited documented knowledge of how the road change in the beginning after a paving performance.

    The purpose of this project is to determine how friction changes during the first period after road pavement is laid and traffic is permitted. The ambition is to determine if new road sections have reduced friction and provide recommendations for when a friction measurement is to be performed, and how warning signs should be displayed in connection with the pavement work. The study plan has been to follow different objects with frequent friction and texture measurements from just before the stretch is opened for traffic until the levels have stabilised.

    Initially, friction is high, and then decreases with the amount of traffic. After 1-3 weeks the lowest value was reached and then the friction increased or stabilized. Common to all investigated stretches, there are major changes in texture levels from the first vehicle and then a decreasing textural level until a stable level is reached after 1-3 weeks.

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  • 8.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    et al.
    Department of Social Determinants of Health, WHO.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Division of Vehicle Safety, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Speed and technology: Different modus of operandi2023In: The Vision Zero Handbook: Theory, Technology and Management for a Zero Casualty Policy / [ed] Karin Edvardsson Björnberg, Sven Ove Hansson, Matts-Åke Belin, Claes Tingvall, Springer, 2023, 1, p. 971-994Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Vision Zero as a strategy, it is imbedded the fact that injuries occur when the mechanical energy reaches individuals at rates that entail forces in excess of their thresholds for injury. Therefore, according to Vision Zero, there are three main strategies to eliminate fatalities and severe injuries due to road crashes: protect people from exposure of harmful energy, reduce the risk of events with harmful energy, and protect people from harmful energy in the event of a collision. Controlling speed is therefore of the task of utmost importance in a strategy such as Vision Zero.

    A traffic enforcement camera, or “speed camera,” system has the possibility to control speed in a road system, and it has the possibility to affect its road users both at a macro and a micro perspective. In a micro perspective, it primarily concerns how effective the cameras are locally at the road sections where the enforcement is focused on, while at a macro perspective it is more focused on how the camera enforcement system and strategies, possibly together with the overall enforcement strategy, affects attitudes and norms related to driving with excessive speed. Experience worldwide has proven the effectiveness of automated speed cameras in reducing speed and, in turn, crashes and injuries.

    In this chapter, firstly the rationale behind speed limits, speed management, and speed compliance strategies will be explored and analyzed, in particular from a Vision Zero perspective. Secondly, various different approaches to speed camera systems in Europe, in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, and France, will be analyzed and further explored. Finally, based on similarities and differences in approaches in these countries, in the last section some aspects concerning the setting of speed limits, speed management strategies that underpin the choice of camera technology, and modus of operandi, safety effects of and attitudes toward cameras, will be explored and discussed.

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  • 9.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Chang, Fred
    CAE Department, Humanetics Innovative Solutions.
    Lemmen, Paul
    European Engineering group, Humanetics.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    EvaRID: A 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 249-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and the injury risk is greater for females than males. However, whiplash protection systems have shown to be more beneficial for males than females. Hence there is a need for improved tools to address female protection. The objective is to develop and evaluate a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy FE model. The model was based on the same design concept as the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to rear impact tests with female volunteers. The EvaRID model and volunteer tests showed good correlations until ~250 ms of the head and T1 accelerations, linear displacements and head angular displacement. Considerably less T1 angular displacement was found for the EvaRID; similar results were obtained for the BioRID II. Thus, the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II models have limitations at low δv (7km/h). The EvaRID model demonstrated the potential to become a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats/whiplash protection systems, however, this will require updating the joint stiffness. The model may be used as a template for the development of a physical female dummy.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Design and Evaluation of the Initial 50th Percentile Female Prototype Rear Impact Dummy, BioRID P50F – Indications for the Need of an Additional Dummy Size2021In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 687058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to present the design of a prototype rear impact crash test dummy, representing a 50th percentile female, and compare its performance to volunteer response data. The intention was to develop a first crude prototype as a first step toward a future biofidelic 50th percentile female rear impact dummy. The current rear impact crash test dummy, BioRID II, represents a 50th percentile male, which may limit the assessment and development of whiplash protection systems with regard to female occupants. Introduction of this new dummy size will facilitate evaluation of seat and head restraint (HR) responses in both the average sized female and male in rear impacts. A 50th percentile female rear impact prototype dummy, the BioRID P50F, was developed from modified body segments originating from the BioRID II. The mass and rough dimensions of the BioRID P50F is representative of a 50th percentile female. The prototype dummy was evaluated against low severity rear impact sled tests comprising six female volunteers closely resembling a 50th percentile female with regard to stature and mass. The head/neck response of the BioRID P50F prototype resembled the female volunteer response corridors. The stiffness of the thoracic and lumbar spinal joints remained the same as the average sized male BioRID II, and therefore likely stiffer than joints of an average female. Consequently, the peak rearward angular displacement of the head and T1, and the rearward displacement of the T1, were lesser for the BioRID P50F in comparison to the female volunteers. The biofidelity of the BioRID P50F prototype thus has some limitations. Based on a seat response comparison between the BioRID P50F and the BioRID II, it can be concluded that the male BioRID II is an insufficient representation of the average female in the assessment of the dynamic seat response and effectiveness of whiplash protection systems.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Industrial Technology, Sweden.
    Horion, Stefan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Germany.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Germany.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Germany.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dynamic Responses of Female Volunteers in Rear Impact Sled Tests at Two Head Restraint Distances2021In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 684003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the biomechanical and kinematic responses of female volunteers with two different head restraint (HR) configurations when exposed to a low-speed rear loading environment. A series of rear impact sled tests comprising eight belted, near 50th percentile female volunteers, seated on a simplified laboratory seat, was performed with a mean sled acceleration of 2.1 g and a velocity change of 6.8 km/h. Each volunteer underwent two tests; the first test configuration, HR10, was performed at the initial HR distance ∼10 cm and the second test configuration, HR15, was performed at ∼15 cm. Time histories, peak values and their timing were derived from accelerometer data and video analysis, and response corridors were also generated. The results were separated into three different categories, HR10C (N = 8), HR15C (N = 6), and HR15NC (N = 2), based on: (1) the targeted initial HR distance [10 cm or 15 cm] and (2) whether the volunteers’ head had made contact with the HR [Contact (C) or No Contact (NC)] during the test event. The results in the three categories deviated significantly. The greatest differences were found for the average peak head angular displacements, ranging from 10° to 64°. Furthermore, the average neck injury criteria (NIC) value was 22% lower in HR10C (3.9 m2/s2), and 49% greater in HR15NC (7.4 m2/s2) in comparison to HR15C (5.0 m2/s2). This study supplies new data suitable for validation of mechanical or mathematical models of a 50th percentile female. A model of a 50th percentile female remains to be developed and is urgently required to complement the average male models to enhance equality in safety assessments. Hence, it is important that future protection systems are developed and evaluated with female properties taken into consideration too. It is likely that the HR15 test configuration is close to the limit for avoiding HR contact for this specific seat setup. Using both datasets (HR15C and HR15NC), each with its corresponding HR contact condition, will be possible in future dummy or model evaluation. © Copyright © 2021 Carlsson, Horion, Davidsson, Schick, Linder, Hell and Svensson.

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  • 12. Danial, Josef
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Jämförelse av flöde och hastigheter från två olika cykelmätningsutrustningar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare cycle flows and speeds from two different cycle measurement equipment. The result has also been compared with the processed video data and manual counts. The measuring equipment are Viscando’s equipment OTUS3D and VTI´s TA-89. OTUS3D is a camera with 3D functionality, and it detects tracks and classifies these into different road user categories. TA-89 (where TA stands for Traffic Analyzer) is developed by VTI and is adapted for detecting both bicycles and motor vehicles. We also used a video camera from the OTUS3D system, to enable a manual calculation.

    The test site for the study is a pedestrian and bicycle path that crosses a ridge in Vallaskogen in Linköping. The area is located between the district of East Valla and campus. It is a fairly steep slope where the direction towards the campus is uphill and the direction to the East Valla / city center is downhill. Five days that did not include losses of flow were selected for the analyzes. The selected periods were 3 to 4 September (Saturday and Sunday) and 6 to 8 September (Tuesday to Thursday). In addition to this, we chose an hour with high flow and an hour with low flow where video processing was conducted. Furthermore, we used an hour and 50 minutes of manual counting.

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  • 13.
    Egeskog, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karemyr, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cykelstölder: Problemets omfattning och möjliga vägar framåt2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycle theft is a complex issue, and multiple stakeholders need to collaborate in order to address the problem. The results show that the number of stolen bicycles has neither increased nor decreased in recent years. However, there is an increasing trend of stealing more expensive bicycles, particularly with the widespread introduction of electric bikes in the market, resulting in rising costs for the insurance industry and ultimately the customers. We also observe a significant number of unreported bicycle thefts, indicating a large discrepancy between the actual number of thefts and those reported to the police. Statistics suggest that over half a million bicycle thefts occur annually in Sweden, but only around 70,000 of these thefts are reported to the police.

    The risk of theft significantly impacts the attractiveness of cycling as a means of transportation. A significant portion of the population states that they often or sometimes choose not to use a bicycle for some or all of their trips due to the risk of theft. Based on the accumulated knowledge, we propose several measures that can be taken to gradually reduce the extent of the problem. These measures include the implementation of some form of bicycle registry, increase public knowledge regarding risky behaviors related to bicycle parking, improved quality and capacity of bicycle parking facilities, and efforts to establish norms regarding the sale and handling of stolen bicycles. Reducing the prevalence of property crimes, including bicycle theft, can have a clear positive impact on public trust in the justice system and, ultimately, reduce the risk of other serious crimes in society.

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  • 14.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Förekomst av alkohol och droger hos förare av lastbil och buss som varit inblandade i dödsolyckor och olyckor med svåra personskador2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the presence of alcohol, drugs and medicine among drivers of trucks or busses involved in fatal accidents and accidents with severe injuries. The study is based on material from two different databases, the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth study database and the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (Strada), owned by The Swedish Transport Agency. The survey of the presence of substances and background variables such as gender, age and type of accident among drivers under influence is presented in this study and based on accidents that occurred 2008–2015. The study includes 614 fatal accidents from the in-depth study database and 3381 accidents with severe injuries from Strada.

    For fatally injured drivers of trucks and busses in the in-depth database presence of alcohol was found in 15 percent, illegal drugs in 6 percent and medicine in 9 percent. Compared to the corresponding figure for drivers of cars, the presence of alcohol is lower, whereas the presence for illegal drugs and medicine, is at the same level. The presence is much lower when studying all drivers of trucks and busses involved in fatal accidents disregarding the drivers level of injury. The presence of alcohol among the drivers were 2 percent and 1 percent for illegal drugs respectively medicine. There are though differences between the type of vehicle driven. Among drivers of lighter trucks 16 of 156 drivers (10%) had presence of alcohol and/or illegal drugs. For drivers of trucks 4 of 369 (1%) and drivers of busses 0 of 96 drivers (0%) where under the influence of alcohol and/or illegal drugs.

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  • 15.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hellman, FredrikSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.Haraldsson, MattiasSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 20192019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI arrangerade Transportforum 9–10 januari 2019 i Linköping Konsert & Kongress. En konferens, som är störst i sitt slag i Norden och som 2019 innehöll 90 sessioner med en stor variation mellan ämnen. Temat för 2019 års inledande session var elektrifiering – möjligheter och utmaningar att nå klimatmålen.

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  • 16.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hellman, FredrikSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.Haraldsson, MattiasSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 20202020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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    Referat från Transportforum 2020
  • 17.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances, injuries and suggestions for safety improvements2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is part of the sustainable transport system and plans are in place to increase this part of the transport system in Sweden, Europe as well as globally. Improving the safety for this group of roadusers is of great importance. The aim of this study was to identify patterns among fatally injured cyclists in Sweden, in order to suggest general safety improvements or improvements addressing different groups of cyclists as well as specific traffic conditions.

    The information was sourced from the in-depth study database of fatalities as well as the joint register for police and hospital injury and accident data, STRADA, in Sweden. Data was analysed and interpreted for an 11 year period from 2005–2015. The in-depth study of the fatalities provided details about the accidents and individuals involved in the accident and the information was retrieved by parameter values, in free text description and documents in the database. STRADA was used to sort official data within the in-depth study, assigning codes for accident type, complementing parameters and additional parameters.

    A total of 271 fatalities were identified and analysed where the majority of the accidents occurred during spring–autumn. Male fatalities accounted for two-thirds of the studied cases and in ages above 40, male fatalities are twice as many as female fatalities. Fatalities in Motor vehicle accidents are distributed in all age groups, while in the Single bike and Other bike category, there were no children and only a few young adults reported.

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  • 18.
    Ellison, Mia
    et al.
    Buss i Väst (Bivab).
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Att utveckla verktyg för säkerhetskultur i bussföretag2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har haft som mål att utveckla säkerhetskulturen i en grupp bussföretag. Enkätmätningar visar att attityder till ledningens information om säkerhet och förarnas kunskap om företagens säkerhetsmål, men även till förarnas hastighetshållning, har signifikant förbättrats sedan projektstart för några år sedan. Under 2021 har tekniska fleetsystem utvecklats för att mäta och följa upp hastighet. Framöver kommer uppföljning av bränsleförbrukning och olyckor att fortsätta utvecklas. Nya tekniska system visar med hjälp av geofencing att hastighetsefterlevnad på vägar med hastighetsgränser 30–50 km/tim behöver förbättras. Dialog med återkoppling av mätdata till förare behövs för att utveckla säkerhetskulturen i bussföretagen. Bältesanvändningen är mycket hög och vi ser en möjlig koppling mellan att mäta och följa upp, och beteendet hos förare.

    Studiens syfte är att finna metoder och teknik för att utveckla och förbättra säkerhetskulturen från ett organisatoriskt- och ledarperspektiv. Säkerhetskultur handlar om gemensamma attityder och beteenden avseende säkerhet och vi har i denna studie fokuserat på prioriteringar, ledarskap, kommunikation och engagemang hos anställda. Hälften av bolagen i studien var engagerade och deltog i möten och engagerade sina förare. De mindre bolagen, påverkades mer av pandemin och hade svårt att få tid eller kraft för engagemang. Detta pekar på vikten av rutiner som har prövats och utvärderats och som är lätta att hantera. De aktiva företagen har köpt och varit med och utvecklat ett fleetsystem för att kunna mäta och följa upp hastighetsefterlevnad. Processen tog längre tid än väntat och har stött på problem med hantering av personuppgifter.

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  • 19.
    Elvik, Rune
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hels, Tove
    Rigspolitiet, Denmark.
    van Schagen, Ingrid
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Netherlands.
    Updated estimates of the relationship between speed and road safety at the aggregate and individual levels2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 123, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the relationship between the speed of traffic and road safety, stated as the number of fatalities and the number of injury accidents, are reviewed and their results synthesised by means of meta-analysis. All studies were based on data fully or partly for years after 2000. Previously proposed models of the relationship between the speed of traffic and road safety, including the Power Model and an Exponential Model, are supported. Summary estimates of coefficients show that the relationship between speed and road safety remains strong. The Power Model and the Exponential Model both fit the data very well. The relationship between speed and road safety is the same at the individual driver level as at the aggregate level referring to the mean speed of traffic.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Skattning av cykeltrafikarbetet: en pilotstudie i tre kommuner2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nationally (by the walking, cycling and public transport target), regionally and in many of Sweden's municipalities there are targets for increased cycling. However, these objectives are difficult to follow up, as the amount of bicycle traffic is not measured and followed up. The overall aim of the pilot study is to develop an accepted, reliable, applicable, and uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle in the municipality through bicycle flow measurements. 

    The municipalities of Stockholm, Uppsala and Östersund are included in this pilot study. 135 weekly measurements were carried out in each municipality; 100 on the pedestrian and bicycle road network, 35 in mixed traffic, divided into five periods. The year-round measured cycle flow measurements were used as information for enumeration at year-round level. The cycle path network does not include gravel roads, individual road holders and roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h and higher. The links were divided into strata, where a systematic selection of the total link length was made in each stratum. The estimation method considered both space and time. 

    During the year week 35 of 2020 to week 34 of 2021, 145±43 million kilometers were cycled in Stockholm, 59±23 million kilometers in Uppsala and 9±3 million kilometers in Östersund. The uncertainty in the estimate constitutes between 30 and 40 percent of the point estimate. There is a fairly large uncertainty in the estimate, but small enough to see that there are, for example, differences between the municipalities. 

    Something that emerged in this study is that cycling in mixed traffic is not negligible and the municipalities should take this into account. The study should be repeated once more in at least one of these municipalities.

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  • 21.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle pathsIn: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, cyclists, pedestrians, and moped riders share the space on combined pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. As a starting point, this article studies the speed component and how cyclists' speed varies at pedestrian and cycle paths depending on the day, week, and year; road user composition; and road design.

    Methods: Three data sources were used: 1) Existing measurements of cycle speed and flow at 17 sites in 3 different Swedish municipalities; 2) complementary measurements of cycle speed and flow at 5 sites; and 3) roadside observations of bicycle types at these 5 new sites.

    Results: The average speed of cyclists on the paths varied between 12.5 and 26.5 km/h. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in uphill directions, near intersections, and on paths with high pedestrian flows. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. In all, 70%-95% of road users observed on pedestrian and cycle paths were cyclists, and 5%-30% were pedestrians. The 2 sites with the highest proportion of electric-assisted bicycles and racer bicycles also had the highest average speeds.

    Conclusions: The relationship between bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the results suggest that paths with higher proportions of electric and racer bicycles have higher average speeds. There also appears to be a connection between average speed and the width of the distribution; that is, the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how speed levels and speed variance affect accident risk.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Enhetlig metod för cykelflödesmätningar: en förberedande studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an objective of increasing cycling nationally, regionally and in many Swedish municipalities. The extent of cycling can be followed up with either travel surveys (TSs) or by measuring the bicycle flow. The Traffic Analysis Authority was commissioned by the Government to develop and propose a uniform method for systematic measurements of bicycle traffic at a local and regional level and their report was published in January 2018. Bicycle traffic can be measured in different ways and the two most common methods are (1) measurements by counting bicycles (manually or with detecting equipment) in the street area or (2) travel surveys (TSs). In this report, we focus only on counting cyclists in the street area. Today, the methods of counting bicyclists are limited, and they do not enable estimations of kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day in a municipality.

    In order to achieve a broad application, it is necessary to investigate the possible obstacles that exist to use the Traffic Analysis's proposal for a uniform method, and this will be done in the following steps, where step 1 is described in this report:

    1. A preparatory study: Suggest a set-up of a pilot study

    2. Conduct a pilot study to establish a uniform and systematic approach, and finally

    3. Determine the final uniform and systematic method.

    The purpose of the preparatory study presented in this report is to adapt the Traffic Analysis's proposal to a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day, based on municipal conditions. The preparatory study will also lead to a proposal for a pilot study in which the adapted method is tested, and issues related to delimitations and definitions can be decided. The pilot study will be carried out in a follow-up project with a number of municipalities. This will result in a final determination of a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day.

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  • 23.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rizzi, Maria C.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Oskyddade trafikanters inblandning i olyckor och deras skadeutfall: en jämförande studie mellan fotgängare, cyklister, mopedister och motorcyklister2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous traffic safety work of pedestrian, bicycle and moped traffic, facts have been developed for accidents and injuries. There is a great demand for updated analyses and to extend the content to include mopedists and motorcyclists. The purpose is to increase knowledge about vulnerable road users' involvement in accidents and their injuries. 

    The study is based on injured road users registered by the accident database Strada, and mainly from the health care, for the years 2014–2019. The travel data is based on the National Travel Survey, for the years 2011–2016. A seriously injured person is classified as having a Risk of Permanent Medical Impairment of at least 1% or more. 

    During the current six-year period, 19,042 pedestrians, 11,195 cyclists, 1,325 mopedists and 1,393 motorcyclists were seriously injured. A vast majority of these were single accidents. Pedestrians consisted of most women aged 45 and older. For cyclists, slightly more men were seriously injured, and the age group 10–14 years had the highest proportion. The severely injured mopedists consisted of a majority of men and over half were aged 15–17. Nine out of ten seriously injured motorcyclists were men, and most were aged 25–64. Regardless of the road user group, the most common case was “leisure” at the time of injury. The most common cause was slippery road (30–60%), and snow/ice was most common for pedestrians, snow/ice and loose grit for cyclists and loose grit for mopedists and motorcyclists. Uneven surface/potholes were also common, between 9 and 17 percent depending on the road user category. The risk of being seriously injured per trip is highest among motorcyclists, and per one million kilometers it was mopedists.

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    Powerpoint: Omkomna oskyddade trafikanter
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    Powerpoint: Skadade oskyddade trafikanter
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    Powerpoint: Exponering och skaderisker
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    Powerpoint: Skadade fotgängare
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    Powerpoint: Skadade cyklister
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    Powerpoint: Jämförelse elspark, elcykel, cyklister
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    Powerpoint: Skadade mopedister
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    Powerpoint: Skadade motorcyklister
  • 24.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Wahl, Charlotte
    Sweco.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Sweco.
    Adell, Emelie
    Trivector.
    Intressent- och behovsanalys för resvaneundersökningar: resultat från intervjuer och enkätundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, national travel surveys are regularly carried out by Transport Analysis, a governmental agency. However, in the last decade travel survey studies have suffered with problems such as high rate of non-response, coverage, costs and reporting burden. Therefore, this project is underway aimed at investigating and proposing new methods for data collection on people’s mobility. The project is divided into five deliverables (work packages – WP), of which this report is the second one (WP2). The purpose is to carry out an analysis of stakeholders’ needs regarding future requirements of travel surveys. This includes identifying the questions that travel surveys can answer.

    Telephone interviews have been conducted with 20 stakeholder representatives and internet-based questionnaires were sent to 142 respondents (response 81 persons, response rate 57 percent). The stakeholders’ representatives were classified into three types of organizations: public sector, research organizations and other actors. Based on their own experience, an analysis has been conducted regarding what is requested from the national travel survey. The analysis show that key aspects of today’s and tomorrow’s travel survey users include (i) mode choice, (ii) trip purpose, (iii) how travel behavior changes over time, and (iv) how different groups travel. To be able to answer these questions, both individual and travel information are required.

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  • 25.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector .
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector .
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Dahlberg, Lina
    Trivector.
    New ways of collecting individual travel information: Evaluation of data collection and recruitment methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the project is to conduct a demonstration study that shows how two data collection methods that have been developed to collect travel survey data perform in the field, and how they perform compared with traditional TS (i.e., postal questionnaires and/or telephone interviews). The project is also intended to provide a better understanding of the ways in which different recruitment methods of respondents can be used so that future TS can be more cost effective.

    The two collection methods tested consist of a mobile app and an online questionnaire with a map to assist the respondents to identify travel destinations. Three recruitment methods were used, i.e., recruitment via random sampling, a web panel, and crowdsourcing. The portion of the random sample that received an online questionnaire was divided into two groups. Half the group was given no incentive, while the other half received a gift card worth SEK 100 after answering the questioner. Those who were recruited via a web panel and were to use the mobile app were rewarded in the form of a gift card worth SEK 100 if, at minimum, they made corrections to trips made on one day registered in the mobile app. A nonresponse analysis was performed of the random sample for both the online questionnaire and the mobile app. Cost estimates for each collection method and recruitment method were also performed, as were uncertainty estimates.

    Overall, the study shows that the mobile app registered significantly more trips per respondent than did the online questionnaire, while the distances travelled were comparable. There are several possible interpretations of this. One is that people who responded to the online questionnaire either forget about and/or combined short trips (particularly trips made for the purposes of leisure or shopping, and using the travel modes walking and car). One presumable explanation for this is that it is easier to confirm/correct the trips that the mobile app suggests than it is to recall and enter all trips in an online questionnaire. Another possible interpretation is that people responding to different data collection methods have different travel patterns. Yet another explanation is connected to technique issues regarding the different data collection methods.

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  • 26.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector.
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Dahlberg, Lina
    Trivector.
    Nya sätt att samla in individuell resvaneinformation: Utvärdering av insamlings- och rekryteringsmetoder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom samverkansprogrammet Nästa generations resor och transporter, som Trafikanalys är huvudansvarig för, har man identifierat ett behov av att finna och utveckla nya lösningar för resvaneundersökningar (RVU:er). Bakgrunden till detta är bland annat sjunkande svarsfrekvenser med dagens metoder, vilket skulle kunna ge problem med representativiteten. Det anses som mycket angeläget att utveckla nya metoder för datainsamling för framtidens RVU:er, både på kort och lång sikt.

    Det övergripande syftet med projektet är att göra en demonstrationsstudie som visar hur två datainsamlingsmetoder som har utvecklats för att samla in resevaneundersökningsdata presterar i fält, samt hur de presterar jämfört med ”traditionell” RVU (postal enkät och/eller telefonintervjuer). 

    Projektet syftar också till att få bättre förståelse för hur olika rekryteringsmetoder kan användas för att framtida RVU:er ska kunna bli mer kostnadseffektiva. De två insamlingsmetoder som testats är webbenkät med karta och mobilapp. Tre rekryteringsmetoder har använts och dessa är rekrytering via slumpmässigt urval, webbpanel och crowdsourcing.

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  • 27.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

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  • 28.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Injured cyclists with focus on single-bicycle crashes and differences in injury severity in Sweden2022In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 165, article id 106510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cycling is promoted as a clean, energy-efficient mode of transport generating physical activity, the number of injured cyclists must decrease to achieve traffic safety goals. The extent of the single bicycle crashes (SBCs) and crash causes are rather well studied. This study expands this knowledge by focusing on differences in injury severity. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between injury severity and characteristics of the crash and the cyclist with focus on SBCs. Furthermore, injury risk is calculated for different age classes and sexes, as well as for different purposes of the trip. The results are based on injured cyclists in Sweden (N = 105,836) registered in STRADA, 2010–2019, by both the police and accident and emergency departments (A&Es), with a special focus on injury severity reported by the A&Es. Binary logistic regression was applied to analyse how the odds of being severely injured differed for different cyclists and situations. Results from of the National Travel Survey, 2011–2016, were used to study differences in distance travelled with respect to sex, age group and purpose of the trip. Given that the cyclist is injured in an SBC, the results show a higher probability of being severely injured (maximal AIS 3 or more) for cyclists 45 years or older compared to younger cyclists, for males compared to females and for cyclists not wearing a helmet compared to cyclists wearing a helmet. A higher probability for severe injury was also found for crashes occurring during leisure trips compared to work/school trips, crashes occurring during weekdays compared to weekends and crashes at intersections and road stretches compared to pedestrian and cycle paths. Furthermore, the risk of being severely injured in an SBC per km travelled was higher for cyclists aged 45 and older and during a leisure trip. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cyclists’ speeds: field obervations and measurements2018In: 7th International Cycling Safety Conference, ICSC2018, 10-11 October 2018, Bacelona, Spain, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of cyclists’ speed on pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and the surrounding environment. The paper is based on a study where three different data sources were used: existing measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different Swedish municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (19 sites); new measurements of cycle speed and flow in Linköping (4 sites) and Stockholm (1 site); and road side observations of bicycle types at these five sites.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths varied between 15 and 25 kilometres per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in uphill directions, near intersections and on paths with high pedestrian flows. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. In all, 70–95 percent of the road users observed on pedestrian and cycle paths were cyclists while 5–30 percent were pedestrians. The most common type of bicycle used was a comfort bike, followed by a trekking bike. Electric assisted bicycles and racer bikes occurred at all sites, with a proportion of 1–10 percent and 1–15 percent, respectively. The relationship be-tween bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the paths with higher pro-portions of electric and racer bikes generally had higher speeds. There also appears to be a con-nection between average speed and the width of the distribution – the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how this affects the accident risk.

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  • 30.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

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  • 31.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Motorcykelflöden sommarhalvåren 2006 – 2017: teknisk rapport, version 1.02018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket ser ett ökat behov av uppgifter om trafikflöden och fordonshastigheter för motorcyklar, speciellt med avseende på tillförlitliga data inom trafiksäkerhetsområdet. Vid olycksanalys är det till exempel svårt att finna exponeringsdata för motorcykliste. För mc-flöden finns en särskild metod framtagen, se PM ”Beräkningar av mc-flöden på Trafikverkets ÅDT-avsnitt” (Eriksson, 2013).

    Skattningar av trafikflöden tas fram på basis av ett 12-årigt mätprogram för årsmedel-dygnstrafik (ÅDT). Sedan år 2006 skattas även mc-flöde under sommarhalvåret med hjälp av data från mätprogrammet. Skattningar av mc-flöden på de statliga vägarna år 2006–2012 utfördes enligt metoden beskriven i Eriksson (2013). Motsvarande skattningar gjordes även för år 2013–2014 med denna metod, enligt uppgift från Trafikverket. Metoden användes också för skattningar år 2015, men då genomfördes dessutom ytterligare rimlighetskontroller och korrigeringar av data, vilket är beskrivet i teknisk rapport ”Trafikflöden för motorcyklar 2015” (Sörensen och Eriksson, 2016). Metoden vidareutvecklades för skattningarna år 2016, se Sörensen, Henriksson och Yahya (2017).

    Resultaten av mc-flödesskattningarna har rapporterats till Trafikverket i tabellform uppdelade per mätår och vägkategori. Trafikverket har publicerat resultaten i kartor på sin websida.

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  • 32.
    Flannagan, Carol. A. C.
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Klinich, Kathleen. D.
    University of Michigan.
    Sander, Ulrich
    Autoliv Research.
    Manary, Miriam A.
    University of Michigan.
    Cuny, Sophie
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    McCarthy, Michael
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Phan, Vuthy
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    Wallbank, Caroline
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Green, Pauk E.
    University of Michigan.
    Sui, Bo
    Autoliv Research.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Comparing motor-vehicle crash risk of EU and US vehicles2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters. Logistic regression models of the risk of a Maximum injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, or fatality (MAIS3+F) in EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles were constructed. The injury risk predictions of the EU model and the US model were each applied to both the US and EU standard crash populations. Frontal, near-side, and far-side crashes were analyzed together (termed "front/side crashes") and a separate model was developed for rollover crashes.

    For the front/side model applied to the US standard population, the mean estimated risk for the US-vehicle model is 0.035 (sd = 0.012), and the mean estimated risk for the EU-vehicle model is 0.023 (sd = 0.016). When applied to the EU front/side population, the US model predicted a 0.065 risk (sd = 0.027), and the EU model predicted a 0.052 risk (sd = 0.025). For the rollover model applied to the US standard population, the US model predicted a risk of 0.071 (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.128 risk (sd = 0.057). When applied to the EU rollover standard population, the US model predicted a 0.067 risk (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.103 risk (sd = 0.040).

    The results based on these methods indicate that EU vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in front/side impacts, while US vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in llroovers. These results should be interpreted with an understanding of the uncertainty of the estimates, the study limitations, and our recommendations for further study detailed in the report.

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  • 33.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. VTI.
    Analys av lagföringar med avseende på rattfylleribrott2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number and type of drink and drug driving convictions is affected by actual crime rates as well as enforcement strategies and legislation. Valuable knowledge about the chain of events from offense to sentence could therefore be gained by studying crime records. 

    The purpose of the project was to examine drink and drug driving offenses, and, among other things, study the extent drivers are convicted of different types of drink and drug driving offenses and how common it is for these offenses to be committed in combination with other offences. In addition, the project had three specific research questions: 

    1. Has reduced drink driving enforcement affected the number and type of convictions? 

    2. Have the type of sanctions and length of any prison sentences changed over time? 

    3. How long is the time between offence and sentence? 

     

    The study is based on all crime records in Sweden involving drink and drug driving convictions during the period 2007–2018. 

    The results showed that there are mainly three types of drink and drug driving offenses: drink driving, drug driving and aggravated drink driving. It is very rare to be convicted of aggravated drug driving. Drink and drug driving offenses relatively often occur in combination with other offenses. For example, among those convicted for drug driving, 54 percent were also convicted for driving without a valid license. 

    The reduced drink driving enforcement by the police has led to fewer convictions of these crimes and some changes in sanctions have also taken place. For example, the proportion of probation sentences due to aggravated drink driving has decreased and the proportion of conditional sentences has increased. The time between offense and sentence varies greatly depending on the type of offense and depending on whether the case is determined in court or by summary imposition of a fine.

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  • 34.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Förekomst av alkohol och andra droger hos omkomna motorfordonsförare: Förare av personbil, lätt lastbil och motorcykel, år 2014–20212023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the presence of alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicinal drugs in killed drivers during the years 2014–2021 and is a follow-up of a previous study from the period 2005–2013. In the previous study, only drivers of passenger cars were included, this has now been expanded to include motorcycle riders and drivers of light trucks. The study is based on data from the Swedish Transport Administration’s in-depth studies of fatal road crashes. In total, the study is based on 607 passenger car drivers, 233 motorcycle riders and 67 drivers of light trucks. The results show that among car drivers, alcohol was present in 22.4 percent, illicit drugs in 9.1 percent and medicinal drugs in 12.6 percent. For motorcycle riders the corresponding proportions were 12.9 percent, 20.2 percent and 10.8 percent and for light truck drivers, 7.5 percent, 10.4 percent and 10.4 percent. The difference between passenger car drivers and motorcyclists is statistically significant for alcohol and illicit drugs, but not for medicinal drugs.

    The results for light trucks are uncertain due to the low number of killed drivers and should be interpreted with caution. The most commonly occurring drug is THC (cannabis) followed by amphetamine, this applies to both passenger car drivers and motorcycle riders. Amphetamine has been classified as an illicit drug in this study even though it is also present in some medicines. However, a review of the blood concentrations of amphetamine indicates illicit use in most cases. Comparison with the previous period can only be made for passenger car drivers and it shows that the presence of alcohol remains at approximately the same level as before, while illicit drugs and medicinal drugs have increased slightly. When it comes to illicit drugs, it is mainly the presence of THC that has increased.

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  • 35.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Rattfylleriets utveckling: mätserie baserad på data från polisens övervakning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har länge funnits ett intresse av att följa utvecklingen av rattfylleriets omfattning. Under senare år har detta intresse ökat eftersom nyktra förare är en av de 13 indikatorer som är utpekade för uppföljning i arbetet mot etappmålet för trafiksäkerhet 2020. Tidigare har föreslagits hur man genom observationsstudier vid vägkanten kan skatta rattfylleriets omfattning. Sådana studier kräver dock mycket omfattande insatser, främst från polisens sida, och är därför inte realistiska att genomföra annat än vid enstaka tillfällen. Ett alternativ till observationsstudier är att använda sig av data från polisens ordinarie kontrollverksamhet. Det finns ett rikt material att utgå från eftersom polisen utför ett stort antal utandningsprov varje år. Under 2009 genomfördes till exempel 2,8 miljoner prov med de så kallade sållningsinstrumenten. I detta PM redovisas först en utvärdering av data från sållningsinstrumenten, sedan föreslås en metod för hur rattfylleriets utveckling kan följas med hjälp av dessa data. Det är endast rattfylleri med avseende på alkohol som behandlas här.

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  • 36.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: registerstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program, that is voluntary and applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC ≥ 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the oneyear program.

    The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. The results from the register based study is presented in this report, while the other studies have been published earlier. Results and conclusions from all three studies will be summarized in an upcoming final report.

    The aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the program, and to follow both participants and non-participants during the time in the program or the time without a driver’s license, respectively. The study is based on data from the Swedish road traffic register and a case management system, both administrated by the Swedish Transport Agency. The effectiveness of reducing recidivism in drink driving during the program have been shown in previous studies and are not evaluated here.

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  • 37.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Skyving, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh J.
    Loughborough University.
    Injury crashes and the relationship with disease causing excessive daytime sleepiness2021In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 272-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between some of the most common diseases that are known to contribute to excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and traffic injury crashes. Specific focus was on the relationship between disease and crash type (single-vehicle or multiple-vehicle crash) and between disease and injury severity. Methods This registry-based study considered all passenger car drivers involved in a crash in Sweden between 2011 and 2016 who were 40 years or older at the time of the crash (n = 54,090). For each crash-involved driver, selected medical diagnoses registered from 1997 until the day before the crash were extracted from the National Patient Register. The drivers were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, depending on prior diseases: sleep apnea (SA; group 1, n = 2,165), sleep disorders (group 2, n = 724), Parkinson's or epilepsy (group 3, n = 645) and a reference group (group 4, n = 50,556). Logistic regression analysis compared single-vehicle crashes with multiple-vehicle crashes and moderately/severely injured drivers with slightly/uninjured drivers. Results Drivers with EDS-related diseases (groups 1-3) had higher probability of a single-vehicle crash than a multiple-vehicle crash compared to the reference group. The most sizeable effect was found for Parkinson's/epilepsy with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.5 (confidence interval [CI], 2.1-3.0). For multiple-vehicle crashes, the probability of a moderate/severe injury was higher for drivers with other sleep disorders (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.0-2.2) and Parkinson's/epilepsy (OR = 1.6; CI, 1.1-2.3) compared to the reference group. Conclusions This study has made first steps toward understanding the relationship between some of the most common diseases that are known to contribute to EDS and crashes. Having Parkinson's/epilepsy, in particular, elevated the probability of a single-vehicle crash compared to a multiple-vehicle crash. A single-vehicle crash was seen as indicative of causing a crash; thus, having Parkinson's/epilepsy could be interpreted as a risk factor for crash involvement. Having Parkinson's/epilepsy, as well as other sleep disorders, was also related to more severe outcomes in multiple-vehicle crashes, given that a crash occurred. This was not identified in single-vehicle crashes.

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  • 38.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Effektutvärdering av stängsling på järnväg: Pilotprojekt i Region Öst2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket har under 2010-talet arbetat med en åtgärdsstrategi inom järnvägen som bland annat inneburit att nya stängsel har satts upp längs spåren på utpekade sträckor. Syftet med dessa åtgärder har varit att minska antal personpåkörningar i enlighet med halveringsmålet som innebär högst 55 omkomma i järnvägstransportsystemet år 2020. Det har dock inte genomförts någon mer omfattande utvärdering av stängslingens effekt, delvis på grund av de svårigheter detta innebär. Syftet med den här studien var att analysera stängslingens effekter i Trafikverkets region Öst och, baserat på dessa erfarenheter, bedöma om metoden kan användas nationellt. En viktig del i projektet var att bedöma om de dataunderlag som finns är av tillräckligt bra kvalitet för att en nationell utvärdering ska vara rimlig att genomföra.

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  • 39.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Wallhagen, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cykelstråk i Skåne: en studie av cykelflöden och cyklisternas upplevelser på tre stråk2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept called Supercykelvägar (Cycle Superhighways) is currently implemented in the region of Skåne in Sweden, with the objective to improve the possibilities of traveling to and from the larger cities by bicycle. The idea is to, as far as possible, improve already existing infrastructure. 

    As part of the work, three regional routes have been evaluated: Malmö–Lund, Malmö–Lomma and Arlöv–Lomma. The purpose of the study was to measure cycle counts, speeds and bicycle types and to evaluate the design of the routes from the cyclists’ perspective. The study was conducted during the years 2020–2022 and included: count and speed measurements, roadside observations, a questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. 

    Results from the focus group discussions showed that the participants expected a good bicycle path to have good visibility, as few stops as possible and not contain any 90-degree curves or S-curves, among other things. At present, the expectations are fulfilled to a certain extent and on certain sections of the route, but there is still large part of the routes that need further improvement. The results also showed that the cyclists who participated in the study had noticed improvements and that they were generally positive about them. However, examples were given of reconstructions with the aim of improving for cyclists but where the design didn’t fully meet the participants expectations. 

    Examples of shortcomings on existing routes were bushes and trees that grow over the cycle path, poor lighting, cracks and other irregularities in the asphalt and poorly designed intersections.

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  • 40.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Region Jönköpings län.
    Bortfallsuppräkning Strada: underlag till metod som baseras på både polis- och sjukvårdsrapporter2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett stort antal personer skadas varje år i vägtrafikolyckor. I Sverige finns den nationella databasen Strada dit olyckor och skadade rapporteras in av såväl polisen som av sjukvården. Denna källa ger en ganska bra bild över de vägtrafikolyckor som sker och dess konsekvenser, men på grund av bortfall är det svårt att uppskatta hur många som skadas totalt. 

    I det här PM:et beskrivs en metod för bortfallsuppräkning som kan användas för att skatta det totala antalet skadade i vägtrafikolyckor. Metoden bygger på tidigare arbeten utförda vid Transportstyrelsen. Grunden för metoden är att använda både polis- och sjukvårdsrapporterade personskador och utifrån dessa även skatta hur många som inte är rapporterade från någon av dessa källor. 

    I praktiken görs bortfallsjusteringen så att de sjukvårdsrapporterade personerna räknas upp med en faktor som beror på variablerna län, kommungrupp, trafikantkategori, ålder, kön och år. Den faktorn kompenserar för skadade som endast är rapporterade från polisen eller inte är rapporterade alls i Strada. Den genomsnittliga uppräkningsfaktorn för alla sjukvårdsrapporterade personer är 3,23 och medianen 2,96. 

    PM:et innehåller också en steg-för-steg-beskrivning av implementeringen och SPSS-kod.

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  • 41.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Drink drivers' views of a voluntary alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program was introduced in Sweden in 2012. The program is voluntary and makes it possible for drivers that are apprehended by the police to keep their driver’s license if they install an alcohol interlock in their vehicle. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program and it applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. A previous study showed that about 30 percent of all drivers that had their license withdrawn due to drink driving applied for and was granted participation in the program, 10 percent were assigned to the one-year program and 20 percent to the two-year program. Moreover, the age groups 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 have the highest participation rates (in relation to the total number of drink drivers), about 35 percent, while the youngest (≤24) and oldest (≥75) have participation rates of about 20 and 10 percent, respectively.

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of the drink drivers’ views of the program, both participants and those who chose not to participate. More specifically, we were interested in why they have chosen or not chosen to participate in the program and their views on the application process, doctor visits and the handling of the interlocks. We also wanted to know if their health and drinking habits had changed after the drink driving offence.

  • 42.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Participation Rates in a Voluntary Alcohol Interlock Program for Drink Drivers in Sweden2016In: 21st International council on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety conference T2016: Conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a long trial period, an alcohol interlock program was permanently introduced in Sweden in 2012. Participation in the program is voluntary and the duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. An evaluation of the program during the trial period showed a participation rate of about 11%. Aim: The main aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the interlock program and evaluate if the changes made from the trial period had led to increased participation. Reasons for denied participation and the time between the drink driving offence and decision about participation in the program were also studied.

    A sample of about 3600 drivers who had their license withdrawn due to drink driving was investigated. The data includes age and gender, information about the drink driving offence and the application process.

    The participation rate in the permanent program is about 30%. The age group with the highest participation is drivers between 35 and 64 years old with about 35% participation. Moreover, the participation rate of drivers with BAC > 1 g/L is almost twice as high as the rate for drivers with BAC < 1 g/L.

    The study shows that the participation rate has increased from about 11% in the trial period to about 30% in the permanent program. Thus, the attempt of increasing the rate has been successful.

  • 43.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
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  • 44.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Olyckor med cyklister, elcyklister och elsparkcyklister: Analys av Stradadata2019Other (Other academic)
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    Presentation cyklister
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    Presentation elcyklister
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    Presentation elsparkcyklar
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    Presentation jämförelser
  • 45.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Högström, Jonas
    Tobii AB.
    Detektion av narkotikapåverkan med hjälp av automatisk avläsning av ögonrörelser: ett pilotprojekt för att bedöma metodens potential2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a zero-tolerance law for drug driving. If the police suspect a driver to be under the influence of drugs, they have the right to carry out an eye examination and if the examination strengthens the suspicion, the person must provide blood and urine samples. This procedure places a big responsibility on the police officer, even with adequate training there is a risk of misjudgment. There is therefore a need for a screening instrument that can be used to detect drug-impaired drivers. Such an instrument needs to be reliable and fast but also protect the drivers' personal integrity. 

    This report describes a pilot project with the aim of assessing the potential of automatic reading of eye movements to detect drug use. The reading was done with an eye tracker and data were collected from two groups, drug-driving suspects (88 people) and police employees (88 people). These groups were used as proxies for whether the people were under the influence of drugs or not. Based on the eye movement data, a classification algorithm was developed that predicted group affiliation. The results show that 73 percent were correctly classified as suspects (sensitivity) and 63 percent were correctly classified as employees (specificity). The total proportion correctly classified was 68 percent (C.I. 56%–80%), thus, the classification algorithm performed significantly better than chance. 

    For the suspects, there were also results from blood tests that showed who was actually drug impaired. An analysis showed that the groups with positive and negative blood samples were more similar to each other than those with negative samples were to the employees, with regard to eye movement measures

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  • 46.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nuruzzaman, Robin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Scania.
    Riding in a safe system – workshop on safety for powered-two-wheelers: final report from a workshop held on 9–13 June 20212021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An international workshop on safety for powered-two-wheelers (PTWs), Riding in a safe system, was held as a series of virtual meetings 9–23 June 2021. The workshop was co-organised by the International Transport Forum (ITF), the Swedish Transport Administration, the International Motorcycling Federation (FIM), the motorcycle manufacturers associations (IMMA and ACEM), and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The workshop was a follow-up of the Third Global Ministerial Conference on Road Safety, held in Stockholm in February 2020, but it also built on a previous workshop in 2008 in Lillehammer and the 2015 ITF research report “Improving Safety for Motorcycle, Scooter and Moped Riders”. 

    The workshop, which included six expert sessions, focused on seven different areas: (i) Sustainable practices, work-related issues and procurement, (ii) Modal shift and urban needs, (iii) Training, education, and licensing, (iv) Vehicle safety, protective safety, and Intelligent Transport Systems, (v) Road infrastructure and road environment, (vi) Speed management, adapting speeds and behaviour to different environments, (vii) Youth and child safety. 

    Eight priority actions were recognized by the workshop to achieve the integration of PTWs in the safe system by 2030. These actions build on the Stockholm declaration and its 9 recommendations. The actions are generalized results from the outcome of the expert sessions. The 8 priority actions from the workshop are: (i) Move to sustainable practice, (ii) Support modal shift, (iii) Adopt safe vehicles and equipment, (iv) Educate safe riders, (v) Redesign infrastructure, (vi) Ensure safe speed, (vii) Protect children, and (viii) increase knowledge. 

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  • 47.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ett förändrat arbetssätt för rattfylleriövervakning i polisregion Mitt: utvärdering av pilotprojektet Effekt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new way of organizing drink driving enforcement was tested in a pilot study in a Swedish police region. The aim of the pilot study was to enhance the visibility of drink driving controls, in order to increase the drivers’ perceived risk of being stopped by the police to conduct a breath test. This report presents results from an evaluation of the trial.

    The goal was to carry out controls for at least 20 hours per 100 km2 per week and each control should last for 20 minutes. The controls were combined with communication efforts, mainly through posts on the police’s Facebook pages.

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  • 48.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. VTI.
    Förslag på metod för att mäta den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken med avseende på rattfylleribrott2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här projektet har varit att föreslå en metod för att utvärdera förändringar i polisens arbetssätt med avseende på rattfylleriövervakning. Huvudsakligen handlar det om att mäta den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken, men utvärdering av polisens arbetssätt och kommunikation föreslås också. Det finns två viktiga delar i polisens strategi för övervakning: kontroller och kommunikation. Den sammantagna effekten av detta behöver utvärderas men man bör även titta på de olika delarna var för sig. I detta pm föreslås därför en utvärdering med tre olika delstudier. För var och en av delstudierna förutsetts att man gör både före- och eftermätningar i dels det område där arbetssättet förändras och dels i ett kontrollområde. Vi är dock medvetna om detta är en ideal situation som kanske inte är möjlig i praktiken. Om en utvärdering kommer att genomföras kan därför förslaget behöva modifieras för att passa de förutsättningar som då råder. De tre olika delstudierna är: Delstudie 1: Utvärdering av polisens implementering Den här delstudien är uppdelad i två nivåer där syftet med nivå 1 är att studera hur polisen ändrat sitt arbetssätt och syftet med nivå 2 är att studera vad som fungerat bra och mindre bra i implementeringen från polisens perspektiv. Nivå 1 är nödvändig för att tolka resultatet av övriga delar i utvärderingar och nivå 2 är en fördjupad utvärdering. Exempel på data som föreslås samlas in är: var och när kontroller genomförs, resultatet av kontrollerna samt informationsspridning till allmänheten. Dessutom föreslås intervjuer med poliser på olika befattningar som deltagit i implementeringen. Delstudie 2: Enkätstudie För att mäta den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken hos förare i allmänhet föreslås en enkätstudie där ett frågeformulär skickas ut via post till ett slumpmässigt urval ur körkortsregistret eller befolkningsregistret (frågorna ska också kunna besvaras som en webbenkät). Målgruppen är personer som har körkort för minst en typ av motorfordon och som också framfört något fordon det senaste året. Ett förslag på utformning av en enkät med 14 frågor har tagits fram. Två frågor behandlar den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken, en som avser upptäcktsrisk på en övergripande nivå och en som avser upptäcktsrisk i fem specifika situationer. Resten av enkäten består av bakgrundsfrågor och frågor om bland annat riskmedvetenhet, normer, om man själv eller någon man känner har blivit stoppad i en kontroll och om man fått information om kontroller via media. Delstudie 3: Utvärdering av kommunikation i sociala medier Syftet med den här delstudien är att bedöma hur väl polisen lyckas nå ut med sitt budskap. Vi föreslår att man samlar in följande typ av information: omfattningen av polisens aktiviteter på sociala medier, spridning, innehåll och karaktär på kommentarerna. Det huvudsakliga syftet med utvärderingen är att mäta subjektiv upptäcktsrisk hos förarpopulationen och jämföra om den har förändrats före och efter att polisen har genomfört förändringar som rör rattfylleriövervakningen. För att uppnå syftet är det nödvändigt att genomföra åtminstone nivå 1 i delstudie 1 (utvärdering av polisens implementering) och delstudie 2 (enkätstudie). Övriga delar är dock också mycket viktiga för att förstå helheten och vi förordar därför att alla delar i utvärderingen genomförs.

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  • 49.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Injured motorcyclists in Sweden: Where do the crashes occur and what factors influence the injury severity?2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends in traffic fatalities show that the development for motorcyclists has fallen behind other road users. It is therefore crucial to improve traffic safety for this road user group. The study analyses where in the road network motorcyclists are injured and whether injury severity differs between parts of the network. Injury severity is also examined in relation to other variables such as age, gender, and motorcycle engine performance (i.e., power-to-weight ratio). The results indicate that motorcyclists, relatively more often than passenger car occupants, are injured on low-volume roads that are not subject to any major safety improvements. It is therefore crucial to also encourage other safety measures targeting rider behaviour and vehicle safety. Moreover, analyses of injury severity indicate that, in multiple-vehicle crashes involving motorcycles, the odds of being killed or severely injured are lower on roads with median barriers (i.e., motorways and 2+1 roads) than on two-lane roads.

  • 50.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Bjørnskau, Torkel
    TØI.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Trafiksäkerhet i Norge och Sverige: en jämförelse2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, Sweden and Norway have been prominent when it comes to traffic safety. In 1980 and 1990, Norway had fewer deaths per capita than Sweden, while the opposite was the case in 2000 and 2009. Since 2015, Norway has again had fewer deaths per capita than Sweden. The aim of this project has been to analyse Norway's development in recent years and the differences between the countries.

    The results show that the number of fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants has decreased from 3.74 in 2009–2013 to 2.35 in 2014–2018 in Norway and from 3.16 to 2.79 in Sweden. The largest difference between the countries during 2014–2018 is among the unprotected road users, 1.10 fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants in Sweden and 0.83 in Norway. The death rate of car occupants is 1.60 in Sweden and 1.43 in Norway. Among the unprotected road users, Norway has a lower number of fatalities per capita for cyclists, moped riders, and pedestrians. For motorcyclists, the difference is marginal.

    In general, the countries are rather similar. However, we found differences between, for example, the state road networks. On roads with a speed limit of 90 km/h, the risk of death is significantly higher in Sweden than in Norway and this is most likely due to differences in road type. In Norway almost all these roads have median barriers, while the proportion of traffic on roads with median barriers is only 20 percent in Sweden. On roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h, it is not possible to demonstrate any difference in risk between the countries. Norway also has better speed compliance than Sweden, which is probably a contributing factor to better road safety in Norway than in Sweden in recent years.

    Another difference is that Sweden has significantly more deaths than Norway among cyclists who are 75 years or older.

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