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  • 1.
    Adesiyun, Adewole
    et al.
    FEHRL, Brussels.
    Erdelean, Isabela
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Vienna.
    Hedhli, Abdelmename
    IFSTTAR, Marne la Vallée, France.
    Lamb, Martin
    Maple Consulting, Caerphilly, Wales.
    Ponweiser, Wolfgang
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Vienna.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Zofka, Ewa
    Erica Consulting, Warsaw, Poland.
    Overview of connected and automated driving test sites2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 7-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated vehicles potentially offer solutions to some key challenges for National Road Administrations (NRAs), such as reduction of accidents, increasing network capacity etc. As a result of this potential, both industry and certain national governments are undertaking trials that are mainly focused on technological challenges such as the ability of vehicles to drive safely in “random” situations etc. Far less attention has been paid to questions around the implications for NRAs. The overall aim of the STAPLE project is to provide a comprehensive review of technological and non-technological aspects of the most relevant connected and automated driving test sites in order to understand the impact of these sites on the NRAs’ core business and functions.

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  • 2.
    Albinsson, Anton
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Required friction utilization for friction estimation on wet asphalt, an experimental study2018In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 407-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time information about the friction coefficient between the tyre and the road can be used to improve active safety systems and is an enabler for autonomous vehicles. Large tyre force excitation is normally required to obtain an accurate friction estimate. This paper quantifies this requirement for four different tyre models on wet salted asphalt at water freezing temperatures. Cost functions and different tyre models are evaluated and the results are compared to a previous study performed for snow conditions. The suitability of commonly used tyre models for friction estimation on snow and wet asphalt has thus been investigated.

  • 3.
    Almberg, Maria
    et al.
    Mobility Centre Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Mobility Centre Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Australia; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) experience any specific facilitators or barriers to driving education.

    Objective: To explore the facilitators or barriers to driving education experienced by individuals with ASD or ADHD who obtained a learner’s permit, from the perspective of the learner drivers and their driving instructors.

    Methods: Data were collected from 33 participants with ASD or ADHD, and nine of their driving instructors.

    Results: Participants with ASD required twice as many driving lessons and more on-road tests than those with ADHD. Participants with ADHD repeated the written tests more than those with ASD. Driving license theory was more challenging for individuals with ADHD, whilst individuals with ASD found translating theory into practice and adjusting to “unfamiliar” driving situations to be the greatest challenges. Conclusion: Obtaining a driving license was associated with stressful training experience

  • 4.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Ihs, Anita
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Designguide för Smarta gator2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis definierar vi i denna guide ’smarta gator’ kort sagt som mångfunktionella, levande, långsamma, ekologiska och flexibla gator. Det övergripande målet med denna guide är följaktligen ”Smarta gator för en hållbar stadsutveckling”.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Freight train model for real-time simulation2017In: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 2: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to increse the freight transport capacity in Sweden, introduction of longer and heavier trains is investigated. To aid this investigation, a freight train simulator was designed and constructed. Here, the implemented freight train dynamics model is described, which includes slip control, a modular wagon model structrue and pneumatic brake system. Further, stable real-time performance of the implemented dynamics model is discussed.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example2018In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Varför sker en cykelolycka egentligen: analys av händelser då Hövdingar har löst ut2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In collaboration with Hövding, data has been collected to highlight how different aspects can explain events where the helmet is deployed. The helmet records accelerations, and when a helmet is deployed, this information is sent to Hövding. They then invited the cyclist to participate in a web- survey and an interview. Thus, to increase our understanding of why bicycle accidents occur, data have been collected from the helmets, from a web-survey and from interviews. A total of 196 participants completed the web-survey while 50 participants were interviewed. In addition, data from the helmets were collected from 355 cyclists, of which 264 have had the helmet deployed.

    One main result is that it is on an ordinary day, during an ordinary journey to or from work, by experienced cyclists that are highly educated. Cyclist were aware of traffic rules and what is happening around them – when "it suddenly happens" and it is not until then the cyclists realize how vulnerable they are. The study shows how a complex pattern emerge from the data sources used to understand why a bicycle accident actually occurs. For example, slippery conditions increase the risk of an event, and if "slippery" is combined with darkness the risk increases even further. The data from the helmets could confirm the results from the web-survey and the interviews, but also demonstrate that the helmet, on journeys which ended with the helmet being deployed, had higher levels of activation compared to journeys where it was not deployed. Furthermore, on trips made after the deployment, the helmet also had lower levels of activation which can be understood as the cyclists adapting their behaviour by, for example, cycling more carefully (but not slower). Finally, the results show differences between conventional and electric bicycles in terms of involvement in events where Hövding was deployed.

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lättman, Katrin
    SAMOT/CTF, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector, Sweden.
    The complexity of changes in modal choice: A quasi-experimental study2023In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 96, no July, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Changes in modal choice is argued to be one way to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Increasing modal choices in favour of more environmentally friendly travel modes requires a better understanding of how these choices are actually made. The first aim of this study is therefore to examine how modal choice is related to subjective experiences as perceived accessibility, perceived satisfaction , habit, both before , after an intervention promoting public transport. The second aim is to examine how modal choice is affected by the intervention. Finally, the third aim is to examine how subjective experiences as perceived accessibility, perceived satisfaction, and habit are affected by the intervention.

    Method: The design used is a before-and after-study with free public travel passes as the intervention (30-or 14-days free travel pass). Altogether, 52 travelers - distributed on two intervention groups and one control group - participated in the study. The 30-days free travel pass group constitutes 18 participants, the 14-days free travel pass group constitutes 19 participants while the control group constitutes 15 participants. During the before -period the participants were asked to register their modal choice using a digitalized application downloaded on their smart phones (the TravelVu app), to complete a short app-based questionnaire, and a web-based questionnaire. During the after-period, they were once again asked to register their modal choice and to complete a web-based questionnaire. All data collected were analyzed by variance or correlation analyses using the change between before-and after period as the dependent variable.

    Conclusion: The intervention did not affect the modal choice or the subjective experiences. Over time, the participants did however increase their use of public transport and their cognitive evaluation of their everyday travel overall, while they decreased their use of car and became less reflective and less interested in trying out new alternative travel modes. These changes might be attributed to their participation in the present study.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Transportstyrelsen, Sverige.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    Transportstyrelsen, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Trafikverket, Sverige.
    Jakobsson, Liza
    Trafikverket, Sverige.
    Bicycling during alcohol intoxication2023In: Traffic Safety Research, ISSN 2004-3082, Vol. 4, article id 000028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of bicycling fatalities was 19 450 between 2010 and 2018 in Europe. The number of bicyclists killed when intoxicated by alcohol is harder to establish given the lack of reliable data. In Sweden, drunk bicycling is socially acceptable and legal (unless reckless). This experiment aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication affect bicycling stability performance, executive functions, and self-rated ability. The experiment was completed on a wide treadmill that allowed control of several influencing factors such as speed and physical effort. Intoxicated and sober participants bicycled on the treadmill for five 10 minute sessions. Alcohol as administered incrementally to reach a target breath alcohol concentration level of 0.8‰. Stability decreased with intoxication; especially roll rate measurements were identified as being adequate indicators of bicycling instability. Executive function was negatively affected, and ability ratings decreased due to intoxication. The intoxicated participants were aware of their reduced ability to bicycle in a safe manner on a group level but not on an individual level. However, this insight does not affect their intention to bicycle intoxicated.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The importance of reaction time, cognition, and meta-cognition abilities for drivers with visual deficits2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals who do not fulfill required visual field standards have their driving license withdrawn in Sweden. However, understanding of the ability to compensate for this loss is limited. This study aimed to determine if reaction time and cognitive performance are important for safe driving in visual field loss (VFL) individuals. Visually demanding reaction time tasks of different complexity, for example, can help one understand why some VFL individuals drive as safely as normally sighted individuals. Twenty VFL individuals and 83 normally sighted individuals participated in a driving simulator experiment and an additional test battery. The driving task categorized VFL participants into two subgroups: passed or failed. Three reaction time tasks, four cognitive tests, and two meta-cognitive scales were completed. The passed VFL subgroup was faster than the failed subgroup in the context-dependent reaction time task and slower in the context-independent reaction time task. The passed subgroup performed equally well, or less well, on the cognitive tasks compared to the failed subgroup. The VFL participants performed less well than the normally sighted individuals on most cognitive tasks. However, VFL participants did not reflect on their driving ability (in meta-cognitive scales) in the same way as normally sighted individuals. There appear to be VFL subgroups in terms of ability to drive safely. Reaction time is important, but context dependent. Cognitive context-independent tests appear unrelated to driving test outcome for VFL individuals. The problems with context-independent testing of perceptual, cognitive, and meta-cognitive abilities when predicting safe driving capabilities are discussed. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 12.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature suggests that ocular diseases are negatively related to driving performance. The factors associated with safe driving is discussed and perceptual abilities are suggested to be related to crash involvement. The present study will focus on i) perceptual tasks or reaction time tasks and ii) attentional and cognitive tasks. All tasks will be visual and cognitive demanding and the objective is to understand how different visual cognitive tasks are related to driving performance. The motive is to be able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers with visual deficits but also understand how different mental mechanisms are related to safe, or unsafe, driving.

    The reaction time tasks are interesting since the reaction time of participants in the study can be measured when performing the driving task. The participants’ reaction time when an object is possible to detect can be measured i) within the complex driving scenario as well as in tasks ii) mimicking driving and iii) “regular” computerized reaction time tasks such as the Simon task. Hence, the objective is two-folded to develop a simulator based method able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers (among the visual deficit population). Second, to pinpoint the importance of visual reaction time and different cognitive tasks on driving performance.

    The cognitive, attentional demanding tasks are not as analyzed at this point but will be elaborated on in the presentation. The tasks are presented in the method section.

    The summarised data on patients with Glaucoma, Cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy reveal, on a general level, is that ocular diseases impair driver performance.  The literature also suggests, for instance, that not all Glaucoma patients fail on-road driving tests. In summary, the majority of the research literature results indicate, a) general decline in driving performance due to a visual impairment, but b) this is not true for all patients with the same visual deficit.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE.
    Skoglund, Tor
    Sweco Society AB.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The Human-Tech Matrix: A Socio-Technical Approach to Evaluation of Automated Transport Systems2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 876, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated transport system has the potential to improve traffic safety and flow, but also to the accessibility and comfort for users of the transport system. Realizing the positive effects with automated transport is about shaping regulatory, organizational and technical systems. Here, appropriate evaluation enables steering efforts in the desired direction. The overall aim of this study was to develop a methodological framework that could identify effects of an automated transport system, and outline methods and metrics for evaluation of these effects. We propose a tentative case-based methodology to define measures of the effects of an automated transport system that will give key stakeholders new possibilities to evaluate research and development projects and efforts connected to automation of the transport system, and thereby manage these in a human-centered direction.

  • 14.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The importance of individual characteristics on bicycle performance during alcohol intoxication2024In: Traffic Safety Research, E-ISSN 2004-3082, Vol. 6, article id e000042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycling accidents are a well-known problem for traffic safety globally. Alcohol intoxication is one possible factor, although the exact number of accidents due to intoxication is difficult to establish. Not all bicyclists act in the same way, particularly when under the influence of alcohol, i.e., bicycling performance might be related to a bicyclist's personal characteristics. This study aimed to investigate if the bicyclist's characteristics (bicycling experience, physical fitness, or sensation seeking scores) influence bicycling stability, cognitive performance, or self-rated bicycling ability ratings at different levels of alcohol intoxication. The experiment was completed on a wide treadmill, which allowed control of several influencing factors such as speed and physical effort. Intoxicated and sober participants bicycled on the treadmill five times for 10 minutes each time, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels were measured five times. Participants were given doses of alcohol up to a BrAC level of 0.8%. 

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  • 15.
    Anjemark, Linnea
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Hanna C.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Car accidents in drivers with Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis: A Swedish nationwide study2023In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1631-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) can impair driving. However, we lack evidence on car accidents associated with these diseases. The aims of this study were to examine what types of car accident were associated with drivers with PD and MS, compared to individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC; the comparison group), and to evaluate the occurrence of car accidents in relation to years since diagnosis.

    MethodsThis retrospective nationwide, registry-based study included drivers involved in car accidents between 2010 and 2019, based on the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database. Data on pre-existing diagnoses were retrieved retrospectively from the National Patient Registry. Data analyses included group comparisons, time-to-event analysis, and binary logistic regression.

    ResultsIn total, 1491 drivers, including 199 with PD, 385 with MS, and 907 with UC, were registered to have been involved in a car accident. The mean time from diagnosis to the car accident was 5.6 years for PD, 8.0 years for MS, and 9.4 years for UC. Time to car accident since diagnosis differed significantly (p < 0.001) among groups (adjusted for age). Drivers with PD had more than twice the odds of a single-car accident than drivers with MS or UC, but no differences were observed between MS and UC.

    ConclusionsDrivers with PD were older and experienced the car accident within a shorter timeframe after disease diagnosis. Although several factors may cause a car accident, fitness to drive could be more thoroughly evaluated for patients with PD by physicians, even early after the diagnosis.

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  • 16.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nybom, Per
    ITRA AB.
    Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the seat belt usage in buses, to evaluate to what extent information about the need to use the seat belt are provided and to understand travelers' incentives of seatbelt usage. Based on the results the aim was to propose measures to increase the use of a belt when traveling by bus.

    Methods used are observational studies, discussion within focus groups and a web questionnaire. The results from the observation study showed that passenger seat belt usage was 92% in charter service, 50% in commercial liner traffic and 27% in regional liner traffic. The drivers' use was correspondingly 100% in charter service, 79% in commercial liner traffic and 85% in regional liner traffic. The results from the web questionnaire show a lower level of usage. The conclusion is that measures are needed to increase the user rate, especially in line traffic.

    In the observation study, drivers were asked if they remind the passengers to use the seat belt, in the same way the passengers were asked if they have received information when going but charter service or commercial liner traffic. In charter service, 86% experienced they had received information, in commercial liner traffic it was 61% and in regional liner traffic it was 19%. The conclusion is that there are major shortcomings in the information on the belt, which should be addressed, especially in line traffic.

    The decision to use a belt or not is individual. Factors like how old you are, what experience you're having on a safe bus, what kind of road you travel, when you travel and how you're looking at safety generally plays a part.

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  • 17.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driving automation and its effects on drivers: a human factor perspective2019In: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Towards high-level automated driving / [ed] Meng Lu, IET Digital Library, 2019, p. 87-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter will cover some of the issues mentioned by European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) and has its starting point in the knowledge and experience from four different EU-funded projects dealing with automation and human factors. It might be expected that there is no difference in how human factors should be considered in relation to automation depending on the country it is used in. However, there are reasons to believe that there are differences in understanding and in acceptance of new functions depending on experience or not from modern vehicles with, for example integrated driver support systems. This chapter has its starting point mainly from work done in Europe, which may be considered to be generic and valid for other countries in the world with the same type of car fleets. The focus will be on challenges covering: the need to have an adaptive Human-Machine Interface (HMI) to achieve trust and acceptance in relation to automated functionalities and system, the importance of considering different driver states and finally the evaluations of automated systems.

  • 18.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jernberg, Christian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Ictech AB.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH.
    Nylander, Tomas
    Ericsson.
    Persson, Magnus
    Voysys AB.
    Remote Driving Operation (REDO) project: final report2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents experimental setups and findings from the REDO project, which had been conducted between December 2019 and February 2023. Five main topics are covered in this report: 1) Effects of latency and field-of-view on driving performance; 2) Remote driving feedback and control; 3) Connectivity and mobile network support for remote driving; 4) Video transmission for remote driving; and 5) Laws and regulations concerning remote driving. Contents of this report dives into technical details and findings within each topic. Nevertheless, this report does not intend to repeat all detail and results published in scientific publications, and thus this report should be seen as complementary material to the published results.

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  • 19.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Fu, Jiali
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Selpi, Selpi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Behavioral adaptation of drivers when driving among automated vehicles2022In: Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, ISSN 2399-9802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore whether drivers would adapt their behavior when they drive among automated vehicles (AVs) compared to driving among manually driven vehicles (MVs).Understanding behavioral adaptation of drivers when they encounter AVs is crucial for assessing impacts of AVs in mixed-traffic situations. Here, mixed-traffic situations refer to situations where AVs share the roads with existing nonautomated vehicles such as conventional MVs.

    Design/methodology/approach: A driving simulator study is designed to explore whether such behavioral adaptations exist. Two different driving scenarios were explored on a three-lane highway: driving on the main highway and merging from an on-ramp. For this study, 18 research participants were recruited.

    Findings: Behavioral adaptation can be observed in terms of car-following speed, car-following time gap, number of lane change and overall driving speed. The adaptations are dependent on the driving scenario and whether the surrounding traffic was AVs or MVs. Although significant differences in behavior were found in more than 90% of the research participants, they adapted their behavior differently, and thus, magnitude of the behavioral adaptation remains unclear.

    Originality/value: The observed behavioral adaptations in this paper were dependent on the driving scenario rather than the time gap between surrounding vehicles. This finding differs from previous studies, which have shown that drivers tend to adapt their behaviors with respect to the surrounding vehicles. Furthermore, the surrounding vehicles in this study are more “free flow'” compared to previous studies with a fixed formation such as platoons. Nevertheless, long-term observations are required to further support this claim.

  • 20.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    A Novel Risk Indicator for Cut-In Situations2020In: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cut-in situations occurs when a vehicle intentionally changes lane and ends up in front of another vehicle or in-between two vehicles. In such situations, having a method to indicate the collision risk prior to making the cut-in maneuver could potentially reduce the number of sideswipe and rear end collisions caused by the cut-in maneuvers. This paper propose a new risk indicator, namely cut-in risk indicator (CRI), as a way to indicate and potentially foresee collision risks in cut-in situations. As an example use case, we applied CRI on data from a driving simulation experiment involving a manually driven vehicle and an automated platoon in a highway merging situation. We then compared the results with time-to-collision (TTC), and suggest that CRI could correctly indicate collision risks in a more effective way. CRI can be computed on all vehicles involved in the cut-in situations, not only for the vehicle that is cutting in. Making it possible for other vehicles to estimate the collision risk, for example if a cut-in from another vehicle occurs, the surrounding vehicles could be warned and have the possibility to react in order to potentially avoid or mitigate accidents.

  • 21.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    A Simulation Study on Effects of Platooning Gaps on Drivers of Conventional Vehicles in Highway Merging Situations2020In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning refers to a group of vehicles that--enabled by wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication and vehicle automation--drives with short inter-vehicular distances. Before its deployment on public roads, several challenging traffic situations need to be handled. Among the challenges are cut-in situations, where a conventional vehicle--a vehicle that has no automation or V2V communication--changes lane and ends up between vehicles in a platoon. This paper presents results from a simulation study of a scenario, where a conventional vehicle, approaching from an on-ramp, merges into a platoon of five cars on a highway. We created the scenario with four platooning gaps: 15, 22.5, 30, and 42.5 meters. During the study, the conventional vehicle was driven by 37 test persons, who experienced all the platooning gaps using a driving simulator. The participants' opinions towards safety, comfort, and ease of driving between the platoon in each gap setting were also collected through a questionnaire. The results suggest that a 15-meter gap prevents most participants from cutting in, while causing potentially dangerous maneuvers and collisions when cut-in occurs. A platooning gap of at least 30 meters yield positive opinions from the participants, and facilitating more smooth cut-in maneuvers while less collisions were observed.

  • 22.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wärme, Mats
    BM System.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bäckström, Andreas
    Svevia.
    Dynamisk prognosstyrd vinterväghållning – fas 3 & 4: restsaltmodeller och automatisk saltspridning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing climate with greater demands on road managers and winter operation contractors to achieve a winter operating standard acceptable to road users while at the same time the financial resources become increasingly limited, the need for cost-effective methods increases. A forecast-driven dynamic road operation has been shown to lead to increased productivity as road condition forecasts are integrated with route optimisation. 

    One way to further develop road conditions forecasts is to know how much salt is needed on the road, or more precisely, how much residual salt is still there? If there already is salt on the road, then is there no need to spread the full amount, it might be enough with half or even less. 

    Residual salt measurements have been made during three winter seasons at Testsite E18. The site was chosen because it is equipped with several different sensors, mounted above, next to and in the road. Salt was measured every 30 cm across the road's two lanes. Of 9 measurements, there were only 5 occasions with salt, of which two of them were salted only for our measurements. There were three measurements left with winter conditions. All measurements were compared with sensors on the site to compare how well a sensor represents the road surface. It turned out that there were generally very low salt values from the sensors compared with manual measurements.

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  • 23.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Jianguo, Ding
    University of Skövde.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde.
    Internet of Things data analytics for parking availability prediction and guidance2020In: Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, ISSN 2161-5748, article id e3862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting-edge sensors and devices are increasingly deployed within urban areas to make-up the fabric of transmission control protocol/internet protocol connectivity driven by Internet of Things (IoT). This immersion into physical urban environments creates new data streams, which could be exploited to deliver novel cloud-based services. Connected vehicles and road-infrastructure data are leveraged in this article to build applications that alleviate notorious parking and induced traffic-congestion issues. To optimize the utility of parking lots, our proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot, by the time a vehicle is expected to reach it. The algorithm features three modular sections. First, a search process is triggered to identify the expected arrival-time periods to all parking lots in the targeted central business district (CBD) area. This process utilizes smart-pole data streams reporting congestion rates across parking area junctions. Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state-transition matrix, showing the transformation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time. Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to figure out the actual vacancy-expectation of a lot. The performance evaluation over an actual busy CBD area in Stockholm (Sweden) shows increased scalability capabilities, when further parking resources are made available, compared to a baseline case algorithm. Using standard urban-mobility simulation packages, the traffic-congestion-aware SmartPark is also shown to minimize the journey duration to the selected parking lot while maximizing the chances to find an available spot at the selected lot.

  • 24.
    Augusto, Bruno
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Svensson, Bolennarth
    EMA-QC.
    Coupling forces in the B-triple and truck-B-double combinations: An extension of the 18868 ISO standard for D- and V-values and analysis of the normative case2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forces in the couplings of articulated vehicle combinations, propel and fully determine the path of any towed unit thus playing a significant role in the vehicle behavior. A failure in the coupling could potentially have a devastating effect if it occurs while driving in traffic. To prevent this from happening, states and road authorities impose requirements in terms of tolerated forces on any coupling selection. The current legal requirement framework is based on an ISO standard, that stipulates minimum force levels that the couplings should stand. These forces have been derived under semi-empirical assumptions for a set of five vehicle combinations. The present report aims to extend the coupling requirements to two vehicle combinations that are candidates to become legal on the public road network. Due to the semi-empirical nature of the ISO standard, validation needed to be performed. The here presented requirements for the two new combinations were validated against simulation models and checked for reasonable requirements for some example weights of the combinations. The proposed requirements are aligned with the existing requirements derived from the ISO standard. This implies that they could be used to form the legal requirements on these vehicle combinations. However, further investigations on well-grounded deduced requirements should be performed to secure safety margins.

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  • 25.
    Augusto, Bruno
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fröjd, Niklas
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, VGTT.
    Vehicle dynamics testing in driving simulators: a case study for heavy vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VDTestS set out to probe the potential of a driving simulator in the field of vehicle dynamics testing. For this purpose, a simulator test case was prepared embodying the nature of a vehicle dynamics test set-up. The goal was to figure out if the drivers in the simulator could identify the handling differences owed to changes in vehicle settings, while driving simulated trucks.

    A truck model was validated against the performance of a real vehicle under a predefined set of manoeuvres. This was coupled with the tuning of the simulator motion to improve the perception of the vehicle dynamics. These efforts were followed by definition of a group of four test cases, each corresponding to a set of alternate vehicle properties. These sets were selected based on their potential impact on the vehicle handling and correlation with changes that could occur in a real vehicle. Finally, experiments were conducted in VTI’s motion-based driving simulator, Sim IV in Gothenburg, with participation of ten engineers and mechanics from VGTT product development well familiar with truck mechanics and truck driving. The set-up made it possible to gather feedback, about the suitability of the driving simulator in these testing conditions, from professionals in the field. Data was collected subjectively via interviews and questionnaires as well as objectively from the logs comprising of driver inputs and vehicle motions generated during the simulator drives.

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  • 26.
    Aylward, Katie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nordby, Kjetil
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Norway.
    Lundh, Monica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using operational scenarios in a virtual reality enhanced design process2021In: Education Sciences, E-ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime user interfaces for ships’ bridges are highly dependent on the context in which they are used, and rich maritime context is difficult to recreate in the early stages of user-centered design processes. Operations in Arctic waters where crews are faced with extreme environmental conditions, technology limitations and a lack of accurate navigational information further increase this challenge. There is a lack of research supporting the user-centered design of workplaces for hazardous Arctic operations. To meet this challenge, this paper reports on the process of developing virtual reality-reconstructed operational scenarios to connect stakeholders, end-users, designers, and human factors specialists in a joint process. This paper explores how virtual reality-reconstructed operational scenarios can be used as a tool both for concept development and user testing. Three operational scenarios were developed, implemented in a full mission bridge simulator, recreated in virtual reality (VR), and finally tested on navigators (end-users). Qualitative data were captured throughout the design process and user-testing, resulting in a thematic analysis that identified common themes reflecting the experiences gained throughout this process. In conclusion, we argue that operational scenarios, rendered in immersive media such as VR, may be an important and reusable asset when supporting maritime design processes and in maritime training and education. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 27.
    Aylward, Katie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Weber, Reto
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundh, Monica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    MacKinnon, Scott N.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Navigators' views of a collision avoidance decision support system for maritime navigation2022In: Journal of navigation (Print), ISSN 0373-4633, E-ISSN 1469-7785, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 1035-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime navigation is a complex task involving the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of information using seamanship, professional knowledge, and technology. As the maritime industry transitions towards maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS), there is an increasing gap between the operator and the technology. This paper explores a collision avoidance decision support system for navigation from the navigator's perspective. The system, developed by Wärtsilä, is called Advanced Intelligent Manoeuvring (AIM) and can generate suggestions for course or speed alterations based on data from surrounding traffic. Nineteen Swedish navigators completed three ship traffic scenarios with and without decision support. Qualitative data were collected using interviews and analysed with thematic analysis. The results show that the participants perceive the decision support system as an advisory tool to visualise how traffic situations could unfold, a task currently difficult for most navigators. This paper discusses the present and near future of maritime navigation, highlighting the benefits of automation, while remaining vigilant about the potential dangers.

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  • 28.
    Banks, Victoria A.
    et al.
    University of Southampton.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. University of Southampton.
    O'Donoghue, Jim
    Jaguar Land Rover Research.
    Stanton, Neville A.
    University of Southampton.
    Is partially automated driving a bad idea?: Observations from an on-road study2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 68, p. 138-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automation of longitudinal and lateral control has enabled drivers to become “hands and feet free” but they are required to remain in an active monitoring state with a requirement to resume manual control if required. This represents the single largest allocation of system function problem with vehicle automation as the literature suggests that humans are notoriously inefficient at completing prolonged monitoring tasks. To further explore whether partially automated driving solutions can appropriately support the driver in completing their new monitoring role, video observations were collected as part of an on-road study using a Tesla Model S being operated in Autopilot mode. A thematic analysis of video data suggests that drivers are not being properly supported in adhering to their new monitoring responsibilities and instead demonstrate behaviour indicative of complacency and over-trust. These attributes may encourage drivers to take more risks whilst out on the road. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 29.
    Bazilinskyy, Pavlo
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petrovych, Veronika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dodou, Dimitra
    Delft University of Technology.
    de Winter, Joost C. F.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Take-over requests in highly automated driving: A crowdsourcing survey on auditory, vibrotactile, and visual displays2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 82-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important research question in the domain of highly automated driving is how to aid drivers in transitions between manual and automated control. Until highly automated cars are available, knowledge on this topic has to be obtained via simulators and self-report questionnaires. Using crowdsourcing, we surveyed 1692 people on auditory, visual, and vibrotactile take-over requests (TORs) in highly automated driving. The survey presented recordings of auditory messages and illustrations of visual and vibrational messages in traffic scenarios of various urgency levels. Multimodal TORs were the most preferred option in high-urgency scenarios. Auditory TORs were the most preferred option in low-urgency scenarios and as a confirmation message that the system is ready to switch from manual to automated mode. For low-urgency scenarios, visual-only TORs were more preferred than vibration-only TORs. Beeps with shorter interpulse intervals were perceived as more urgent, with Stevens’ power law yielding an accurate fit to the data. Spoken messages were more accepted than abstract sounds, and the female voice was more preferred than the male voice. Preferences and perceived urgency ratings were similar in middle- and high-income countries. In summary, this international survey showed that people's preferences for TOR types in highly automated driving depend on the urgency of the situation.

  • 30.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Division of Design and Human Factors, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences, Faculty of Technology, University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) of marine piloting in a Swedish Context2023In: Human Factors in Transportation / [ed] Gesa Praetorius; Charlott Sellberg; Riccardo Patriarca, New York: AHFE International , 2023, Vol. 95, p. 709-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern-day marine pilots are a competent and experienced workforce. They are highly skilled navigators that support the merchant fleet in transiting through challenging sea areas and rivers, as well as in the navigation in and out of ports. In this study, Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) was used to pursue a deeper understanding of expertise and tacit or procedural knowledge that experts rely on and exhibit, mostly in safety-critical situations. ACTA is a structured interview method, which relies on three distinct phases: a task diagram, a knowledge audit and a simulation interview. In this article, results from the first two interview steps are presented to show the intricate complexity of pilotage and building blocks of expertise within marine pilotage. A total of eight experienced pilots from two different port areas in Sweden were interviewed. The results show that there are large differences in how pilotage is conducted in the two areas with regards to both tasks, knowledge and understanding of the service as such. Further, despite recognizing maneuvering as cognitively demanding, the pilots emphasized social skills and learning on the job as key elements of expertise. Conclusions drawn from the ACTA structure highlight the mentally and socially complex task that piloting is, and that the pilots use great discernment and acuity when processing verbal and non-verbal input, as well as physical human and vessel movements. 

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  • 31.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation.. Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    A System Approach to Electrification of Transportation: An International Comparison2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the transportation system is transforming from a fossil-based to an electrification system. Some countries are leading in the transformation process. Some countries are rapidly catching up to become market leaders in developing and introducing new techniques and equipment that support the transformation process in their countries. In contrast, others are still relying on their old fossil-based system or could not have enough understanding of how to deal with this complex transformation of the transportation system.

    The electrification of the transportation system is not an isolated system that can be handled as a single technological element. It is a group of multiple technologies, political, societal, and economic sub-systems each of these sub-systems is embedded in each other, forming the whole system. Therefore, it is important to see and manage the system from a holistic perspective to transform the transportation electrification system efficiently. We have selected eight countries from three different continents – Asia (China, India), Australia, which is a country and continent, and Europe (Germany, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, and the UK) to explore the transformational process of transportation electrification based on each countries’ conditions. We have chosen these continents as they are diversified in adopting transportation electrification system solutions.

    Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness are the most important, followed by the societal and economic, with technology as the fourth. The other three are difficult to obtain without dedicated and determined political decision-makers. Political decision-makers need to use economic means to support the transformation in society and industry to balance the economic disadvantage of electric systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. Technology is no longer a significant barrier as it was about 20 years ago. Now, technology is available, although it can be improved. The important part is to understand how to utilize the existing technology efficiently to transform the old fossil-based transportation system into new electrification of the transportation system. Without clear and strong political support, the industry cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take risks, and take the lead in this global societal transformation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation.. Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Sweden..
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Multidimensional Readiness Index for Electrification of Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden towards transport electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries that are in the process of adopting electrified transport system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions, technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming the transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a “multidimensional readiness index.”

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  • 33.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation.. Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet, Högskolan i Halmstad, Sverige.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet, Högskolan i Halmstad, Sverige.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Käck, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Electric Roads: Energy Supplied by Local Renewable Energy Sources and Microgrid Distribution System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric road system is an emerging concept in this modern era. The advancement of technology has made it possible to give this concept a real shape (electric road system). However, the energy provided to the electric roads is still produced by non-renewable energy sources, which are completely unhealthy and harmful for society. Furthermore, the traditional grid is not suited to integrate with decentralized/localized energy generation and distribution systems. It is an ineffectual and environmentally extravagant system. Therefore, the preliminary contribution of this research is to introduce a decentralized/localized energy generation system based on renewable energy sources and energy distribution to electric roads through the emerging technology of microgrid and smart grid systems, which have the capability to integrate with renewable energy sources easily. Thus, producing electricity with renewable energy sources is environmentally friendly, less expensive, and available without charges. However, each source of energy has some environmental impacts and cost differences. A brief description of the environmental and cost impact of renewable energy sources (wind, solar) is also presented.

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    Extended abstract
  • 34.
    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lehtonen, Esko
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Forcolin, Fabio
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Engstrom, Johan
    Virginia Tech Transportation Institute.
    Albers, Deike
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Markkula, Gustav
    University of Leeds.
    Lodin, Johan
    University of Leeds.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    How Do Drivers Respond to Silent Automation Failures?: Driving Simulator Study and Comparison of Computational Driver Braking Models.2019In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe and test novel computational driver models, predicting drivers' brake reaction times (BRTs) to different levels of lead vehicle braking, during driving with cruise control (CC) and during silent failures of adaptive cruise control (ACC).

    BACKGROUND: Validated computational models predicting BRTs to silent failures of automation are lacking but are important for assessing the safety benefits of automated driving.

    METHOD: Two alternative models of driver response to silent ACC failures are proposed: a looming prediction model, assuming that drivers embody a generative model of ACC, and a lower gain model, assuming that drivers' arousal decreases due to monitoring of the automated system. Predictions of BRTs issued by the models were tested using a driving simulator study.; RESULTS: The driving simulator study confirmed the predictions of the models: (a) BRTs were significantly shorter with an increase in kinematic criticality, both during driving with CC and during driving with ACC; (b) BRTs were significantly delayed when driving with ACC compared with driving with CC. However, the predicted BRTs were longer than the ones observed, entailing a fitting of the models to the data from the study.

    CONCLUSION: Both the looming prediction model and the lower gain model predict well the BRTs for the ACC driving condition. However, the looming prediction model has the advantage of being able to predict average BRTs using the exact same parameters as the model fitted to the CC driving data.

    APPLICATION: Knowledge resulting from this research can be helpful for assessing the safety benefits of automated driving.

  • 35.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

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  • 36.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Exploring the suitability of virtual reality for driving simulation2018In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2018 / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Antibes, France, 2018, p. 163-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head mounted displays (HMDs) is an emerging technology and the availability of affordable systems is growing fast. Replacing projector and large screen solutions with head mounted displays may appear as an appealing solution. However, inherent properties and technical limitations of these systems need to be understood and considered before making the leap to virtual reality.

    This paper outlines some of the most fundamental limitations of head mounted displays relevant to this context, both from a technical and human factors perspective. Desirable properties of scenarios and types of studies are deduced, based on these limitations. Finally, a meta analysis is performed on the feasibility of transferring simulator studies found in the literature to platforms with head mounted displays. The results suggest that a noticeable amount (40%) of the investigated simulator studies could likely have been performed with head mounted displays. This number could be increased further with technical advances in display resolution, display technology, reduction in latency, etc.

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  • 37.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    The Effects on Driving Behavior When Using a Head-Mounted Display in a Dynamic Driving Simulator2022In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators are established tools used during automotive development and research. Most simulators use either monitors or projectors as their primary display system. However, the emergence of a new generation of head-mounted displays has triggered interest in using these as the primary display type. The general benefits and drawbacks of head-mounted displays are well researched, but their effect on driving behavior in a simulator has not been sufficiently quantified.

    This article presents a study of driving behavior differences between projector-based graphics and head-mounted display in a large dynamic driving simulator. This study has selected five specific driving maneuvers suspected of affecting driving behavior differently depending on the choice of display technology. Some of these maneuvers were chosen to reveal changes in lateral and longitudinal driving behavior. Others were picked for their ability to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of head-mounted displays in a driving context.

    The results show minor changes in lateral and longitudinal driver behavior changes when comparing projectors and a head-mounted display. The most noticeable difference in favor of projectors was seen when the display resolution is critical to the driving task. The choice of display type did not affect simulator sickness nor the realism rated by the subjects.

  • 38.
    Bremberg Gårdinger, Max
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Validation of a computerized driving simulator test of cognitive abilities for fitness-to-drive assessments2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1294965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving requires a series of cognitive abilities, many of which are affected by age and medical conditions. The psychosocial importance of continued driving ushers the need for valid measurements in fitness-to-drive assessments. A driving simulator test could prove useful in these assessments, having greater face validity than other off-road tests and being more cost-effective and safer than ordinary on-road testing. The aim of this study was to validate a driving simulator test for assessment of cognitive ability in fitness-to-drive assessments.

    The study included 67 healthy participants. Internal consistency of the simulator subtests was estimated. A correlation analysis between results on the simulator and the cognitive tests Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B and the Useful field of View test (UFOV) and multiple regression analysis were conducted. Finally, a comparison of results between age groups (>65 years) and (<65 years) was done.

     

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  • 39.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Low speed performance based standards for the Nordic countries2021In: International Journal of Vehicle Design. Heavy Vehicle Design, ISSN 1744-232X, E-ISSN 1741-5152, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 110-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance based standards (PBS) is an effective regulator policy which can address variation complexity in vehicle combinations. This paper investigates aspects of using computer simulation and mathematical models to assess the performance of vehicle combinations in low speed manoeuvring, and in particular roundabouts. A set of 22 vehicle combinations, including existing conventional heavy vehicles as well as prospective high capacity vehicles, is used to study the effects of turn angle and road surface conditions on the friction demand and swept path measures. Simulation results suggest that the friction demand measure is dependent on the available grip. This makes it hard to interpret and may not be suitable in the PBS framework. The swept path measure is relatively unaffected by friction levels, and can hence be calculated with simple and robust expressions not considering the road interaction. However, turn angle affects the swept path measure considerably, and should be addressed when designing the PBS scheme implementation into the legislations.

  • 40.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    The influence of tractor lengths on traffic safety and efficiency: a simulation study2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several different heavy vehicle combinations are allowed on the Swedish road network. A commonly seen combination is the tractor and semi-trailer combination with a maximum total length of 16.5 meters. The legal limitation on the total length of the combination has led to the use of a short tractor to make space for more goods on the trailer. There is a concern that the shortness of the tractors will have a negative consequence on traffic safety and the ability to negotiate uphills. The short wheelbase of the tractor and the weight imbalance between the tractor and the semitrailer could be an issue when braking and negotiating turns. 

    This study was ordered by the Swedish Transport Agency to investigate the traffic safety aspects and hill-climbing problems of certain heavy vehicle combinations. The concerns raised should be investigated from a vehicle dynamical point of view for the vehicle combinations in question and compare them with other common vehicle combinations through a simulation study. 

    A set of tractor and semitrailer combinations have been simulated in severe conditions and maneuvers to investigate the vehicle response and its dependencies with respect to the wheelbase of the tractor, coupling length, fifth wheel lubrication, and road surface conditions. Whenever meaningful, a comparison was made with a Nordic combination (truck and full trailer) as well as a B-double combination (tractor, link trailer, and trailer). 

    The overall result of the simulation study is that the tractor and semitrailer combination is a stable combination, which outperforms the longer and heavier Nordic and B-double combinations in all the measured situations and maneuvers where comparison is meaningful. Furthermore, the wheelbase of the tractor seems to have a very minor effect on the performance of the vehicle combinations.

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  • 41.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Pettersson, Emil
    Volvo GTT.
    Model and Road Surface Sensitivity of Longitudinal Performance Based Standards2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based standards (PBS) is a regulation policy to address the complexity of variations in vehicle combinations. It enables a direct way of addressing certain requirements associated with the safety, environment and road network and their implications to the vehicle specific quantities without stipulating vehicle properties.

    Computer-based simulations may be an efficient tool to assess the performance measures. However, using simulations through models in a legislation raise questions of model accuracy and model complexity. What is a required level of modelling details to be used to assess a PBS measure?

    We investigate three level of complexity of models and the impact this have on three longitudinal performance measures; Startability, Gradeablity and Acceleration Capability. Simulations for 10 vehicle combinations are compared with two different engine alternatives. For Nordic countries, slippery road conditions are common during winter conditions. Hence, low friction is included in the comparison.

    The comparison suggested that the complexity could potentially be kept really low, without major loss of accuracy. However, for slippery conditions, a higher levels of complexity might be required.

  • 42.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kusachov, Artem
    Winter testing in driving simulators2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many traffic accidents are due to winter conditions like slippery roads and limited visibility. The road administrators put a lot of effort into snow removal and de-icing the roads, and the vehicle manufacturers have been working with functionality to support drivers in winter conditions for decades.

    Many issues of driving in winter conditions originate in drivers’ behaviours such as risk taking and lack of awareness. Studying drivers’ behaviour in winter conditions in general, and the effect of various countermeasures of the vehicle, would increase the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and could possibly be used to reduce the accident risks. Motion-base driving simulators are tools frequently used for driving behaviour research. However, the validity of the results of such studies depends to a large extent on the realism of the simulation. The purpose of this project was to study winter simulation with the aim to improve the realism of simulator driving in winter conditions.

    Driving in winter is in many ways different from driving in summer. The difference can to a considerable extent be explained by the tire-to-road interaction. Winter driving is typically characterized by softer motion and slower development of tire forces. In the present project two aspects of the motion have been studied, the motion feedback in the simulator and models for tire-to-snow behaviour.

    Vehicle motion during winter driving is characterized by large vehicle body slip angles and the associated yaw motions. Thus, understanding the importance of yaw motion feedback is essential to simulate winter conditions. A study was designed to investigate the impact that lack of yaw motion will have on the driver, and if it alters his driving behaviour. It was found that the yaw motion alters the driving behaviour, implying that it contains vital information for a wide range of driving situations. A second study was carried out to investigate if the rotation centre, which is a consequence of the yaw and lateral motions, can be used to present valuable information about the vehicle state to the driver. Indicative results suggest that the rotation centre of the motion is valuable to the driver, but further studies are needed. The softer and slower motions of winter driving suggest that pre-positioning of the simulator’s motion platform could be performed to improve the motion envelope. A third implementation study performed in the project suggests this.  

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  • 43.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lu, Zhenji
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Current insights in human factors of automated driving and future outlook towards tele-operated remote driving services2018In: International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018): Integrating People and Intelligent Systems, January 7-9, 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Springer, 2018, p. 10-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive players regarding differences in terminology, HMI input/outputs, and escalation intervals. Scholarly research is also reviewed pertaining to proactive strategies for driver engagement. Additionally, human factors research and findings will be presented regarding recommendations for situation awareness, human machine interfaces, TOR, as well as shared control concepts. The tutorial will conclude with discussion and brainstorming around outlook toward tele-operated remote driving services (Tele-Driving); what they have to offer beyond assisted/automated driving, autonomous vehicles, and ride-hailing/car-sharing paradigms; as well as the design/conduct of human factors research regarding Tele-Driving.

  • 44.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petrovych, Veronika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Happee, Riender
    Delft University of Technology.
    Looking at drivers and passengers to inform automated driver state monitoring of in and out of the loop2018In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 597, p. 695-707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The “drivenger” aim of the current study was to investigate attentional differentiation of drivers (who are in control) from passengers (who have no control) to inform future driver-in-the-loop monitoring/detection systems and facilitate multiple levels of manual/automated driving. Eye-tracking glasses were worn simultaneously by the driver and front seat passenger on 32 on road trips. Halfway en-route, the passenger was tasked with pretending with their eyes to be driving. Converging with a recent and independent drivenger study, our results found differences of higher probabilities of small saccades and significantly shorter blinks from our drivers and pseudo-drivers. Additionally, a new measure of eye eccentricity differentiated between driver/passenger roles. While naturalistic attentional manipulations may not be appropriately safe/available with actual automated vehicles, future studies might aim to further use the eye behavior of passengers to refine robust measures of driver (in)attention with increasing reductions in measurement intrusiveness and data filtering/processing overhead requirements.

  • 45.
    Chugh, T.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Klomp, Matthijs
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Shyrokau, B.
    Delft University of Technology.
    An approach to develop haptic feedback control reference for steering systems using open-loop driving manoeuvres2019In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a methodology to capture the model-based haptic feedback control reference for closed-loop steering systems is demonstrated. The parameterisation is based on the measurements of open-loop driving manoeuvres for the inertia-spring-damper-friction reference model. The steady-state and transient manoeuvres are used to identify the model parameters. The reference model is limited to the haptic feedback of driver excitation in the linear vehicle handling range and intended to be used in closed-loop steering control strategies. The model parameters have an intuitive interpretation that allows to be used in both admittance and impedance control setting. The feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated in a validated simulation environment for electric power assisted steering and on a real hardware for the steer-by-wire force-feedback case.

  • 46.
    Chugh, Tushar
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Klomp, Matthijs
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Shyrokau, Barys
    Delft University of Technology.
    Design of Haptic Feedback Control for Steer-by-Wire2018In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1737-1744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates a comparison of different haptic feedback control strategies; primarily focusing on open and closed-loop methods for a Force-Feedback Steer-by-Wire system. Due to shortcomings caused by the feedback motor impedance in the open loop architecture, the tracking performance is deteriorated. Consequently it is shown that the closed-loop solutions provide an improved response within the desired steering excitation range. The closed-loop possibilities, torque and position control, are designed and objectively compared in terms of performance and stability. The controller objectives are inertia compensation and reference tracking. For a given reference, the stability constraint between the controller gains responsible for the two objectives is contrasting in both the methods. Higher bandwidth is achieved for torque controller, whereas the driver arm inertia limits the position control performance. The linear system analysis is supported by the experimental results.

  • 47.
    Conceição, Victor
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, CINAV – Portuguese Navy Research Center.
    Teles, Carlos
    CINAV – Portuguese Navy Research Center.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Chalmers University of Technology.
    The Anchoring Effect of Technology in Navigation Teams2020In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer , 2020, Vol. 1212, p. 436-443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern technology revolutionised marine navigation, reducing errors and increasing navigation safety. However, the same technology has been associated with critical accidents and navigators’ errors. On the other hand, expert mariners have proved to manage complex situations, adapting to unforeseen events successfully. To better understand the effects of new technologies and how work is currently done, the Portuguese navy promoted a study about navigation team performance. The results suggest that navigation technology appears to have a strong anchoring effect on team activity. While sensemaking and intuitive judgements complement the shortfalls of the decision support system (DSS), it was found that the combination of high automation influence with lack of coordination leads to a collaborative biased perception of the situation.

  • 48.
    da Conceicao, V. P.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendes, J. B.
    Portuguese Naval School.
    Teodoro, M. F.
    Portuguese Naval School.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Validation of a Behavioral Marker System for Rating Cadet's Non-Technical Skills2019In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulator-based training assumes a very important role in the maritime domain, particularly in the education of Officers Of the Watch (OOW). In the Portuguese Navy, most of the cadet's skills as future OOW rely on the success of this training. Beyond theory and technical training, the development of nontechnical skills is a key factor for obtaining officers capable of identifying and solving problems. To optimize the training and development of non-technical skills, using the Portuguese Naval Academy Simulator, a previously designed Behavioral Marker System model was further assessed. The revised model, which comprises new parameters such as the effectiveness of the task, was validated through a set of simulated sessions, where 11 instructors and 48 students participated. After each session, data was collected with questionnaires and focus group discussion, focusing on the quality and usability of the model and on the design of the scenario. The results show that the revised model, positively addresses the limitations found on the previous version, and it has received encouraging feedback from both instructors and cadets. This new model is now under implementation in all the Naval Academy course programs, and future research aims to digitalize the behavior markers.

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  • 49.
    da Conceição, V. P.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Canas, A. C.
    CINAV, Portuguese Naval Academy.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Analysing human factors for naval navigation accidents using hfacs2020In: Developments in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019, CRC Press, 2020, p. 319-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early ’90s the Portuguese Navy has implemented several measures to improve its navigation safety performance, such as new policies, standard operational procedures, auditing and training programs, revision of course programs and certification requirements. Despite this progress, navigation accidents, remain a significant concern for the Portuguese Navy. Moreover, we still need further understanding of the effectiveness of innovative trends in marine technology over navigation safety. This paper presents an analysis of Portuguese’s naval accidents applying an adapted version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-HFACS framework. Twenty navigation accidents cases were considered. The analysis shows that causality factors with higher relevance are the decision and perceptual errors, non-use or misuse of instruments (Environmental factors), BRM (Personnel factors), inadequate leadership and inappropriate planning (Unsafe leadership). These findings provide an essential contribution to the revision of educational and training programs, insights for the design of bridges and navigation aids.

  • 50.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lundh, Monica
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Psykisk ohälsa i sjöfarten: en prevalensstudie2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie genomfördes inom ramen för Trafikverkets branschprogram "Hållbar Sjöfart" som drivs av Lighthouse med stöd även från Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus. Syftet med förstudien var att undersöka förekomsten av de underliggande orsakerna till och hanteringen av psykisk ohälsa bland fartygspersonal i Sverige. Ytterligare syftade förstudien till att undersöka hur arbetet med att förebygga psykisk ohälsa i sjöfarten bedrivs såväl av rederier som ombord i praktiken.

    Förstudien genomfördes mitt under den för sjöfarten mycket påtagliga Covid-19 pandemin, vilket påverkade studien i termer av kraftiga förseningar och bitvis låga svarsfrekvenser. Detta till trots visade ändå förstudien på att psykisk ohälsa bland svenska sjömän drabbar runt 1 av 10 i sådan omfattning att man söker sig till öppenvården och ser man till slutenvården är siffran något högre. Tittar man på de befattningar som drabbas finner man manskap däck och manskap maskin följt av intendenturpersonal. Även fortsättningsvis kan antas att det finns ett stort mörkertal i prevalensen av psykisk ohälsa mot bakgrund av den kultur som råder i sjöfarten. Det återstår ytterligare arbete med att få det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet på plats överlag i sjöfarten och specifikt med stöd av AFS 2015:4 och utöver de rent fysiska riskfaktorerna ombord är man också medveten om effekten av stress och den fortsatt höga mentala arbetsbelastningen. Dock upplevs den egenskattade generella hälsan vara god hos ett litet urval av svenska sjömän. Under tiden som förstudien pågick beviljades även en mer fördjupad studie som fortsättning på förstudien genom Trafikverkets sjöfartsportfölj där ytterligare en registerstudie kommer genomföras för att jämföras med förstudien. Fortsatt forskning bör studera effekterna av framför allt Covid-19 med speciellt fokus på den psykiska ohälsan och den ökade mentala belastningen.

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