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  • Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL: Deliverable D10.5 Final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Going to and from school is a daily journey for millions of children around Europe. The crash statistics is lacking information about the exact number of child causalities during those trips, but available sources identify the most dangerous situation as the way to and from school buses, situations when the children are unprotected road users. In addition there are several proofs for the need of a door to door perspective in order to improve the safety for the children. SAFEWAY2SCHOOL aimed to design, develop, integrate and evaluate technologies for providing a holistic and safe transportation service for children, from their door to the school door and vice versa, encompassing tools, services and training for all key actors in the chain.

    The project has a user-oriented approach and the European Union (EU) FRAME approach has been used for a stepwise process with a starting point in user wishes, moving on to identification of those in relation to the system being developed, formalisation of them into user needs and combine them into use cases. This is the ground for the definition of the system requirements. The requirements were grouped into blocks of functions.

    The functional blocks identified based on system requirements were:

    • safe route planning
    • information and warning
    • bus driver information
    • notification
    • training and education

    The results are positive, showing cost effective solutions with high acceptance for the holistic approach but also for most of the sub systems behind. However, no chain is stronger than the weakest link and this is true also when it comes to school transportation. Based on a very extensive work to identify future work with standardisations and policy the most essential improvements identified were related to school travel plans, sign at all bus stops and improved driver education.

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  • Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Konkurrens på marknaderna för upphandlad kollektivtrafik2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of competition in the procured Swedish public transport have been few. The purpose of this report is to investigate what regional public transport authorities (PTAs), advisory authorities such as the Swedish Transport Administration, and the government can do to increase goal fulfilment and by increasing the use of competition in the procurement of traffic. The report constitutes a compilation and discussion of recommendations for how the procurement of public transport should be done based on existing research and investingation literature.

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  • Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Weidel, My
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Berlin, Clara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Säkerhetsförare på autonoma bussar: Uppmärksamhet och trötthet : en explorativ studie2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental activities and studies with small autonomous buses (shuttles) in urban areas are becoming more common. As of yet, a safety driver who can take over control when the vehicle does not fulfil its task is usually required. In practice, this means that the safety driver is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the journey is safe, both for passengers and for surrounding road users. The aim of the present study was to study the safety driver's work environment, with special focus on fatigue and inattention. The study was conducted in Linköping in collaboration with the mobility arena "Ride the future". In total 8 drivers participated in the study. The study was exploratory, and the data collection was conducted in normal operation during normal work shifts. Data were collected during the first and last hour of an afternoon session. The results from these two sessions have then been compared. Drivers' alertness has been measured with self-reported drowsiness (KSS) and via blink measures (blink duration and long blinks) as well as heart rate-based measures (heart rate variability). Furthermore, drivers' eye movements have been identified to describe how drivers search the surroundings while driving.

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  • Johansson, Glenn
    et al.
    Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt
    Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Recycling and Waste Management, Renova AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Modin, Oskar
    Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    COWI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Uhl, Wolfgang
    Aquateam COWI AS, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Removal and release of microplastics and other environmental pollutants during the start-up of bioretention filters treating stormwater2024In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 468, article id 133532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untreated stormwater is a major source of microplastics, organic pollutants, metals, and nutrients in urban water courses. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the start-up periods of bioretention filters. A rain garden pilot facility with 13 bioretention filters was constructed and stormwater from a highway and adjacent impervious surfaces was used for irrigation for ∼12 weeks. Selected plants (Armeria maritima, Hippophae rhamnoides, Juncus effusus, and Festuca rubra) was planted in ten filters. Stormwater percolated through the filters containing waste-to-energy bottom ash, biochar, or Sphagnum peat, mixed with sandy loam. Influent and effluent samples were taken to evaluate removal of the above-mentioned pollutants.

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  • Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hurtig, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Trafikverket, Sverige.
    Andrén, Peter
    Andréns Datamani, Sverige.
    Cykelförmåga under alkoholpåverkan: Testbanestudie2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though cycling under the influence of alcohol increases the risk of injury and accidents, we still have limited knowledge about how alcohol affects the cyclist. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of increasing alcohol intoxication on several abilities required to cycle safely on a test track. Twenty-eight participants, 19 in an experimental group and nine in a control group, cycled a test course set up in a canceled parking lot. The participants' task was to i) cycle slalom around nine plastic cones, ii) cycle as straight as possible on a line drawn in the middle of a cone-shaped cornet and sometimes ring the bell, iii) cycle as slowly as possible and stop to put a foot down at each stop line and iv) stop with both feet and the whole bike within each stop square. The participants in the experimental group were repeatedly provided with alcohol (the goal was that they should reach 1.0 per mille) while the participants in the control group were sober throughout the trial. During the trial, we measured how the intake of alcohol affected alcohol concentration, perceived alcohol intoxication, cycling performance, self-rated cycling ability, cognition, and perception. Furthermore, we measured thrill-seeking as well as attitude, norm, control, intention, and also past and subsequent behaviour to cycle under the influence of alcohol in real traffic. The results indicate that many abilities required to cycle safely were impaired by the influence of alcohol. This impairment was statistically significant from an average alcohol concentration of 0.7 per mille. From an average alcohol concentration of 0.2 per mille a tendency towards deterioration could however be seen. At the same time, the results show that cycling under the influence of alcohol was relatively common among the participants.

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  • Zhu, Jiqing
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Dinegdae, Yared
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Waldemarson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Investigation on Ageing Behaviour of Bio-Extended Bituminous Binders and Asphalt Mixtures for Sustainable Road Infrastructure2024In: Transport Research Arena (TRA), Dublin, Ireland, 15 - 18 April, 2024, 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use of a plant-based bio-oil in bituminous binders as a partial replacement of petroleum-based bitumen for asphalt mixtures. Its effects on the ageing behaviour of bituminous binders and asphalt mixtures are studied. A total of six bituminous binders and their asphalt mixtures were prepared and analysed in laboratory, including three different binder formulations with varying percentages of bio-oil and their respective reference binders. Both the bituminous binders and asphalt mixtures were subjected to ageing protocols in laboratory. Softening point test, rheological and dynamic mechanical analyses were conducted to evaluate the changes in properties of the materials before and after ageing. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of aged binders and mixtures show very similar relationships as between the fresh materials, but the relationships after ageing are at changed levels due to the laboratory conditioning. This supports further studies to verify their functional performance in asphalt pavements.

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  • Bremberg Gårdinger, Max
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Validation of a computerized driving simulator test of cognitive abilities for fitness-to-drive assessments2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1294965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving requires a series of cognitive abilities, many of which are affected by age and medical conditions. The psychosocial importance of continued driving ushers the need for valid measurements in fitness-to-drive assessments. A driving simulator test could prove useful in these assessments, having greater face validity than other off-road tests and being more cost-effective and safer than ordinary on-road testing. The aim of this study was to validate a driving simulator test for assessment of cognitive ability in fitness-to-drive assessments.

    The study included 67 healthy participants. Internal consistency of the simulator subtests was estimated. A correlation analysis between results on the simulator and the cognitive tests Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B and the Useful field of View test (UFOV) and multiple regression analysis were conducted. Finally, a comparison of results between age groups (>65 years) and (<65 years) was done.

     

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  • Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The climate and environmental effects of policies for moving freight transport from road to other modes: The case of Sweden2024In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 15, article id 101151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to determine how policy instruments which aim to achieve a modal shift of long-haul freight transport from road to rail or sea affect the direct emissions to air of greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. The analysis is conducted in two stages. First, a range of forecasts reflecting different assumptions are applied using the Swedish national freight transport model (SAMGODS) to derive a range of possible future developments of emissions levels up to 2030 and 2040. This has involved determining emission factors per tonne-km for each of the SAMGODS model's six road freight vehicle types, eleven freight train variants and 22 ship types. The model outcomes are then compared to those of the base year of 2017. Second, the effects of two hypothetical modal shift policy instruments are analyzed with respect to their potential impact on emissions to air. The effects of these two policy instruments are evaluated for the base-year of 2017 and for the 2030 and 2040 forecasts. The paper also analyzes whether the Swedish climate objective for domestic transport in 2030 can be expected to be fulfilled given different forecasts and policy instruments. Within the context of a predicted large increase in total freight tonne-km (between 31 and 53%), emissions of greenhouse gases are calculated to decrease by 50 to 60% by 2040. This means that the Swedish freight transport sector will not achieve its share of greenhouse gas emissions reductions necessary to attain the national climate objective of a 70% reduction by 2030. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are forecast to reduce by between 60 and 75%, emissions of sulfur dioxides to reduce by between 41 and 50%, emissions of volatile organic compounds to increase by 8 to 30% and emissions of particulate matter (from exhaust and tyre/road wear) are calculated to increase by between 13 and 33%. Using modal shift policy instruments to achieve greenhouse gas reductions is calculated to attain worse results over time, by 2040 it might even be counterproductive. 

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  • Eriksson, Linnea
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 – Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    Witzell, Jacob
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Department of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Department of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Christina
    Department of Urban Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; K2 – Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    A climate report gone missing: power mechanisms in Swedish national transport planning2024In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the technological development of vehicles and fuels is not adequate to meet current climate mitigation targets, infrastructure development also plays an important role in transforming the transport system. Previous studies have argued that conventional infrastructure planning is incapable of implementing climate mitigation. The aim of the paper is to provide insights into power means and mechanisms that counteract integration of climate mitigation targets in infrastructure planning. This is done by an in-depth case study of current Swedish national transport planning. This case provides a rich illustration of a situation with high political ambitions regarding climate mitigation on the one hand, and power mechanisms and resistance with regard to climate goals during the planning process on the other. The case is analysed using the perspective of power circuits and shows how forecasting works as an obligatory passage point, sorting in and out which analyses will be part of the decision-making material. Analyses which do not fit the forecasting model are dismissed from planning. The conclusion is that as long as the transport infrastructure planning practice is dependent on forecasting as the only central analysis there will be difficulties in changing the scope of infrastructure planning and making climate goals central for transport planning. 

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  • Andersérs, Caroline
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The importance of individual characteristics on bicycle performance during alcohol intoxication2024In: Traffic Safety Research, E-ISSN 2004-3082, Vol. 6, article id e000042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycling accidents are a well-known problem for traffic safety globally. Alcohol intoxication is one possible factor, although the exact number of accidents due to intoxication is difficult to establish. Not all bicyclists act in the same way, particularly when under the influence of alcohol, i.e., bicycling performance might be related to a bicyclist's personal characteristics. This study aimed to investigate if the bicyclist's characteristics (bicycling experience, physical fitness, or sensation seeking scores) influence bicycling stability, cognitive performance, or self-rated bicycling ability ratings at different levels of alcohol intoxication. The experiment was completed on a wide treadmill, which allowed control of several influencing factors such as speed and physical effort. Intoxicated and sober participants bicycled on the treadmill five times for 10 minutes each time, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels were measured five times. Participants were given doses of alcohol up to a BrAC level of 0.8%. 

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  • Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ek, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    From, Emma
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lind, Joar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The cost impacts of Fit for 55 on shipping and their implications for Swedish freight transport2024In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 179, article id 103894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the European Commission's (EC) climate policy package ‘Fit for 55′ and its potential impact on cargo ships calling at Swedish ports. Three scenarios are evaluated using the Swedish national freight transport model. The Main Scenario is based on the EC's proposal to i) include ships weighing at least 5,000 gross tons (GT) in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), and to ii) introduce a tax on marine fuel. The Low Scenario includes the EC's EU ETS proposal but assumes no tax on marine fuel, whilst the High Scenario includes the fuel tax but assumes that ships weighing at least 400 GT are included in the EU ETS.

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  • Fukushima, Nanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Utbyggnaden av laddinfrastruktur för elfordon: Effekter av styrmedel på laddinfrastrukturmarknaden2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the prevalence of electric vehicles in Sweden has seen a significant surge, comprising 10 percent of the overall passenger car fleet in 2022 and aligning with the national objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transportation by a minimum of 70 percent by 2030 compared to 2010. 

    To facilitate the electrification of the transportation sector, the Swedish government has emphasized the role of both private and public entities in owning and operating the charging infrastructure. To support this initiative, the Swedish government has allocated over 5 billion SEK for the development of the charging infrastructure between 2015 and 2022 with estimates suggesting the existence of approximately 28,000 to 40,000 public charging points in Sweden today. 2 The substantial investment and rapid growth in the charging infrastructure underscore the necessity of assessing its impact on the market and competitive dynamics. 

    The primary rationale for ongoing support in expanding the charging infrastructure is the concern that a lagging infrastructure may hinder the government's ongoing efforts in the electrification of the transport sector. However, existing research highlights significant knowledge gaps in the understanding of the optimal supply of charging outlets, emphasizing the potential for an overly generous subsidy to result in inefficient resource allocation.

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  • Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Using Repeated Light-Weight Deflectometer Test Data to Predict Flexible Pavement Responses Based on the Mechanistic: Empirical Design Method2024In: Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2673-7108, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 216-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the potential of lightweight deflectometer (LWD) data in predicting layer moduli and response measurements within the Mechanistic–Empirical Pavement Design Guide. To achieve this goal, field repeated LWD tests and laboratory repeated load triaxial tests were carried out on granular base material compacted at 3% and 6% water content, sandy subgrade soil compacted at 3%, 4% and 9% water content and silty sand subgrade soil compacted at 8% and 10% water content. The results revealed that substituting traditional repeated load triaxial (RLT) data with LWD data for predicting these parameters was notably effective for cohesionless materials, especially for unbound granular materials (UGMs) compacted at optimum water content. The accuracy and reliability of predictions were remarkably high, showcasing the potential of LWD to enhance efficiency and precision in pavement design within this context. Conversely, for cohesive road materials, the study emphasized the importance of considering specific material properties and water content when integrating LWD into the Mechanistic–Empirical Pavement Design Guide. The distinctive characteristics and behaviors of cohesive materials necessitate a nuanced approach. This understanding is critical to ensuring the accuracy and reliability of pavement design and assessment across diverse conditions. In summary, the study presents a promising avenue for utilizing LWD data in cohesionless road materials, offering potential cost and time-saving advantages. Additionally, it underscores the necessity of tailored approaches when considering material properties and moisture content for cohesive materials, thereby advancing the field of pavement engineering by providing insights for improved practices and adaptable frameworks.

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  • Mirzanamadi, Raheb
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Torstensson, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences / CHARMEC, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lateral Track Buckling in Sweden: Insights from Operators and Infrastructure Managers2024In: CivilEng, E-ISSN 2673-4109, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 136-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail transport is expected to become a key component in the development of a long-term sustainable transport system. The planning, construction, operation, and maintenance of railway infrastructure are crucial in this effort. Hence, it is essential to ascertain that the railway infrastructure withstands and is adapted to extreme weather conditions and climate change. This study focuses on evaluating climate adaptation measures for lateral track buckling in Sweden. Through a literature review and interview with an expert at Swedish Transport Administration, it is highlighted that the maintenance status of railway infrastructure plays a significant role in the occurrence of lateral track buckling. According to the expert, inadequate track maintenance is the primary cause of lateral track buckling rather than weather variables like air temperature. The interview also clarifies that the chain of events related to the handling of track buckling is mainly initiated by the observation of a discrete lateral irregularity by a train driver, whereupon the train dispatcher at the traffic management center stops traffic until the location in the track has been inspected by a track entrepreneur. During the inspection, up to half of the observed cases of track buckling turn out to be false.

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  • Giechaskiel, Barouch
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, Italy.
    Grigoratos, Theodoros
    Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, Italy.
    Mathissen, Marcel
    Ford-Werke, Aachen, Germany.
    Quik, Joris
    Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health (DMG), RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Tromp, Peter
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Franco, Vicente
    Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (DG-GROW), European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.
    Dilara, Panagiota
    Directorate-General for Environment (DG-ENV), European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.
    Contribution of Road Vehicle Tyre Wear to Microplastics and Ambient Air Pollution2024In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 16, no 2, article id 522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyre particles are generated by shear forces between the tread and the road or by volatilisation. Tyre abrasion (wear) contributes from one-third to half of microplastics unintentionally released into the environment. The major part ends up in the soil, a considerable amount is released into the aquatic environment, and a small percentage becomes airborne. Nevertheless, tyre abrasion contributes to 5–30% of road transport particulate matter (PM) emissions. This corresponds to approximately 5% of total ambient PM emissions. The particle mass size distribution peak at around 20 to 100 μm, with a second peak in the 2–10 μm range. A nucleation mode has been reported in some studies. The absolute abrasion levels depend on the tyre, vehicle, and road characteristics, but also on environmental conditions and driving style. Most tyre particle emission factors in the literature are based on data prior to the year 2000.

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  • Sjörs Dahlman, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Electrical Engineering and SAFER Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Mama, Yaniv
    Department of Psychology, Ariel University, Israel; Moodify Inc, Kfar Saba, Israel.
    Hasson, Dan
    Medical Management Centre, Department Learning Informatics Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, USA.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    In-vehicle fragrance administration as a countermeasure for driver fatigue2024In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 195, article id 107429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue is a contributing factor in about 10–30% of all fatal crashes. Prevention of fatigue-related crashes relies on robust detection of driver fatigue and application of effective countermeasures. A potential countermeasure is fragrance administration since odors can have alerting effects on humans. The aim here was to investigate if a fragrance incorporating trigeminal components could be used as an in-vehicle countermeasure for driver fatigue.

    The fragrance was tested in a driving simulator with 21 healthy but sleep-deprived participants. Each participant performed a monotonous driving task twice, once with active fragrance containing a trigeminal component and once with olfactory fragrance, in a cross-over single-blind design. The order of trigeminal/olfactory fragrance was randomized and blinded to the participants. Both fragrances (trigeminal/olfactory) were administered either when the participant fell asleep (defined as eye closure > 3 s) or after approximately 45 min if the participant did not fall asleep.

    Self-reported sleepiness was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) every 5 min during driving. Variability in speed and lateral position and line crossing frequency were logged for each drive to measure driving performance. Heart rate measurements (ECG) and eye blinks (EOG) were collected to investigate potential arousing effects of the fragrance and to track objective signs of sleepiness.

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  • Nyberg, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Torstensson, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Impact of DAC on production personnel at marshalling yards: Deliverable D 5.12023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current deliverable is an outcome of the EU-project titled DACcelerate part of WP4 (Infrastructure, capacity and modal shift/Green deal) in the European DAC Delivery Programme (EDDP, under the WP structure valid until end-2022). EDDP WP4 has been led by Trafikverket who is also in various leading positions/WPs in TRANS4M-R and EDDP neo. The overall objective DACcelerate WP5 is to investigate the changes in work environment at marshalling yards that a transition from screw couplers to Digital Automatic Couplers (DAC)entails. Production at the main marshalling yards of Sweden and Austria is analysed and compared. These two marshalling yards represent significant differences in terms of traffic throughput, physical design and organisation of production personnel. Job tasks performed by different professional roles at the marshalling yard has been surveyed as well as how personnel interact in accordance with current work processes. The research method applied in the current work has primarily involved workplace visits and interviews and hence the investigation has required a close collaboration with operators of marshalling yards. For the case studies in Sweden and Austria this has meant a comprehensive and trustful cooperation with the operator Green Cargo and the Austrian federal railways ÖBB. The current project has been integrated in WP4 of the EDDP programme as well as aligned with unions and other stakeholders through workshop sheld during the period when the project was carried out.

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  • Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How many lives could be saved if everyone complied with the speed limit?: A case study from Sweden2023In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena / [ed] Luís de Picado Santos; Jorge Pinho de Sousa; Elisabete Arsenio, Elsevier, 2023, Vol. 72, p. 3024-3030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased speed compliance and reduced speeds are important factors in achieving increased traffic safety since it affects both the number of crashes and the injury severity. Lower speeds reduce the reaction distance leading to greater opportunities to avoid a crash, to reduced impact forces and to less severe injuries in the crash. The aim of this study is to investigate how many lives that could be saved if all drivers complied with the speed limit on the Swedish road network. The study is based on results from extensive speed measurements done on the rural and urban road network in Sweden and crash statistics from the crash data base Strada (Swedish Traffic Data Acquisition). To estimate the traffic safety effects the Exponential model is used. The results show that if everyone kept the speed limit in Sweden, about 50 lives could be saved yearly representing 25 % of all fatalities.

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  • Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heinzl, Philipp
    Siemens Mobility, Vienna, Austria.
    Iraeus, Johan
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    John, Jobin D.
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Keller, Arne
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Klug, Corina
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Lackner, Christian
    Siemens Mobility, Vienna, Austria.
    Levallois, Ines
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Svensson, Mats
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Trummler, Linus
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Xu, Jia Cheng
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Open-Source Tools for Road User Safety Abessment from the VIRTUAL Project2023In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena / [ed] Luís de Picado Santos; Jorge Pinho de Sousa; Elisabete Arsenio, Elsevier, 2023, Vol. 72, p. 423-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the abessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. Virtual testing (VT) offers an opportunity to advance transport safety by introducing additional test cases. The objective of the VIRTUAL project is to provide tools such as finite element models, guidelines and a corresponding platform to foster the uptake of VT. A VT platform, OpenVT, has been established and provides open-source human body models (HBMs) of both an average female and male, seated and standing, as well as a seat, generic vehicle and tram front models. The tool chain from virtual to physical testing has been illustrated in the low severity impact case where the seat evaluation tool was developed. The newly established organisation OVTO will run the OpenVT platform in the future and govern the evolution of the results of the VIRTUAL project after its completion.

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  • Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    From, Emma
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ek, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lind, Joar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nya utgångspunkter för Sjöfartsverkets avgifter: Avgiftsmodell 20282024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the report is to estimate the costs of a fee model that

    • provides the Swedish Maritime Administration with revenues that correspond to the costs incurred in the provision of various services used by the merchant shipping industry
    • internalizes the vessels’ external costs and provides increased incentives to reduce the external costs.

    The fees should contribute to the fulfilment of the Swedish transport policy objectives.

    The current model comprises pilot fees and fairway dues and is criticized as

    • there is no direct link between the fees and costs for the services and the external costs
    • the frequency discount is inappropriate from an efficiency- and environmental point of view
    • the environmental discount has small effects
    • lack of transparency.

    The costs are as far as possible calculated per vessel, based data from 2019. The time perspective for the new model is 2028 and parts of EUs climate package “Fit for 55” are assumed to be implemented. The service-related costs are calculated in detail for pilotage and icebreaking and broadly for the other services; the external costs of the pilot boats’ and icebreakers’ emissions are included. The merchant vessels’ external costs of air emissions and accidents in Swedish waters are calculated. The volume of emissions is calculated using AIS-data (Automatic Identification System). The CO2-emissions are valuated based on the European Union Allowance (EUA) price and air pollution and accidents based on EU:s handbook for external costs of transport. The costs are calculated based on ("first-best") marginal cost pricing, for some of the service-related costs "second-best" is used to make sure that the costs are covered.

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  • Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Korsningars inverkan på partikelhalterna2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intersections are often considered hotspots of air pollution due to the increased acceleration and braking and due to the increased traffic where two ore several roads cross. There are few air quality measurements in intersections because these environments are complicated and seldom representative. More knowledge on how intersections affect air pollution is needed, for example to understand the optimal design to decrease the exposure to air pollution for pedestrians or cyclists. There is also a possibility to introduce add an extra “intersection-constant” in emission or air quality models to take the possible increase into account.

    To improve the knowledge on particle concentrations in intersections, two measurement campaigns have been performed in the intersection between Hornsgatan and Ringvägen in Stockholm. During the first measurement campaign, particle concentration was measured in two locations: in the intersection and in a street canyon at around 90 m distance from it. The results showed that the average concentration was higher in the street canyon than in the intersection and that the main cause of the concentration differences was explained by the wind. During the second campaign, the particle concentration was measured with 12 micro-sensors placed along the street canyon to investigate how the concentration varied with distance from the intersection. However, no clear differences between sensors at different distances was observed. This could be due to a lack of sensitivity in the sensors to traffic-related particles. Nevertheless, some differences could be seen between the two sides of the street canyon, often with higher values on the south side where the vehicles were reducing their speed to enter the intersection and where there is a slight downwards slope. The increase could be due to an increased amount of brake wear emissions or due to some wind pattern

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  • Picher, Ciara
    et al.
    Institute of Analysis and Scientific Computing, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Bachler, Martin
    Institute of Analysis and Scientific Computing, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria ; Center for Health & Bioresources, AIT Austrian Institue of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Mayer, Christopher C.
    Center for Health & Bioresources, AIT Austrian Institue of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Hametner, Berhard
    Center for Health & Bioresources, AIT Austrian Institue of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Fit for Duty Assessment of Driver Fatigue based on Statistical Modelling of Cardiovascular Parameters2023In: SNE Simulation Notes Europe, E-ISSN 2306-0271, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue is a risk factor for road crashes. Fit for duty technologies could play a pivotal role in countering these crashes. Heart rate variability (HRV) and the pulse wave shape are influenced by the autonomic nervous system and are therefore affected by fatigue. This work focusses on modelling their relationship with fatigue and is based on data recorded in a simulated driving study. Six different multivariate linear regression models, using either stepwise variable selection or principal component analysis, are presented in this study. To account for differences in physiology, individual participant baselines for HRV and pulse wave parameters are introduced. Stepwise regression using any kind of baseline yields the most promising results. The most promising predictors are the ratio LFHF between low and high frequency components of HRV and heart rate. Finally, a stepwise regression model with a baseline, which has an adjusted R2 statistic of 0.17, is proposed for further use. Nevertheless, further research with an extended dataset is necessary, incorporating a more diverse participant group and a higher number of recordings from severely sleepy drivers. 

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  • Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Children and youngster's gaze behaviour when cycling in familiar environments2023In: Journal of Cycling and Micromobility Research, ISSN 2950-1059, Vol. 1, article id 100006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active travel is beneficial for individuals and society in many ways. As transportation habits are formed at a young age, active school transport should be promoted. However, young children are often portrayed as not being able to cope with the demands traffic imposes on them. Most studies tend to confirm the notion that older children perform better than younger children, however, they are usually conducted in controlled environments that are unfamiliar to the participants. Here, 28 participants in two age groups (6–12 and 13–18 years) cycled their usual way to school to guarantee familiarity with the environment. They wore eye trackers, and the surroundings were filmed by a camera on the handlebars and by another camera mounted on the bicycle of an experimenter, who followed the participant. For each trip, all attentional target areas were identified based on infrastructure layout, traffic rules and turning direction. It was coded whether the children monitored these areas. Additionally, glance targets and glance purpose were coded. More than 80 % of all target areas were monitored. Regardless of age, a higher number of simultaneous target areas increased the likelihood that some relevant target areas were missed. The glance distribution across different types of target areas did not vary between the age groups. An increase in the number of simultaneous target areas led to a decrease in spare visual capacity and an increase in glances dedicated to checking for traffic. Overall, children in both age groups were generally attentive in their familiar environment. Difficulties were associated with a higher number of simultaneous target areas. A more controlled setup is needed to identify potentially modifying factors, and a comparison with adults is needed to for a fair valuation of the children’s performance.

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  • Norén, Anna
    et al.
    Division of Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Division of Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rauch, Sebastien
    Division of Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Division of Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Modin, Oskar
    Division of Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlfeldt Fedje, Karin
    Division of Water Environment Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Recycling and Waste Management, Renova AB, Sweden.
    The effects of electrochemical pretreatment and curing environment on strength and leaching of stabilized/solidified contaminated sediment2024In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 5866-5880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilization and solidification (S/S) is known to improve the structural properties of sediment and reduce contaminant mobility, enabling the utilization of dredged contaminated sediment. Further reduction of contaminants (e.g., tributyltin (TBT) and metals) can be done using electrochemical treatment prior to S/S and could potentially minimize contaminant leaching. This is the first study on how electrochemical pretreatment affects the strength and leaching properties of stabilized sediments. It also investigates how salinity and organic carbon in the curing liquid affect the stabilized sediment. 

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  • Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Häll, Carl Henrik
    Kommunikations- och transportsystem, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Sverige.
    Bhattacharyya, Kinjal
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Gebrehiwot, Rihanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Är dynamiska busskörfält en bra bussprioriteringsåtgärd?: En simuleringsutvärdering av framkomlighets- och emissionseffekter2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced travel time and increased reliability can improve the competitiveness of public transport. Buses often share space with other vehicles and travel time and reliability depends on traffic flow. This can be mitigated by prioritization measures as bus streets or bus lanes, but such measures are not always possible due to limited space or too large impact on other traffic. An alternative is dynamic bus lanes, which only are reserved for buses when needed. 

    Previous research on dynamic bus lanes includes three field trials, but documentations are unfortunately limited. The conclusions are primarily that dynamic bus lanes have potential. Previous traffic model investigations of dynamic bus show reduced bus travel time and limited delay for other traffic. However, the studied traffic conditions do not represent typical Swedish conditions. The aim of this report is therefore to study impacts on traffic performance and emissions for a main arterial with real world bus frequencies for a Swedish situation. 

    The investigation is based on a traffic simulation case study for a common Swedish arterial with two lanes, signalized intersections and congestion limited to short peaks. Laholmsvägen in Halmstad was used as a starting point to study impacts for different traffic demands. The model was calibrated using bus trajectories, traffic and turning counts and vehicle trajectories from video for two intersections.  

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