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  • 1. Danial, Josef
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Jämförelse av flöde och hastigheter från två olika cykelmätningsutrustningar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare cycle flows and speeds from two different cycle measurement equipment. The result has also been compared with the processed video data and manual counts. The measuring equipment are Viscando’s equipment OTUS3D and VTI´s TA-89. OTUS3D is a camera with 3D functionality, and it detects tracks and classifies these into different road user categories. TA-89 (where TA stands for Traffic Analyzer) is developed by VTI and is adapted for detecting both bicycles and motor vehicles. We also used a video camera from the OTUS3D system, to enable a manual calculation.

    The test site for the study is a pedestrian and bicycle path that crosses a ridge in Vallaskogen in Linköping. The area is located between the district of East Valla and campus. It is a fairly steep slope where the direction towards the campus is uphill and the direction to the East Valla / city center is downhill. Five days that did not include losses of flow were selected for the analyzes. The selected periods were 3 to 4 September (Saturday and Sunday) and 6 to 8 September (Tuesday to Thursday). In addition to this, we chose an hour with high flow and an hour with low flow where video processing was conducted. Furthermore, we used an hour and 50 minutes of manual counting.

  • 2.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances, injuries and suggestions for safety improvements2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is part of the sustainable transport system and plans are in place to increase this part of the transport system in Sweden, Europe as well as globally. Improving the safety for this group of roadusers is of great importance. The aim of this study was to identify patterns among fatally injured cyclists in Sweden, in order to suggest general safety improvements or improvements addressing different groups of cyclists as well as specific traffic conditions.

    The information was sourced from the in-depth study database of fatalities as well as the joint register for police and hospital injury and accident data, STRADA, in Sweden. Data was analysed and interpreted for an 11 year period from 2005–2015. The in-depth study of the fatalities provided details about the accidents and individuals involved in the accident and the information was retrieved by parameter values, in free text description and documents in the database. STRADA was used to sort official data within the in-depth study, assigning codes for accident type, complementing parameters and additional parameters.

    A total of 271 fatalities were identified and analysed where the majority of the accidents occurred during spring–autumn. Male fatalities accounted for two-thirds of the studied cases and in ages above 40, male fatalities are twice as many as female fatalities. Fatalities in Motor vehicle accidents are distributed in all age groups, while in the Single bike and Other bike category, there were no children and only a few young adults reported.

  • 3.
    Elvik, Rune
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hels, Tove
    Rigspolitiet, Denmark.
    van Schagen, Ingrid
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Netherlands.
    Updated estimates of the relationship between speed and road safety at the aggregate and individual levels2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 123, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the relationship between the speed of traffic and road safety, stated as the number of fatalities and the number of injury accidents, are reviewed and their results synthesised by means of meta-analysis. All studies were based on data fully or partly for years after 2000. Previously proposed models of the relationship between the speed of traffic and road safety, including the Power Model and an Exponential Model, are supported. Summary estimates of coefficients show that the relationship between speed and road safety remains strong. The Power Model and the Exponential Model both fit the data very well. The relationship between speed and road safety is the same at the individual driver level as at the aggregate level referring to the mean speed of traffic.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Wahl, Charlotte
    Sweco.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Sweco.
    Adell, Emelie
    Trivector.
    Intressent- och behovsanalys för resvaneundersökningar: resultat från intervjuer och enkätundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, national travel surveys are regularly carried out by Transport Analysis, a governmental agency. However, in the last decade travel survey studies have suffered with problems such as high rate of non-response, coverage, costs and reporting burden. Therefore, this project is underway aimed at investigating and proposing new methods for data collection on people’s mobility. The project is divided into five deliverables (work packages – WP), of which this report is the second one (WP2). The purpose is to carry out an analysis of stakeholders’ needs regarding future requirements of travel surveys. This includes identifying the questions that travel surveys can answer.

    Telephone interviews have been conducted with 20 stakeholder representatives and internet-based questionnaires were sent to 142 respondents (response 81 persons, response rate 57 percent). The stakeholders’ representatives were classified into three types of organizations: public sector, research organizations and other actors. Based on their own experience, an analysis has been conducted regarding what is requested from the national travel survey. The analysis show that key aspects of today’s and tomorrow’s travel survey users include (i) mode choice, (ii) trip purpose, (iii) how travel behavior changes over time, and (iv) how different groups travel. To be able to answer these questions, both individual and travel information are required.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector .
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector .
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    New Ways of Collecting Individual Travel Information: Evaluation of data collection and recruitment methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the project is to conduct a demonstration study that shows how two data collection methods that have been developed to collect travel survey data perform in the field, and how they perform compared with traditional TS (i.e., postal questionnaires and/or telephone interviews). The project is also intended to provide a better understanding of the ways in which different recruitment methods of respondents can be used so that future TS can be more cost effective.

    The two collection methods tested consist of a mobile app and an online questionnaire with a map to assist the respondents to identify travel destinations. Three recruitment methods were used, i.e., recruitment via random sampling, a web panel, and crowdsourcing. The portion of the random sample that received an online questionnaire was divided into two groups. Half the group was given no incentive, while the other half received a gift card worth SEK 100 after answering the questioner. Those who were recruited via a web panel and were to use the mobile app were rewarded in the form of a gift card worth SEK 100 if, at minimum, they made corrections to trips made on one day registered in the mobile app. A nonresponse analysis was performed of the random sample for both the online questionnaire and the mobile app. Cost estimates for each collection method and recruitment method were also performed, as were uncertainty estimates.

    Overall, the study shows that the mobile app registered significantly more trips per respondent than did the online questionnaire, while the distances travelled were comparable. There are several possible interpretations of this. One is that people who responded to the online questionnaire either forget about and/or combined short trips (particularly trips made for the purposes of leisure or shopping, and using the travel modes walking and car). One presumable explanation for this is that it is easier to confirm/correct the trips that the mobile app suggests than it is to recall and enter all trips in an online questionnaire. Another possible interpretation is that people responding to different data collection methods have different travel patterns. Yet another explanation is connected to technique issues regarding the different data collection methods.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector.
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Per
    Trafikanalys.
    Dahlberg, Lina
    Trivector.
    Nya sätt att samla in inviduell resvaneinformation: Utvärdering av insamlings- och rekryteringsmetoder2018Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • 9.
    Flannagan, Carol. A. C.
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Klinich, Kathleen. D.
    University of Michigan.
    Sander, Ulrich
    Autoliv Research.
    Manary, Miriam A.
    University of Michigan.
    Cuny, Sophie
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    McCarthy, Michael
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Phan, Vuthy
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    Wallbank, Caroline
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Green, Pauk E.
    University of Michigan.
    Sui, Bo
    Autoliv Research.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Comparing motor-vehicle crash risk of EU and US vehicles2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters. Logistic regression models of the risk of a Maximum injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, or fatality (MAIS3+F) in EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles were constructed. The injury risk predictions of the EU model and the US model were each applied to both the US and EU standard crash populations. Frontal, near-side, and far-side crashes were analyzed together (termed "front/side crashes") and a separate model was developed for rollover crashes.

    For the front/side model applied to the US standard population, the mean estimated risk for the US-vehicle model is 0.035 (sd = 0.012), and the mean estimated risk for the EU-vehicle model is 0.023 (sd = 0.016). When applied to the EU front/side population, the US model predicted a 0.065 risk (sd = 0.027), and the EU model predicted a 0.052 risk (sd = 0.025). For the rollover model applied to the US standard population, the US model predicted a risk of 0.071 (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.128 risk (sd = 0.057). When applied to the EU rollover standard population, the US model predicted a 0.067 risk (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.103 risk (sd = 0.040).

    The results based on these methods indicate that EU vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in front/side impacts, while US vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in llroovers. These results should be interpreted with an understanding of the uncertainty of the estimates, the study limitations, and our recommendations for further study detailed in the report.

  • 10.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: registerstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program, that is voluntary and applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC ≥ 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the oneyear program.

    The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. The results from the register based study is presented in this report, while the other studies have been published earlier. Results and conclusions from all three studies will be summarized in an upcoming final report.

    The aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the program, and to follow both participants and non-participants during the time in the program or the time without a driver’s license, respectively. The study is based on data from the Swedish road traffic register and a case management system, both administrated by the Swedish Transport Agency. The effectiveness of reducing recidivism in drink driving during the program have been shown in previous studies and are not evaluated here.

  • 11.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Drink drivers' views of a voluntary alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program was introduced in Sweden in 2012. The program is voluntary and makes it possible for drivers that are apprehended by the police to keep their driver’s license if they install an alcohol interlock in their vehicle. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program and it applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. A previous study showed that about 30 percent of all drivers that had their license withdrawn due to drink driving applied for and was granted participation in the program, 10 percent were assigned to the one-year program and 20 percent to the two-year program. Moreover, the age groups 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 have the highest participation rates (in relation to the total number of drink drivers), about 35 percent, while the youngest (≤24) and oldest (≥75) have participation rates of about 20 and 10 percent, respectively.

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of the drink drivers’ views of the program, both participants and those who chose not to participate. More specifically, we were interested in why they have chosen or not chosen to participate in the program and their views on the application process, doctor visits and the handling of the interlocks. We also wanted to know if their health and drinking habits had changed after the drink driving offence.

  • 12.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Participation Rates in a Voluntary Alcohol Interlock Program for Drink Drivers in Sweden2016In: 21st International council on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety conference T2016: Conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a long trial period, an alcohol interlock program was permanently introduced in Sweden in 2012. Participation in the program is voluntary and the duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. An evaluation of the program during the trial period showed a participation rate of about 11%. Aim: The main aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the interlock program and evaluate if the changes made from the trial period had led to increased participation. Reasons for denied participation and the time between the drink driving offence and decision about participation in the program were also studied.

    A sample of about 3600 drivers who had their license withdrawn due to drink driving was investigated. The data includes age and gender, information about the drink driving offence and the application process.

    The participation rate in the permanent program is about 30%. The age group with the highest participation is drivers between 35 and 64 years old with about 35% participation. Moreover, the participation rate of drivers with BAC > 1 g/L is almost twice as high as the rate for drivers with BAC < 1 g/L.

    The study shows that the participation rate has increased from about 11% in the trial period to about 30% in the permanent program. Thus, the attempt of increasing the rate has been successful.

  • 13.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
  • 14.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Utvärdering av hastighetsmätningar med blåtandssensorer: jämförelse med data från MCS (Motorway Control System)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to compare vehicle speed measurements using Bluetooth detection with radar measurements from a Motorway Control System (MCS). Of particular interest was to evaluate whether the method could be used in before-after studies of road safety measures such as speed cameras or other speed reducing measures.

    The results from the study show that:

    • The penetration rate varies between 12 and 16 percent depending on the site and whether it is a weekday or weekend.

    • Bluetooth measurements provide stable results with respect to average vehicle speed at diurnal level. Comparisons with MCS data show that the results of the two methods follow each other well and the difference between methods is about the same from day to day.

    • Speed measurements with Bluetooth sensors are judged to be sufficiently reliable, on the evaluated road type, to be used in before-after studies of various road safety measures.

  • 15. Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i körkortsutbildningen: en studie av effekter på körbeteende och bränsleförbrukning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to measure the effects of the education in environmental friendly driving that is included in the Swedish driver education for license class B on fuel consumption and a selection of driving behaviour that are typical for environmental friendly driving among drivers with license since half a year. Comparisons were made between a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had much  education in environmental friendly driving and a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had  little or none such education. Those with much education in environmental friendly driving had participated more in both driving lessons and theory lessons at driving schools than those with little education. The drivers drove an instrumented car along a pre-defined road of 30 km where 12 parts were used to collect data about fuel consumption and a selection of different driving behaviour.  The results show that education in environmental friendly driving during driver licensing has had an effect on fuel consumption. The group with much education used 8.7 percent less fuel than the group with little education. However, an expert/educator in environmental friendly driving who was driving the same roads had a much lower fuel consumption. This can probably be explained by the more complex driving behaviour, such as driving in mixed traffic with zero consumption and to minimize declutching and braking to the advantage of engine braking, requiring a higher mental load of novice drivers. 

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program which applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders whom have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program. Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of an interview study with a total of 31 drivers who had committed a drink driving offense. They were interviewed both at a meeting, and at follow-up telephone interviews. The drivers are 11 people who participated in the two-year program, 10 people who participated in the one-year program and 10 people who did not participate in the interlock program.

  • 17.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tunga lastbilars däckanvändning och olycksrisk vintertid2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, it is today regulated that winter tyres must be used on the drive axle of heavy vehicles (total weight in excess of 3,500 kg) during the winter season period, December 1 to March 31, in case of winter conditions. This requirement is based entirely on accessibility, and it is considered that winter tyres on the drive axle provides better conditions for heavy vehicles to go forward in icy and snowy conditions. Previous accident risk studies have not been able to demonstrate that the use of winter tyres instead of summer tyres for heavy vehicles in winter could lead to reduced risk of accidents. In Norway and Finland, the regulations on tyre use for heavy vehicles in winter time has recently been revised. Prior to a discussion of possible regulations in Sweden on winter tyres also on other axles, there is reason to update the previous accident risk studies. The purpose of this study has been to calculate the risk of accidents on ice/snow conditions for comparison between summer and winter tires for heavy trucks. The study was performed according to the method previously used in the VTI studies conducted in 2000 and 2008. This meant that two questionnaires were sent out by the end of the winter 2015/2016. One survey to analyse the vehicle mileage on ice/snow conditions with different combinations of tires, and one questionnaire directed solely to the vehicle owners whose vehicles according Strada during the winter season have been involved in an injury accident. Accident risk calculations were limited to vehicles with a total weight of 16 tons.

  • 18.
    Kröyer, Höskuldur
    et al.
    Trafkon.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cykling under vintermånaderna: Förstudie om exponering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie kommer vi att fokusera på sambanden mellan cykelexponeringen, årstiden och väderförhållanden. Cykling är för närvarande ett mycket uppmärksammat transportslag i hela norden. De senaste åren har dock cyklingen i Sverige minskat. Tidigare forskning har visat att de är flera olika faktorer som påverkar benägenheten att cykla. Forskningen har visat att , hälsa och motion, upplevd trafiksäkerhet och väderförhållanden spelar roll.

    Det är möjligt att vädrets påverkan för beslutsprocessen att cykla eller ej beror på vilken cyklist de handlar om. Det skulle till exempel kunna vara att det finns vissa grupper med mer hängivna cyklister som är benägna att cykla långt in på eller hela vintern, och att dessa påverkas huvudsakligen endast av extrema väderförhållanden, medan det kan vara så att föräldrar ställer in cykeln för barn vid viss tidpunkt på året när väderförhållanden blir sämre.

    Det finns fler anledningar varför det är viktigt att försöka öka vår förståelse av hur vädret påverkar exponeringen för cyklister:

    • Att öka cyklingen har flera positiva effekter för samhället. För att kunna uppnå det är det viktigt att ha förståelse för hur vädret påverkar cyklisterna
    • Trots att det är svårt att påverka väderförhållanden kan vi mildra effekten av dessa genom bättre förståelse av hur dessa påverkar cykel som färdmedelsval, genom till exempel bättre vinterväghållning.
    • Det pågår långsiktiga klimatförändringar. Detta skulle kunna påverka cykelexponeringen, särskild under hösten och våren. Genom bättre förståelse av dessa samband så kan vi möjligtvis dra nytta av väderförändringarna genom att stödja cyklingen under dessa perioder.
  • 19.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Average male and female virtual dummy model (BioRID and EvaRID) simulations with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, some recently developed anti-whiplash systems have revealed they provide less protection for females than males. The protection of both males and females should be addresses equally when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP or in regulatory tests due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female.

    Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both this model and an average male dummy model, seated in a simplified model of a vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from simulations run in the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to the response of volunteers as well as the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the virtual male and female dummy models revealed differences in dynamic response related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in the two different seat models. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of the first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

    The results of the study highlight the need for an extended test matrix that includes an average female dummy model to evaluate the level of occupant protection different seats provide in vehicle crashes. This would provide developers with an additional tool to ensure that both male and female occupants receive satisfactory protection and promote seat concepts that provide the best possible protection for the whole adult population. This study shows that using the mathematical models available today can provide insights suitable for future testing.

  • 20.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulations with average male and female dummy models with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering are most common in rear impacts. These injuries account for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, recently developed anti-whiplash systems have shown to protect females less than males. The diversity of males and females should be addresses when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female. Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both an average male, and the recently developed average female dummy model, seated in a laboratory vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to that volunteers and for the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the male and the female dummy models revealed differences related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in different crash severities in two different seats. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

  • 21.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Occupant safety assessment in European regulatory tests: review of occupant models, gaps and suggestion for bridging any gaps2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part was to review how adult men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests was suggested. The second part of the aim, described as emancipatory knowledge of interest, included highlighting the values declared in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred as "the Treaties"). This means that the purpose of the knowledge is to recognize the legal values of equality between women and men, as well as non-discrimination on which the Union is founded, article 2 of the Treaty on European Union. as expressed in the above-mentioned Treaties. In addition to that to contribute to women's and men's liberation and to the development of society.

  • 22.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 23.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Hjulburna oskyddade trafikanter på landsväg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this collection of three sub-studies; 1) Two-minus-one bicycle lanes on rural roads, 2) How close is close? and 3) Pilot study on road friction testing for motorcycles, is to highlight any problems that two-wheeled unprotected road users have on Swedish roads. Studies 1 and 2 are about cyclists on country roads, while study 3 is about motorcyclists. Study 1 is a survey of a new road design, two-minus-one rural roads. Study 2 is an experimental study that highlights the issue of the width of a cycle path/hard-shoulder from the perspective of the cyclist. Study 3 is friction measurements carried out on a measurement method that is more adapted to the situation of motorcyclists. The three sub-studies resulted in the following recommendations: i) stretches of rural roads that are intended to be two-minus-one rural roads should be chosen carefully and in places where sight-lines are obscured (by hedgerows, topography, etc.), alternative solutions should be considered. ii) The speed limitation on the two-minus-one rural roads should not exceed 50 km/h. In order to reduce speeding, signage in combination with surveillance and/or infrastructure measures should be considered to reduce speed violations. iii) The introduction of two-minus-one rural roads should be done in dialogue with local populations and preceded by information efforts so that everyone knows what rules apply. iv) A single carriageway cycle path/hard-shoulder on a two-minus-one rural road with mixed traffic should be at least 120 cm laterally from the middle of the bicycle path to the motor vehicles’ carriageway. v) Friction measurements should be linked to the driver's experience of grip. vi) Develops a measurement method/protocol for friction testing where the measurement section is ≥ 1 m in different levels of wetness on the roadway, which can also be used to evaluate blackspots on road sections that are linked to “temporary” road repairs.

  • 24.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Traffic safety for cyclists in roundabouts: geometry, traffic, and priority rules: A literature review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review of roundabout geometric characteristics and traffic management regulations addressing the safety for cyclists. The literature review examined articles from 1990 until 2017. An article was considered relevant as follows:

    • Investigation of the relationship between roundabout geometric design and cyclist accidents (2 articles)
    • Investigation of the relationship between roundabout geometric design and cyclist operation/interaction with other traffic, i.e., motorised vehicles (4 articles)
    • Investigation of any safety impacts of the conversion of intersections into roundabouts for cyclists (9 articles)
    • Psychological/behavioural studies of cycling at roundabouts (5 articles)

    The results show that the impact on cyclist safety is not as clear as for motorised vehicles with some studies showing a deterioration for cyclists (Jensen, 2013; 2016; Daniels et al. 2008; 2009). The cycle facility type (e.g., mixed traffic, cycle lane, and cycle path) and the priority rules have the potential to increase safety for cyclists. For example, the priority rules vary among different countries and within some countries.

    From the literature, which priority rules provide the safest cycling environment remain unclear in terms of number of accidents and injury severity. The identified priority strategies are: (i) cyclists always yield to vehicles, (ii) shared yielding responsibility, (iii) vehicles always yield to cyclists, and (iv) an alternate solution ‘with’ and ‘without’ priority based on special characteristics (e.g., presence of vulnerable road users, geographic location). Furthermore, cycle lanes are the most unsafe cycle facility compared to mixed traffic or cycle paths. Likewise, coloured cycle lanes at roundabouts are less safe than non-coloured cycle lanes (Jensen, 2016). On the other hand, it is recommended that cyclists should ride in front of or behind vehicles in mixed traffic at single-lane roundabouts and in the middle of the lane, and should not ride parallel with vehicles (Cumming, 2012).

    Some research directions are highlighted. The impact of the different priority rules needs further investigation in terms of number of accidents and injury severity. Some questions to study include: (i) what the best priority strategy is; (ii) what special road markings should be used; (iii) what the best distance is to place the cycle path from the circulatory roadway. Another research direction is to establish the impact on cyclist safety of cycle lanes at roundabouts. Finally, the impact on traffic safety, by cycling in the middle of the lane, needs further investigation as well.

  • 25.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    A pilot study aiming to increase speed compliance of taxi drivers in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed is one of the most key factor that increases the accident risk and injury severity (Nilsson, 2004). Therefore, speed limits are set to guide to choose the right speed based on the road environment. However, compliance level is in general low which means that many drivers choose to drive faster than the speed limit when traffic condition is not congested. Mannering (2009) points out that there is a general disrespect to keep speed limits worldwide. An increase in the compliance level of taxi drivers could potentially influence the chosen speed of other drivers on the roads. It is therefore important to study and quantify compliance level of taxi drivers.

    Public authorities (e.g., police, road administration offices) aim to enforce speed compliance levels on public roads. Speed enforcement campaigns can include police speed control interventions, speed camera surveillance, education campaigns. As a part of this pilot study, police officers plan to meet taxi company representatives to discuss current speed compliance levels an agree on new approaches which can increase compliance levels of taxi drivers

    The aim of the study is thus to investigate a new method aiming to increase speed compliance of taxi drivers involving an agreement between the police and taxi representatives.

  • 26.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Effectiveness and acceptability of milled rumble strips on rural two-lane roads in Sweden2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study sought to estimate the effects of centreline milled rumble strips on rural two-lane roads in Sweden in a wide perspective. Traffic safety effects (i.e., fewer crashes and injuries), driver experience, and driver opinions of centreline milled rumble strip usage on rural roads are investigated.

    Methods: To evaluate the traffic safety effects, an Empirical Bayes study comparing the outcome before and-after the introduction of rumble strips was conducted. This study is based on data from 2003–2012 from the Swedish national traffic accident database, STRADA. To capture driver experience and opinions about milled centreline rumble strips, focus groups and road-side interviews were performed.

    Results: The results indicate a significant decrease in all types of severe injury crashes, a 20% (±13%) reduction in the number of fatalities and seriously injured people (all crash types) and a 27% (±18%) reduction in the number of fatalities and severely injured people in single-vehicle crashes. Participants in focus groups and road-side interviews generally favoured centreline rumble strips on rural roads, and up to 90% of the interviewed motorcyclists and commuters stated that the rumble strips would help improve traffic safety.

    Conclusions: Rumble strips in the centre of two-lane rural roads are a countermeasure to help drivers who are unintentionally about to leave the lane, for example, due to sleepiness or inattention. Based on the results of this study, installing centreline milled rumble strips on two-lane rural roads 8–10 meters wide is a measure to consider to increase safety.

  • 27.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort: resultat från mätningar 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to report the changes between the years 2015 and 2016 concerning driver speed levels and speed limit compliance on the main municipality streets. The year 2012 was the starting year for the measurement series, and in 2016 a fourth follow-up was performed. Only the main municipality streets with speed limits between 40 km/h and 70 km/h were included. The measurements were made during the month of September in 23 different municipalities in Sweden.

    The results show that in 2016 the space-mean-speed for all vehicles on the main municipality roads was 47 km/h. With respect to speed violations, overall, 67 per cent of drivers obeyed the speed limit 2016. The lowest speed limit compliance was found on roads with a speed limit of 40 km/h, where only 53 per cent of the traffic obeyed the speed limit; 68 per cent obeyed the speed limit on 50 km/h roads, 72 per cent on 60 km/h roads, and 78 per cent on 70 km/h roads.

  • 28.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort: resultat från mätningar år 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to report the changes between the years 2016 and 2017 concerning driver speed levels and speed limit compliance on the main municipality streets. The year 2012 was the starting year for the measurement series, and in 2017 a fifth follow-up was performed. Only the main municipality streets with speed limits between 40 kilometers per hour and 70 kilometers per hour were included. The measurements were made during the month of September in 23 different municipalities in Sweden.

    The results show that in 2017 the space-mean-speed for all vehicles on the main municipality roads was 47 kilometers per hour. With respect to speed violations, overall, 67 per cent of drivers obeyed the speed limit 2017. The lowest speed limit compliance was found on roads with a speed limit of 40 kilometers per hour, where only 53 per cent of the traffic obeyed the speed limit; 66 per cent obeyed the speed limit on 50 kilometers per hour roads, 81 per cent on 60 and 70 kilometers per hour roads.

    In conclusion, the space-mean-speeds in urban areas are below the legal speed limit, but the lack of speed compliance remains a problem, especially on streets with speed limit 40 kilometers per hour. Primarily, the speed limit compliance on roads with lower speed limits must be improved in order to reach the goal of 80 per cent compliance by 2020.

  • 29.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Säker framkomlighet: sammanfattande slutrapport 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report consolidates evaluations performed within the project “Safe accessibility” on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration. Four different measures implemented on rural roads in Sweden with the aim to increase traffic safety and improve accessibility are investigated. The measures are; milled centerline rumble strips on rural 2-lane roads, shoulder rumble strips on motorways, narrow2+1 roads with median barrier and divided roads (painted 2+1 roads with median rumble strips).As regards traffic safety, all four measures show reductions in the number of fatalities and seriously injured. For milled centerline rumble strips on rural 2-lane roads, they do not have a confining effect on traffic and have no adverse effect on the rate of rutting. For barrier separated roads (2+1), the results indicated that for Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) levels greater than 8,000 vehicles, the annual rut depth development rate is about 25 percent higher than for conventional rural roads. With lower AADT levels, differences reduced to between 10–15 percent. Comparisons between divided roads and conventional roads only showed higher annual rut development rates for AADT levels greater than 8,000 vehicles. A study about the effects and consequences of different types of milled rumble strips showed that there are no known arguments for not using the sinus rumble strips. However, further studies on the impact of drivers of heavy vehicles are recommended. Studies of the effect on traffic efficiency showed that the proportion of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) is an important factor to consider in the design of narrow 2+1 roads and the proportion of HGVs need to be taken into account in the selection of the length of overtaking lanes.

  • 30.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Användning av eftergivliga belysningsstolpar: litteraturstudie och olycksstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to enhance knowledge of impact-friendly, resilient or yielding lighting columns. The project incorporates an international literature review, followed by an enhanced view of utility for Swedish society by the selection and use of resilient lighting columns. Finally, an accident study of lighting columns is included.

    Results from the literature study show an earlier and more frequent use of resilient lighting columns in the Nordic countries and the USA than for example Great Britain. Passively safe and resilient columns should be used in order to reduce injury risk. It is a main recommendation to primarily remove objects of obvious danger from the roadside environment, and when impossible use some type of passively safe resilient or yielding road equipment instead. Cost benefit analyses in several countries have shown a positive traffic safety result for passively safe columns, except for roads with very low traffic volume or low speed.

    The accident study, based on 6 000 injured persons, shows that on the rural state road network, most of the column collisions occur on roads with speed limit 70 kilometer per hour (35%), followed by 50 kilometer per hour (25%). On urban municipality roads, most accidents occur at speed limit 50 kilometer per hour (58%), followed by 70 kilometer per hour (13%).

  • 31.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to individual vehicle speeds2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 103, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden.

    The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents.

    In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the Exponential model at individual vehicle level would require more data on the individual level from a range of international studies.

  • 32.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Traffic safety effects of new speed limits in Sweden2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of speed, both positive and negative, make speed a primary target for policy action. Driving speeds affect the risk of being involved in a crash and the injury severity as well as the noise and exhaust emissions. Starting 2008, the Swedish Transport Administration performed a review of the speed limits on the national rural road network. This review resulted in major changes of the speed limits on the rural road network. It was predominantly roads with a low traffic safety standard and unsatisfactory road sides that were selected for reduced speed limits, as well as roads with a good traffic safety record being selected for an increase in speed limits. During 2008 and 2009, speed limit changed on approximately 20,500 km of roads, out of which approximately 2700 km were assigned an increase, and 17,800 km were assigned a reduction in speed limits. The aim of this study is predominantly to describe and analyse the longterm traffic safety effect of increased, as well as, reduced speed limits, but also to analyse the changes in actual driving speeds due to the changed speed limits. Traffic safety effects are investigated by means of a before and after study with control group and the effects on actual mean speeds are measured by a sampling survey in which speed was measured at randomly selected sites before and after the speed limit changes. Results show a reduction in fatalities on rural roads with reduced speed limit from 90 to 80 km/h where the number of fatalities decreased by 14 per year, while no significant changes were seen for the seriously injured. On motorways with an increased speed limit to 120 km/h, the number of seriously injured increased by about 15 per year, but no significant changes were seen for the number of deaths. The number of seriously injured increased on all types of motorways, but the worst development was seen for narrow motorways (21.5m wide). For 2 + 1 roads (a continuous three-lane cross-section with alternating passing lanes and the two directions of travel separated by a median barrier) with decreased speed limit from 110 to 100 km/h, the seriously injured decreased by about 16 per year. As regards the change of mean speeds, a decrease in speed limit with 10 km/h led to a decrease of mean speeds of around 2-3 km/h and an increase of the speed limit with 10 km/h resulted in an increase of mean speed by 3 km/h. In conclusion, the results show that in total about 17 lives per year have been saved on the road network with changed speed limits. For comparison, 397 road users were killed in total during 2008. The number of seriously injured remain in principle unchanged. It should also be noted that the results are obtained for the road network which changed the speed limits during 2008 and 2009, and it is not certain that the results can be generalised to another road network.

  • 33.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter av sänkt bashastighet i tätort till 40 km/tim2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze the traffic safety effects if the default speed limit in urban areas are changed from 50 km/h to 40 km/h. Only accidents involving at least one motor vehicle have been included in the analysis. To estimate the national traffic safety effects, three different scenarios are studied. The scenarios are: (1) All streets in urban areas with speed limit 50 km/h are changed to 40 km/h, (2): 80% of the streets with speed limit 50km/h are changed to 40 km/h, 20% remain at 50 km/h, (3) 80% of the streets with speed limit 50km/h are changed to 40 km/h, 20% change to 60 km/h.

    The results from the national analysis showed that, in the period of 2014–2016, an average of 65 people/year died in urban areas in accidents involving at least one motor vehicle, almost 1 300 were seriously injured and almost 200 very seriously injured. For the three different scenarios studied in the report, it was estimated that scenario 1 has the potential to save about 5 lives, 83 severely injured and 12 very seriously injured per year. For scenario 2, the effects are slightly smaller and about 4 lives per year can be saved, 66 seriously injured and 10 very seriously injured. In scenario 3, approximately 3 lives are saved per year, 55 severely injured and 8 very seriously injured. If larger changes of mean speed could be achieved (i.e. with speed reducing measures like road narrowing, bumps, enforcement etc.), larger effects can also be expected for the number of killed and seriously injured. If the mean speed is reduced by 5 or 10 km/h, 10 respectively 17 lives can be saved for scenario 1. When studying three municipalities in more detail, the results show that on the road network with changed speed limit from 50 km/h to 40 km/h, the proportion injured in collisions between unprotected road users and motor vehicles was higher before the change of speed limit than on road network where the speed limit remained 50 km/h.

  • 34.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Evaluation of intensified speed enforcement in Police Region West in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the new methods for increased speed compliance. Both the police's experience, as well as internal and external communication as effects on mean speeds and speed violations are studied. Police in the western region tested a new method during three autumn weeks in 2016.

    The intervention entailed intensified speed enforcement on 13 designated routes and the aim was to reduce mean speed. The intervention focused on three different actions:

    • short manual speed controls (20 minutes) on roads with high speeds and a high accident record
    • civil police cars (so-called pilot cars) focusing on aggressive driving
    • monitoring with mobile speed cameras as a complement to the manual speed controls.

    According to the police’s experiences, the results show that most policemen involved were positive to the intervention overall. It was appreciated that traffic issues appeared on the agenda and the Police received a positive response from the citizens. Basically, they experienced that the 20-minutes method was a good way of working which leads to increased visibility of the Police. The effort also led to more controls than what would have been done otherwise, which was considered as important by the police. Suggestions for improvements are that local police men should be more involved in the selection of roads for enforcement and it was suggested to have several shorter interventions instead of one long.

  • 35.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Utvärdering av intensiferad hastighetsövervakning i Polisregion Väst2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the new methods for increased speed compliance. Both the police's experience, as well as internal and external communication as effects on mean speeds and speed violations are studied. Police in the western region tested a new method during three autumn weeks in 2016.

    The intervention entailed intensified speed enforcement on 13 designated routes and the aim was to reduce mean speed. The intervention focused on three different actions:

    • short manual speed controls (20 minutes) on roads with high speeds and a high accident record
    • civil police cars (so-called pilot cars) focusing on aggressive driving
    • monitoring with mobile speed cameras as a complement to the manual speed controls.

    According to the police’s experiences, the results show that most policemen involved were positive to the intervention overall. It was appreciated that traffic issues appeared on the agenda and the Police received a positive response from the citizens. Basically, they experienced that the 20-minutes method was a good way of working which leads to increased visibility of the Police. The effort also led to more controls than what would have been done otherwise, which was considered as important by the police. Suggestions for improvements are that local police men should be more involved in the selection of roads for enforcement and it was suggested to have several shorter interventions instead of one long.

  • 36.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Han, Sangjin
    Korea Transport Institute (KOTI).
    Special session: Vision Zero and Safe System2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of how to improve traffic safety is an international concern. To stem the road death epidemic, the United Nations have set the target of halving traffic fatalities by 2020. Every year, 1.25 million people are killed in road crashes and up to 50 million are seriously injured. Road crashes kill more people than malaria or tuberculosis and are among the ten leading causes of death. Their economic cost is estimated at 2-5% of GDP in many countries.

    The Vision Zero as well as the Safe System approach and methods offer something for every country and situation - even though some interventions fit better in some countries than others.  The special session about Vision Zero and Safe Systems will highlight and discuss important aspects having been proved effective to decrease road deaths and injuries.

  • 37.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Säker framkomlighet: spårutveckling på mitträfflade, mötesfria och riktningsseparerade vägar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, rut depth development studies were carried out on road sections subjected to three specific types of traffic safety measure. The measures, implemented through the Swedish Transport Administration’s "Safe accessibility" project, included

    1. milled centre-line rumble strips
    2. narrow 2+1 roads with median barrier
    3. divided roads (painted 2+1 roads with median rumble strips)

    The introduction of centre-line rumble strips and barrier separation can result in traffic confinement and cause a reduction in the amount of vehicle lateral wander. This reduction is likely to increase the rate of rutting.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how annual rut development rates and rut area measurements – on conventional 2-lane roads with milled centre-line rumble strips, narrow barrier separated roads and divided roads – were affected by the introduction of these safety measures. With regards to centre-line rumble strips and comparisons between the test and control sections, results indicated that there were sometimes differences in the rut development rates. However, these differences were usually very small and inconsistent. The conclusions that can be drawn from the results are that centre-line rumble strips do not have a confining effect on traffic and have no adverse effect on the rate of rutting.

  • 38.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Cocu, Xavier
    BRRC, Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Saleh, Peter
    AIT, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH.
    Aleksa, Michael
    AIT, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH.
    La Torre, Francesca
    UNIFI, Università di Firenze.
    Nocentini, Alessandro
    UNIFI, Università di Firenze.
    Tucka, Pavel
    CDV, Transport Research Centre.
    Towards a European Guideline for Speed Management Measures in Work Zones2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 3426-3435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed management in work zones is important to ensure that the driver safely can navigate the vehicle through the work zone routing. The ASAP project, Appropriate Speed saves All People, was designed to address this issue, with its specific focus on speed management measures and treatments that increase road safety both for the road workers and the road users. The objective was to provide a best practice document that can be applied across Europe with recommendations on how to effectively manage speed through roadwork zones.

    The guideline provides solutions to help achieving the appropriate speed on different road types and roadworks independently of country. The study showed that most of the speed management measures have some effects on reducing speeds, and even when only minor speed reductions are achieved, these measures may effectively alert drivers to an upcoming roadwork, thereby increasing the safety.

  • 39.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Alkohol och cykling: en multidisciplinär studie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies have shown that alcohol impairment can be a contributing factor in cycling accidents, there is currently relatively little knowledge of the connection(s) between alcohol and cycling. The overall aim of this study was therefore to increase the knowledge of alcohol associated with cycling. The study is divided into two different parts; an analysis of the Swedish Road Administration’s in-deep data on killed cyclists and an interview study analyzed from three different perspectives; a social psychological, an emotional sociological and a phenomenographic. While the analysis of the in-deep data resulted in detailed statistics on the accidents involving alcohol impaired cyclists, the interview study resulted in a deeper understanding of cyclists' beliefs, emotions and perceptions regarding alcohol and cycling. Based on these results, information and/or campaigns to reduce the prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling as well as the amount of alcohol associated with cycling, is recommended. However, the introduction of a legal alcohol limit or improved public transport is not recommended in order to reduce the number of cyclists affected by alcohol and/or to improve the safety of those bicycling during alcohol impairment.

  • 40.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    En modell för säker cykling2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the multi-disciplinary scientific research programme A strong research environment in the field of non-motorised vulnerable road users is to increase our knowledge of unprotected twowheeled or non-motorised road users and their special requirements in the road traffic environment. The aim being to, in the long-term, to contribute to the Swedish national road safety goals. The objective of the Model for Safe Cycling report is to summarise the results and suggested actions from the eight projects that were conducted within the framework of the research programme; a literature study; and other programme related activities, in a conceptual model based on Haddon’s matrix. With a model, in this case, we mean that a list of suggested implementation actions, structured according to Haddon’s matrix and embellished with prerequisites directed towards the cyclist, the bicycle and the road environment. Each of the suggested actions or implementation suggestions, are organised along the chain of events from the prerequisite phase to the crash phase. Stakeholders are identified for each of the suggested actions for implementation. In summary, the results suggest one must look at the (road) transport system as a whole to provide a system for safe cycling. To be able to acquire a holistic approach, cooperation between stakeholders is necessary. Finally, more research is required to find optimal solutions and designs tailored to the actions that must also be evaluated to assure that the desired effects are reached.

  • 41.
    Östh, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Sato, Fusako
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations2017In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 51, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males.

    In this study, a finite element head and neck model of a 50th percentile female was validated in rear impacts. A previously validated ligamentous cervical spine model was complemented with a rigid body head, soft tissues and muscles. In both physiological flexion-extension motions and simulated rear impacts, the kinematic response at segment level was comparable to that of human subjects.

    Evaluation of ligament stress levels in simulations with varied initial cervical curvature revealed that if an individual assumes a more lordotic posture than the neutral, a higher risk of WAD might occur in rear impact. The female head and neck model, together with a kinematical whole body model which is under development, addresses a need for tools for assessment of automotive protection systems for the group which is at the highest risk to sustain WAD.

  • 42.
    Östh, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Development of a 50th percentile female human body model2016In: 2016 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2016, p. 573-575Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 42 of 42
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