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  • 1.
    Ainge, Mike
    et al.
    TRL, UK.
    Altekoester, Carsten
    BASt, Germany.
    Nelson, Paul
    TRL, UK.
    Phillips, Steve
    FEHRL.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Steven, Heinz
    TÜV Nord, Germany.
    Treleven, Colin
    TRL, UK.
    Watts, Greg
    TRL, UK.
    Final report si2.408210: Tyre/road noise2007Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Final report
    Download full text (pdf)
    Appendices
  • 2.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Pålsson, Björn
    Mechanics and Maritime Sciences/CHARMEC, Chalmers.
    Torstensson, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Evaluating the mix of maintenance activities on railway crossings with respect to life-cycle costs2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Switches & crossings (S&Cs) are vital assets as they allow for increased railway capacity by introducing flexibility and connectivity in railway networks. At the same time, this makes them critical since they can cause costly delays and disruptions if they are not well maintained. This motivates studies to improve maintenance strategies of S&Cs, considering both the life-cycle costs (LCC) of the assets and socio-economic transportation costs for passengers and freight customers. In this paper, the interdependence between deterioration mechanisms, maintenance activities, and expected LCC (including transportation costs) is investigated using a combination of mechanical and econometric modelling. The interrelation between the degradation of contact geometry and track settlement is analysed using simulations of dynamic vehicle–turnout interaction. Long-term mechanical degradation of the S&C is simulated for different maintenance strategies that correspond to different timing of the associated maintenance measures (crossing repair welding and tamping). This provides the basis for analysing the interdependence between preventive and corrective activities using econometric modelling. Based on a case study of a common type of S&Cs in the Swedish infrastructure, the impact of different maintenance strategies on LCC and transportation costs is analysed. Opportunities and challenges in the development of more socio-economically effective maintenance strategies of S&Cs are discussed.

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  • 3.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Pålsson, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences/CHARMEC, Sweden.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Torstensson, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Evaluation of long-term maintenance of switches & crossings with respect to life-cycle costs and socio-economic impact2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Switches & crossings (S&Cs) are vital assets as they allow for increased railway capacity by introducing flexibility and connectivity in railway networks. At the same time this makes them critical, and they can cause major delays and disruptions if they are not well maintained. This motivates studies to improve maintenance strategies of S&Cs, considering both life-cycle costs (LCC) of the assets and other additional socio-economic costs (e.g., transportation costs for passengers and freight customers). In this paper, the interdependence between deterioration mechanisms, maintenance activities, and expected LCC (including transportation costs) is investigated using a combination of mechanical and econometric modelling.

    The interrelation between the degradation of contact geometry and track settlement is analysed using simulations of dynamic vehicle–turnout interaction. Changes in the timing of the associated maintenance measures (crossing repair welding and tamping) are performed to investigate the impact on damage modes. This is then linked to LCC and transportation costs, which requires a distribution between preventive and corrective activities with respect to the simulated maintenance strategy. This relationship is investigated by means of regression modelling: 𝑪𝒐𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆=𝑓(𝑷𝒓𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆,𝑿)

    where Corrective and Preventive represent the number of failures and the scheduled actions to prevent these failures, respectively. 𝑿 holds variables related to the traffic (volume, type of traffic, axle load, etc.) and the infrastructure (type of S&Cs, etc.).

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    PowerPoint
  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 6.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 8.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

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  • 9.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years.

    The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

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  • 10.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. 1-11, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 12.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Regulating Road Vehicle Teleoperation: Back to the Near Future2021In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021, p. 135-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the many remaining obstacles before reliability and safety can sufficiently be guaranteed for high-level automated vehicles (AVs), teleoperation or remote operation of partially automated vehicles by a human driver has become increasingly interesting to consider. However, remote operation, including remote driving, has so far only received little attention in legal scientific and transportation literature. This paper aims to establish some basic legal matters for remote driving by examining its regulatory development in three different jurisdictions. A combination of methods is employed including an examination of literature regarding AVs and their regulation. The main result is that current regulation in the examined jurisdictions intentionally addresses a future with high-level AVs, but to a large extent excludes regulatory details for remote operation. In conclusion, this paper argues that both present and coming regulation for automated vehicles ought to be more near future-oriented and address the concept of remote operation more explicitly. This, for regulation to be better in touch with current technology, for the benefit of a wider acceptance in society, for legal certainty, but also for innovation support and stability for investments in technology. © 2021 IEEE.

  • 13.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sundström, Linnéa
    SIS.
    Hjalmarson, Mikael
    SIS.
    Standardisation for electric road systems: a review of ITS standards for the development of electric roads2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As electric road system (ERS) technologies continue to reach higher levels of maturity, the need for standardisation of the field appears comparable to many other technically oriented areas.

    Standards can not only support industrial production and increase the opportunities for dissemination of innovations, they can also contribute to product safety, reliability, and a certain level of product quality. These are common arguments for standardisation of technologies, and they also apply readily to ERS. Standardisation is moreover essential for the interoperability, compatibility, and competitiveness of ERS, specifically from the perspective of facilitating a faster deployment of electric road systems as a promising future solution to replace the dominant position of fossil powered freight transport. Although currently under discussion, standardisation for ERS is however still only at the initial drafting phase.

    The purpose of this study was to increase knowledge of standardisation to promote the development of electric road systems. During the project a mapping was carried out to create an overview of standards that are directly or indirectly central for ERS in the area of intelligent transport systems (ITS). The study employed a combination of methods including an examination of ERS literature and ITS standards, a stakeholder workshop, and expert reviews of a tentative listing of ITS standards that are potentially applicable to ERS. The main result is a preliminary inventory of 111 ITS standards, including standards for electronic fee collection (EFC), where 99 standards have been deemed as potentially applicable to ERS.

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  • 14.
    Als, Per
    et al.
    A2 A/S .
    Nielsen, Otto Anker
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU).
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jespersen, Per Homann
    Roskilde Universitet (RUC).
    Hvordan får vi mere og bedre kollektiv trafik för pengene?: Bud på fremtidens organisering af den kollektive trafik i Greater Copenhagen2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Region Hovedstaden har i sin regionale vækst- og udviklingsstrategi (ReVUS) sat nogle strategiske rammer for en grøn og innovativ metropol med høj vækst og livskvalitet. Et af de strategiske pejlemærker handler om ’Effektiv og bæredygtig mobilitet’.

    Hovedstadsområdet har i dag store trafikale udfordringer med kø på vejene samt trængsel i busser og tog. Udfordringerne vil kun vokse i de kommende år, hvor indbyg-gertallet forventes at stige med over 200.000. Der er behov for en sammenhængende planlægning, som kan medvirke til at reducere trængslen og dermed understøtte den økonomiske vækst og udvikling.

    Region Hovedstaden har taget initiativ til et arbejde, der skal skabe større sammenhæng i den kollektive trafik i den danske del af Greater Copenhagen. Hvis den kollektive trafik skal løfte en større del af trængselsudfordringen,skal der arbejdes på at udbygge kapaciteten, forbedre servicen og sikre en større sammenhæng på tværs af transportformerne. Køer på motorveje og trængsel i den kollektive transport er dyrt for samfundet.

    Til at understøtte arbejdet har Region Hovedstaden nedsat en ekspertgruppe, der med faglige briller kommer med sit bud på, hvilke udfordringer den kollektive trafik skal kunne imødekomme. Oplægget tager udgangspunkt i paraplyorganisationen Din Offentlige Transport (DOT), og hensigten er:

    • at påpege styrker og svagheder i den nuværende organisation
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man inden for den nu-værende lovgivning kan imødegå nogle af den kollek-tive trafiks udfordringer
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man med en ændret lovgivning yderligere kan forbedre den kollektive trafiks sammenhæng og attraktivitet

    Gruppen har ikke gennemført en ny, selvstændig analyse. Arbejdet bygger på eksisterende analyser og på den viden og erfaring, som gruppens medlemmer besidder.

  • 15.
    Alves, C. A.
    et al.
    University of Aveiro.
    Vicente, A. M. P.
    University of Aveiro.
    Calvo, A. I.
    University of León.
    Baumgardner, D.
    Droplet Measurement Technologies.
    Amato, F.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council.
    Querol, X.
    University of Aveiro.
    Pio, C.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Physical and chemical properties of non-exhaust particles generated from wear between pavements and tyres2020In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 224, article id 117252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A road simulator was used to generate wear particles from the interaction between two tyre brands and a composite pavement. Particle size distributions were monitored using a scanning mobility particle sizer and an aerosol particle sizer. Continuous measurements of particle mass concentrations were also made. Collection of inhalable particles (PM10) was conducted using a high-volume sampler equipped with quartz filters, which were then analysed for organic and elemental carbon, organic constituents and elemental composition. Tyre fragments chopped into tiny chips were also subjected to detailed organic and elemental speciation. The number concentration was dominated by particles <0.5 μm, whereas most of the mass was found in particles >0.5 μm. The emission factor from wear between pavements and tyres was of the order of 2 mg km−1 veh−1. Organic carbon represented about 10% of the PM10 mass, encompassing multiple aliphatic compounds (n-alkanes, alkenes, hopanes, and steranes), PAHs, thiazols, n-alkanols, polyols, some fragrant compounds, sugars, triterpenoids, sterols, phenolic constituents, phthalate plasticisers and several types of acids, among others. The relationship between airborne particulate organic constituents and organic matter in tyre debris is discussed. The detection of compounds that have been extensively used as biomass burning tracers (e.g. retene, dehydroabietic acid and levoglucosan) in both the shredded tiny tyre chips and the wear particles from the interaction between tyres and pavement puts into question their uniqueness as markers of wood combustion. Trace and major elements accounted for about 5% of the mass of the tyre fragments but represented 15–18% of the PM10 from wear, denoting the contribution of mineral elements from the pavement. Sulphur and zinc were abundant constituents in all samples.

  • 16.
    Amato, Fulvio
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Cassee, Flemming R.
    Centre for Sustainability & Environmental Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Gehrig, Robert
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hafner, Wolfgang
    Department of Environmental Protection, Municipality of Klagenfurt on Lake Worthersee.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    University of Birmingham.
    Jozwicka, Magdalena
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    King's College London.
    Moreno, Teresa
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC.
    Prevot, Andre S. H.
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona.
    Querol, Xavier
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 275, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 135-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to estimate monetary abatement values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. However, a main objective is to critically discuss the assumptions necessary to convert the monetary values elicited in willingness to pay (WTP) studies to values than can be use for policy purposes.

    Methods

    We employ the hedonic regression technique on Swedish data to elicit individuals' preferences for noise abatement. Our elicited values are then converted to policy values and critically examined based on findings from a literature review.

    Results

    We show that WTP for road and rail not only differs in levels but also that the relationship between the noise level and the marginal value differs between the two sources. We also show that a health cost component added to the WTP estimate, based on the assumption of uninformed property buyers, will be small but not negligible and that also modest differences in the assumption of the discount rates will have a significant effect on the estimated values.

    Conclusions

    The main implications from this study are: (i) WTP for road and railway noise abatement differs not only on absolute but also marginal levels, (ii) Even small differences in the chosen discount rate, which is necessary to convert WTP values from a hedonic price study to policy values, have large effects on the policy values, and (iii) We show how to add a health cost component to the WTP estimates in order for the monetary estimates to reflect the total social cost. However, we argue that the motivation for doing so is weak and that more research is needed on this issue.

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  • 19.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Bondemark, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Peters, Björn
    Ekblad, Johan
    Jpe Konsult AB.
    Regeringsuppdrag synfält: utredning om förutsättningar för undantag från de medicinska kraven för individer med synfältsbortfall2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I regeringsuppdraget (I2021/ 02412) framgår att VTI, i samarbete med Trafikverket och Transportstyrelsen, ska utreda förutsättningarna för undantagshantering från de medicinska föreskrifterna med avseende på synfältsbortfall (B-körkort). Vidare ska tre aspekter beaktas: hur andra länder gör, konsekvenser för den enskilde samt samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser. Slutrapporten påvisar att Sverige med gällande rättsligt ramverk inte kan genomföra de förslag som slutrapporten föreslår. Det innebär att det kommer att krävas juridiska förändringar. Givet att dessa förändringar genomförs och att ett nytt förfaringssätt nyttjas visar slutrapporten på att a) positiva effekter för den enskilde individen uppstår, b) samhällsekonomiska vinster uppstår och c) en rättssäker och rättvis prövning är möjlig. 

    Slutrapporten redovisar dessutom hur ett urval av andra länder har hanterat handläggningen av individer med synfältsbortfall givet samma EU-direktiv som Sverige regleras av. Det framgår också av undersökningen att samtliga länder, som en förutsättning för undantag från de föreskrivna kraven avseende synfält, tillämpar krav eller rekommendationer om att ett praktiskt körprov ska utgöra del i underlaget för bedömning av körförmågan. 

    Kunskapsläget med avseende på körförmågebedömningar för individer med synfältsbortfall redovisas och där framgår med tydlighet att perimetrin som Sverige utnyttjar som underlag för återkallelse av körkort inte kan predicera individers körförmåga. Perimetrin är dock viktig eftersom individer med synfältsbortfall som grupp kan vara olämpliga förare. Slutsatsen som forskningslitteraturen enstämmigt lyfter är att det behövs förarprov (på väg eller i en simulator) för att kunna genomföra en valid bedömning. 

    Slutligen innehåller slutrapporten vilka problem (aktiviteter) som kvarstår för att skapa en lämplig och kvalitetssäkrad process. Dessutom presenteras den kronologiska ordning på aktiviteter som behöver genomföras. Kronologin krävs eftersom resultatet av lämplig metod och aktör påverkar det vidare arbetet med avseende på utformning av körprov och rättsligt ramverk. 

    Slutrapportens slutsats är att Sverige har möjligheten att genomföra en förändring med avsevärda nyttor. Detta eftersom de valda aktörerna och de valda metoderna existerar idag och därför endast behöver utvecklas i viss mån för att säkerställa att individer med synfältsbortfall erbjuds en kvalitetssäkrad, rättssäker och rättvis process som dessutom bedöms vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsam.

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    von Schedvin, Lina
    Fjärroperatörens roll och ansvar: Introduktion av en ny rollbesättning i sjöfarten2023In: Tidskrift i Sjöväsendet, ISSN 0040-6945, Vol. 186, no 2, p. 191-201Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote operation of ships is a fundamental concept for the introduction of autonomous shipping. The legal challenges associated with remote operation, despite their crucial importance for the transformation of shipping, have so far received relatively limited attention. The remote operator’s role and responsibilities can be seen as key issues in this context and are discussed and highlighted in this article. A crucial question to clarify from a legal perspective is who or which actor the term remote operator aims at. Also, which tasks and duties do remote operation involve and how does the distribution of these responsibilities look like between different people involved in the operation of a remotely operated ship? Another closely related question in this context is which requirements of competence, skills and training are necessary or relevant for remote operation of a vessel from a remote operation center.

    These questions are discussed and analysed below. A summary conclusion of the authors is that the introduction of autonomous shipping and remote operation will require a new kind of role set-up and division of labor between the various actors within the shipping industry. This may necessitate the introduction of new legal actors. Also, the legal challenges and the resulting uncertainty need to be addressed at the national level to remove or reduce obstacles to the industry’s development. Thus, a regulatory review is necessary to achieve this purpose.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    von Schedvin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    När och fjärran: Regelutveckling inom autonom sjöfart, särskilt om fjärroperatörens roll och ansvar2023In: Vänbok till Svenska Sjörättsföreningen / [ed] Paula Bäckdén, Anders Leissner och Mattias Widlund, Stockholm: Svenska Sjörättsföreningen , 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Afridi, Muhammad Amjad
    Skelleftea Municipal, Sweden; KTH, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Patrício, João
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lindgren, Åsa
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Johansson, Carl-Martin
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Alexandra
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden..
    Andersson, Angelica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. KTH, Sweden;University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Development of the SUNRA Tool to Improve Regional and Local Sustainability of the Transportation Sector2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 18, article id 11275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fulfil the global sustainable development goals (SDGs), achieving sustainable development is becoming urgent, not least in the transportation sector. In response to this, the sustainability framework Sustainability National Road Administrations (SUNRA) was developed to contribute to improving the sustainability performance of national road administrations across Europe. In the present study, the framework has been tested, applied and further developed to be applicable for target setting and follow-up at the project level at both the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) and at municipal levels. The aim was a framework relevant for investment, re-investments, maintenance and operation projects and also to make it more user applicable. The study also investigated how the framework can contribute to sustainability, identified drivers and barriers for applying the framework and examined whether the framework can be applied and adapted to projects of different complexities. The adaptations and developments were done in collaboration between researchers and practitioners. The results show that the framework could easily be used and adapted for investment, re-investment, maintenance and operation projects in the planning stage, as well as for small municipal establishments, construction or reconstruction of residential areas and frequent maintenance. The framework contributes to increased awareness on sustainability, and it provides a common structure and transparency on how infrastructure project goals/targets are set and fulfilled. The framework can also be applied to follow the fulfilment of the goals/targets and thereby adapt the project to better fulfil the goals. Identified barriers include the lack of obligations and lack of experience in using sustainability frameworks.

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  • 24.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. COWI AB.
    Davidsson, Göran
    COWI AB.
    Risk Management of Landslides and Flooding: Recommendations and Step Wise Process2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction & Management / [ed] Christian N Madu, Chu-Hua Kuei, World Scientific, 2017, p. 329-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year flooding and landslides cause severe material damages and thousands of deaths and injuries. To reduce the risk, measures can be taken by applying different management strategies either by reducing the probability of the event or by reducing the potential consequences in case of an event. This chapter provides a systematic (step-by-step) guidance, a brief overview of landslide and flood risk management in general and a summary of an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden which has resulted in some general recommendations. Examples of general recommendations are to apply available knowledge, for example by learning from existing good examples and, when available, lessons learned and documentation of the rational argumentation made in the decision process. There is a request of checklists and guides that can be used in the current daily work among planners and risk managers. It is important with a broad basis for decisions, therefore integrated assessments and valuations are recommended for example by applying multi-criteria analysis methodology and involving relevant stakeholders in the process for example through well working networks. It is further important to counteract the current trend that more automatic monitoring results in less field monitoring and reduced local knowledge.

  • 25.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael,
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klimatförändringens påverkan på sjöfart och luftfart: översiktligt underlag för handlingsplan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a summary analysis of how climate change may affect Swedish naval and aviation. The aim was to provide a basis for an action plan on climate adaptation within the two sectors. The action plan will be developed by the Maritime and Aviation Department of the Swedish Transport Agency.

    The potential climate change outlined in this report are all based on scenarios included in the compilations of potential climate change at global level by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014) and calculations of SMHI for Sweden.

    The expected air temperature increase will affect the flight specifically, as increased heat reduces the aircraft's lifting ability. This leads to reduced load capacity and at very high temperatures can lead to cancellation and delay of flights.

    Reduced ice coverage is expected to result in longer shipping season and reduced need for icebreaking measures. For the Baltic Sea, the reduced ice coverage may result changes in type and distribution form of the ice. Airports will have a reduced need for deicing and also for the use of salt and chemicals for road and other land improvements.

    The flood risk caused by high water levels, prolonged precipitation, heavy rainfall and storms is expected to increase in large parts of Sweden. This may affect the accessibility of all road and rail traffic and there are already occasions with long shut-off times, which may affect both accessibility to and from airports and ports, as well as other activities involving flights and shipping. Ports and coastal airports may need to be adapted to maintain their activities and operations.

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  • 26.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Uppfyllelse av klimat- och miljömål vid en fullständig internalisering av vägtrafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 9 February 2017, The National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) received the governmental commission to continue previous research on socio-economic costs of traffic by developing new knowledge and update the existing knowledge base. As part of this mission, an assessment of the impact on the climate and the national environmental objectives of internalizing external costs was included. The transport sector has a direct or indirect impact on virtually all Swedish environmental quality objectives. This report focusses on road traffic and the environmental quality objectives that were considered in the previous governmental commission SAMKOST 2 and where relevant quantifiable targets, specifications and indicators were available: Limited climate impact, Fresh air, Only natural acidification, No eutrophication and noise as a part of the environmental quality objective Good built environment.

    According to results presented in this report, a taxation corresponding to 100 percent internalization would, if imposed in 2016, contribute to a 2 percent (ca 0,4 million ton) decrease in emissions of carbon dioxide 2030 in comparison to current internalization degrees. Such an estimated change is small in relation to the calculation uncertainties due to for example uncertainties about traffic development, price elasticity, technological development, economic development, the development of prices of oil etc. To achieve the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transport (except aviation) by 70 percent by year 2030 compared with 2010, would need additional instruments and measures than those which have already been decided to reduce the emissions by a further 1–3 million ton or 5–15 percent. An increase in the current carbon dioxide tax from SEK 1.14 per kg of carbon dioxide to SEK 2 per kg of CO2 will reduce emissions by an additional 1.6 million ton or 8 percent more than achieved with current degree of internalization (all other aspects alike). In combination with the already decided instruments, an increase in the carbon tax with SEK 1 per kg carbon dioxide for passenger cars implies that the target of reducing emissions from domestic transport by 70 percent from year 2010 level to 2030 can be reached. For future emissions of nitrogen oxides, a 100 percent internalization, or increased CO2 tax, will only result in a marginal impact.

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  • 27.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lithner, Delilah
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Microplastics from tyre and road wear: a literature review2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review concerns microplastics from tyre and road wear caused by road traffic. As there is limited knowledge about microplastics in general, and microplastics from road traffic in particular, the Swedish Government commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to, during 2018-2020, develop and disseminate knowledge about microplastics from road traffic. The chapters in this report summarises existing knowledge about microplastics from road traffic with respect to the following aspects: sources, spread and presence; effects on and risk to the environment and human health; characteristics and chemical composition; tyre and road wear; sampling methods; analysis and sample preparation; and measures. The report also includes a chapter with overall conclusions, and a chapter about further research, development and investigation needs.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for reducing the generation and spread of microplastics from road traffic. One aim of the report is to collate and disseminate knowledge about microplastics generated by tyre and road wear, and to review the current level of knowledge. A second aim is to identify knowledge gaps and research requirements in relation to microplastics from road traffic. This literature review is based on a review of scientific articles and reports, as well as technical literature and some information from experts and industry.

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  • 28.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lithner, Delilah
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Mikroplast från däck- och vägslitage: en kunskapssammanställning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review concerns microplastics from tyre and road wear caused by road traffic. As there is limited knowledge about microplastics in general, and microplastics from road traffic in particular, the Swedish Government has asked the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to, during 2018-2020, develop and disseminate knowledge about microplastics from road traffic. The chapters in this report summarises existing knowledge about microplastics from road traffic with respect to the following aspects: sources, spread and occurrence; effects on and risk to the environment and human health; characteristics and chemical composition; tyre and road wear; sampling methods; analysis and sample preparation; measures. The report also includes a chapter with overall conclusions, and a chapter about further research, development and investigation needs.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for reducing the generation and spread of microplastics from road traffic. One aim of the report is to collate and disseminate knowledge about microplastics generated by tyre and road wear, and to review the current level of knowledge. A second aim is to identify knowledge gaps and research requirements in relation to microplastics from road traffic. This literature review is based on a review of scientific articles and reports, as well as technical literature and some information from experts and industry.

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  • 29.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Fredriksson, Lena M
    Tidningen Utemiljö.
    Att värdera ekosystemtjänster2017In: Gröna Fakta från Utemiljö, ISSN 0284-9798, no 8 / 2017, p. I-VIIIArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ekosystemtjänster används allt oftare och värdet av ekosystemtjänsterna ska, enligt Naturvårdsverkets etappmål, vara allmänt kända och integrerade i olika ställningstaganden och beslut senast 2018. Här förklaras begreppet i korthet och några tips om hur det kan implementeras i kommuner ges. Därefter beskriver forskarna Yvonne Andersson-Sköld och Jenny Klingberg ett forskningsprojekt som de har deltagit i och vars resultat är en handbok om hur ekosystemtjänster kan värderas.

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  • 30.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Metod för bedömning och värdering av ekosystemtjänster i staden (VEKST): Handbok version 1.02018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2013–2016 genomfördes forskningsprojektet Värdering av ekosystemtjänster av urban grönska med syftet att kartlägga, synliggöra och värdera den urbana grönskan. Inom forskningsprojektet studerades bland annat hur ekosystemtjänsterna klimatreglering, förbättrad luftkvalitet, dagvattenhantering, bullerdämpning, rekreation och välbefinnande kan bedömas och värderas. Dessutom kartlades delar av den biologiska mångfalden (träd, buskar, örter, bin och fåglar). För att kunna bedöma och värdera de ekosystemtjänster som ingick i projektet utvecklades en stegvis metod. Metoden baseras på mätningar och inventeringar i sju fallstudieområden i Göteborg, intervjuer och enkätstudier samt relevant litteratur. I denna handbok presenteras metoden samt mallar som guidar användaren genom metodens fem steg. Handboken innehåller också exempel på hur metoden har använts. Viktigt att poängtera är att metoden som beskrivs i denna handbok inte är en slutprodukt utan en första version. I takt med ökad kunskap kan, och bör, metoden utvecklas, kompletteras och förbättras. Till exempel kan fler ekosystemtjänster bedömas och värderas. Metoden är utvecklad med tanken att den ska vara enkel att använda, systematisk och transparent i alla steg. Denna handbok vänder sig bland annat till stadsplanerare och konsulter som på uppdrag av planerare arbetar med beslutsstöd i planprocessen. Metoden kan användas för att bedöma inverkan av förändringar i stadsbilden, t ex vid förtätning, eller för att följa förändringar över tid.

  • 31.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mirzanamadi, Raheb
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Torstensson, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Göransson, Gunnel
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ramverk för att prioritera och bedöma nyttan av klimatanpassningsåtgärder2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even if the greenhouse gas emissions are rapidly reduced, the ongoing climate change will result in extensive and costly climate-related events that will occur more frequently. The costs in the Swedish transport sector for such events damaging streets, roads, rail/railways, and other vulnerable parts of the infrastructure are high today and are expected to increase. The consequences of weather-related events are, among other things, reduced accessibility, and increased risk of accidents. To maintain the functioning of the transport system, it is important to undertake risk-reducing measures related both to today's climate, but above all, to manage future climate-related events. It is necessary to ensure the functioning of the transport system during extreme weather events, and during periods of prolonged precipitation, prolonged heatwaves and changing precipitation patterns. It is also important to enable adaptation measures to deal with long-term changes such as rising sea levels which affect the accessibility and lifespan of the infrastructure.

    This report presents a summary of results and a summary of how a framework for evaluating climaterelated impact relationships has been used. Effect relationships refer to identifying, assessing, and evaluating climate-related risks and risk reduction measures. In this report, the focus is on identifying, assessing, and evaluating the effectiveness of climate-related measures. The results is a framework for assessing the effect of risk-reducing measures, i.e., to assess whether it is relevant to implement a measure, when in time it should be implemented and to assess which measure is most relevant to implement. The risks have considered in case studies and include fire risk, risk of accidents on streets and roads due to zero crossings or heat, flooding, erosion and landslides and impact on road construction (rutting, bearing capacity and fatigue), track buckling and risks related to high winds. The tests have included hazard and risk identification, risk analysis, identification, and evaluation of possible measures. Examples of case studies are a torrential rain in Kungsbacka municipality in 2019, erosion-related changes over a long period of time at Österdalälven and calculations of climate impact on the road construction at the E10 at Svappavaara. A case study has also included monetary valuation and sensitivity analysis. The framework has also formed the basis for a discussion regarding climaterelated risks linked to electricity supply.

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  • 32.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    SUNRA: Version 20202021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SUNRA (Sustainability: National Road Administration) SUNRA is a decision support tool developed to be used in road projects by setting the level of ambition for different sustainability aspects and following up the work towards these in a structured way. 

    This memo describes how to use SUNRA, followed by a chapter with suggestions on where in the planning process SUNRA can be used, followed by chapters presenting the themes and aspects that are considered within SUNRA and the underlying issues that constitute the result of the updates made in this version. 

    In this version, SUNRA has also been sued against the global sustainability goals as well as the Swedish Transport Administration's interpretation of them in Målbild 2030. SUNRQ aims to use it to contribute to sustainable development with a higher level of ambition than just the legal requirements and other criteria that need to be taken into account. Therefore, for the aspects taken into account, minimum requirements for objectives are the legal requirements that exist and the Swedish Transport Administration's own objectives and policies

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  • 33.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    A framework for identification, assessment and prioritization of climate change adaptation measures for roads and railways2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 23, article id 12314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe accidents and high costs associated with weather-related events already occur in today’s climate. Unless preventive measures are taken, the costs are expected to increase in future due to ongoing climate change. However, the risk reduction measures are costly as well and may result in unwanted impacts. Therefore, it is important to identify, assess and prioritize which measures are necessary to undertake, as well as where and when these are to be undertaken. To be able to make such evaluations, robust (scientifically based), transparent and systematic assessments and valuations are required. This article describes a framework to assess the cause-and-effect relationships and how to estimate the costs and benefits as a basis to assess and prioritize measures for climate adaptation of roads and railways. The framework includes hazard identification, risk analysis and risk assessment, identification, monetary and non-monetary evaluation of possible risk reduction measures and a step regarding distribution-, goal-and sensitivity analyses. The results from applying the framework shall be used to prioritize among potential risk reduction measures as well as when to undertake them.

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  • 34.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. 560625-7813.
    Sunra: version 20212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sunra (Sustainability: National Road Administration) Sunra is the Swedish Transport Administration’s (STA) decision support tool developed to be used in road projects by setting the level of ambition for different sustainability aspects and following up the work towards these in a structured way. 

    This memo describes how to use Sunra, followed by a chapter with suggestions on where in the planning process Sunra can be used, followed by chapters presenting the themes and aspects that are considered within Sunra and the underlying issues that constitute the result of the updates made in this version. 

    In this version, Sunra has also been sued against the global sustainability goals as well as the Swedish Transport Administration's interpretation of them in Målbild 2030. SUNRQ aims to use it to contribute to sustainable development with a higher level of ambition than just the legal requirements and other criteria that need to be taken into account. Therefore, for the aspects taken into account, minimum requirements for objectives are the legal requirements that exist and the Swedish Transport Administration's own objectives and policies 

    This memo is a compilation of the adaptation and update work made by Sunra version 2018-12-152 within the framework of sub-project 1.12 Sustainable analysis for smart maintenance in the program Mistra Inframaint. The update has been made to enable Sunra to be used both within investment, operation and maintenance projects. Updates have been made with respect to the aspects that are taken into account within the different Themes, within which Themes different aspects are taken into account and to match ongoing working methods within Investment and Operation and Maintenance at the Swedish Transport Administration. In the work on the update, exports from Operation and Maintenance and Investment have been involved.

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  • 35.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Afridi, Muhammad Amjad
    Skellefteå kommun; KTH.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sunra för lokal och regional infrastruktur: prototypen Sulri : Version 20222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sunra (Sustainability: National Road Administration) is a decision support tool developed to be used in road projects by setting the level of ambition for different sustainability aspects and following up the work towards these in a structured way. 

    This memo describes the results of continued development of Sunra adapted for local and regional infrastructure. The result is the prototypes Sulri (Sustainability Local and Regional Infrastructure) and Sulri-frequent. Sulri-frequent is intended to be used for more frequent projects, such as paving existing streets, and Sulri is intended for projects that are a little more complex such as rethinking or replanning such as improving for active travel, climate adaptation of an area or adapting a street, a place or an area to other needs, but Sulri can in principle also be used for more frequent or smaller projects. This report describes a first version of Sulri. The report shows how the tool should be used. Chapter 3 then presents the themes and aspects that are considered within Sulri. Appendix 2 gives the corresponding information for Sulri-frequent. Appendix 1 presents relevant documents and links for the different themes and aspects considered in Sulri.

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  • 36.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rosén, Lars
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Metod och effektsamband för identifiering, bedömning och prioritering av åtgärder för klimatanpassning av vägar och järnvägar: en förstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at developing a methodology to support the transport Agency's planning of climate adaptation measures. The report focuses on the effect relationships for the identification, assessment and prioritization of measures for climate adaptation of roads and railways. The results presented in this report are based on literature studies and interviews with road and rail experts.

    The report takes into account the consequences and risks that are expected to arise from climate-related events, such as the impact that arises from a heavy rainfall and measures that can be taken to reduce the risk and the effect thereof. Knowledge of the likelihood of a particular climate-related event occurring during a given period, as well as the size and type of injury, is required to assess or calculate the risk. The cost of damages is for example the delay costs, and costs of transfer and changes between modes of transport, etc., and recovery costs and injuries to humans.

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  • 37.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norrman, Jenny
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Patrício, João
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mirzanamadi, Raheb
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Claesson, Joakim
    Trafikverket.
    Masshantering: indikatorer och nyckeltal för incitament för reducerad klimatpåverkan vid upphandling2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodology for controlling circular mass handling in the Swedish Transport Administration is focused on elements that are carried out in the design phase. There is a lack of methodology for how indicators and key performance indicator can be transferred to the contractor. To improve requirements and incentives in contract procurements, requirements that are procurable and which can be followed-up must be developed. 

    The purpose of this project is to, in a feasibility study, develop proposals for indicators and key performance indicators for procurement that can be used to set requirements and provide incentives that can be introduced in the Swedish Transport Administration's procurements to improve mass management, both in the planning of projects and in the actual execution. Future requirements and incentives should be able to be used in procurements and thus contribute to entrepreneurs working more circularly, sustainably and innovatively with mass handling than at present. The main purpose is that the procurement procedure should contribute to achieving the Swedish Transport Administration's goal: the infrastructure should be climate neutral by 2045. 

    The work consists of an analysis based on international and national literature, mass management reporting and interviews. 

    Based on the collected material, it appears that the regulations regarding excavated masses are not clear, and that the masses are classified as waste in most countries. This, in turn, leads to excavated masses not being recycled as much as is theoretically possible, nor as optimally as possible according to the value chain. To improve this, clearer incentives, indicators and key performance indicators are required, as well as accounting tools and guidance material from the Swedish Transport Administration. In this project, proposals for indicators and key performance indicators have been developed. In addition, an Excel based prototype for how several of these indicators can be reported both before a procurement and to be used to follow up and evaluate mass management in a project has been developed. The report also provides suggestions for continued work to develop the prototype for evaluating mass management at the project level and from a socio-economic perspective.

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  • 38.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values.

    The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved.

    The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

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  • 39.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 40.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 41.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 42. Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Road salt damage to historical milestones indicates adaptation of winter roads to future climate change may damage arctic cultural heritage2021In: Climate, E-ISSN 2225-1154, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no doubt that anthropogenic global warming is accelerating damage to cultural heritage. Adaptation measures are required to reduce the loss of sites, monuments and remains. However, little research has been directed towards understanding potential impacts of climate adaptation measures in other governmental sectors on cultural heritage. We provide a case study demonstrating that winter road salt, used to reduce ice related accidents, damages historical iron milestones. As the climate warms, road salt use will move north into areas where sites have been protected by contiguous winter snow cover. This will expose Artic/sub-Arctic cultural heritage, including Viking graves and Sami sites, to a new anthropogenic source of damage. Research and planning should therefore include the evaluation of secondary impacts when choosing climate adaptation strategies.

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  • 43.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.

  • 44.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 45.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lahti, Eva
    Volvo Car Cooperation.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0123835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects.

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue.

    The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time.

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  • 46.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jernberg, Christian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Ictech AB.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH.
    Nylander, Tomas
    Ericsson.
    Persson, Magnus
    Voysys AB.
    Remote Driving Operation (REDO) project: final report2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents experimental setups and findings from the REDO project, which had been conducted between December 2019 and February 2023. Five main topics are covered in this report: 1) Effects of latency and field-of-view on driving performance; 2) Remote driving feedback and control; 3) Connectivity and mobile network support for remote driving; 4) Video transmission for remote driving; and 5) Laws and regulations concerning remote driving. Contents of this report dives into technical details and findings within each topic. Nevertheless, this report does not intend to repeat all detail and results published in scientific publications, and thus this report should be seen as complementary material to the published results.

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  • 47.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ökad cykling: professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning.

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  • 48.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Klimatanpassning av vägkonstruktion, drift och underhåll2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate change is a reality and affecting society and transport systems. Climate change adaptation of transport systems will make the means of transportation more resilient and decrease the risk and magnitude of disruptions. Generally, climate change adaptations in road construction, operation and maintenance will need relatively large changes, but there is a shortage of the specific knowledge required as to what steps need to be taken, when and where, before measures can actually be implemented. Since climate change effects vary among Sweden's climatic zones, the impact of climate change on the road behavior and longevity is extremely difficult to predict. The need for winter maintenance in Sweden will generally decrease due to the warmer climate. Ploughing frequency will probably decrease as well, but preparedness should not be reduced too much since occasions with more extreme instances will increase. In order to succeed in making the road transport system resilient to climate change, we conclude that there is a need to develop more knowledge about the impact on the road infrastructure system as well as the operation and maintenance of the system including how to adapt through different types of variable and flexible climate adaptation measures and the effects of extreme weather events.

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  • 49.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wärme, Mats
    BM System.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bäckström, Andreas
    Svevia.
    Dynamisk prognosstyrd vinterväghållning – fas 3 & 4: restsaltmodeller och automatisk saltspridning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing climate with greater demands on road managers and winter operation contractors to achieve a winter operating standard acceptable to road users while at the same time the financial resources become increasingly limited, the need for cost-effective methods increases. A forecast-driven dynamic road operation has been shown to lead to increased productivity as road condition forecasts are integrated with route optimisation. 

    One way to further develop road conditions forecasts is to know how much salt is needed on the road, or more precisely, how much residual salt is still there? If there already is salt on the road, then is there no need to spread the full amount, it might be enough with half or even less. 

    Residual salt measurements have been made during three winter seasons at Testsite E18. The site was chosen because it is equipped with several different sensors, mounted above, next to and in the road. Salt was measured every 30 cm across the road's two lanes. Of 9 measurements, there were only 5 occasions with salt, of which two of them were salted only for our measurements. There were three measurements left with winter conditions. All measurements were compared with sensors on the site to compare how well a sensor represents the road surface. It turned out that there were generally very low salt values from the sensors compared with manual measurements.

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  • 50.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    The impact of climate change on the use of anti- and de-icing salt in Sweden2012In: Transportation Research Circular: Winter Maintenance and Surface Transportation Weather, 2012, p. -10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future needs for winter maintenance will probably be influenced by the climate change in different ways in different parts of the world. As Sweden is a country with several climate zones, the influence of climate change on winter maintenance will therefore differ between regions within the country. To understand the influence of climate change on the future needs of salt consumption in winter maintenance, modeled road weather data were calculated in the IRWIN project (a joint research project through ERA-NET ROAD funded by the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission), where climate change scenarios from ECHAM5 (the fifth generation of the European Centre Hamburg Model general circulation model from the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) were combined with field data from the road weather information system in Sweden.

    These modeled road weather data were used in project KLIVIN (the study presented here) in three Swedish regions (Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Sundsvall) and was combined with the Swedish winter severity index in order to calculate the trends of future salt needs. In this study the needs of salt for each of the three investigated regions were calculated in 30-year periods between 1970 and 2100. The results show that salt use related to snowfall will decrease in all three regions, while the salt use related to temperature will increase in the northernmost region (Sundsvall) and show a small decrease in the two other regions (Gothenburg and Stockholm).

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