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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature suggests that ocular diseases are negatively related to driving performance. The factors associated with safe driving is discussed and perceptual abilities are suggested to be related to crash involvement. The present study will focus on i) perceptual tasks or reaction time tasks and ii) attentional and cognitive tasks. All tasks will be visual and cognitive demanding and the objective is to understand how different visual cognitive tasks are related to driving performance. The motive is to be able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers with visual deficits but also understand how different mental mechanisms are related to safe, or unsafe, driving.

    The reaction time tasks are interesting since the reaction time of participants in the study can be measured when performing the driving task. The participants’ reaction time when an object is possible to detect can be measured i) within the complex driving scenario as well as in tasks ii) mimicking driving and iii) “regular” computerized reaction time tasks such as the Simon task. Hence, the objective is two-folded to develop a simulator based method able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers (among the visual deficit population). Second, to pinpoint the importance of visual reaction time and different cognitive tasks on driving performance.

    The cognitive, attentional demanding tasks are not as analyzed at this point but will be elaborated on in the presentation. The tasks are presented in the method section.

    The summarised data on patients with Glaucoma, Cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy reveal, on a general level, is that ocular diseases impair driver performance.  The literature also suggests, for instance, that not all Glaucoma patients fail on-road driving tests. In summary, the majority of the research literature results indicate, a) general decline in driving performance due to a visual impairment, but b) this is not true for all patients with the same visual deficit.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nybom, Per
    ITRA AB.
    Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the seat belt usage in buses, to evaluate to what extent information about the need to use the seat belt are provided and to understand travelers' incentives of seatbelt usage. Based on the results the aim was to propose measures to increase the use of a belt when traveling by bus.

    Methods used are observational studies, discussion within focus groups and a web questionnaire. The results from the observation study showed that passenger seat belt usage was 92% in charter service, 50% in commercial liner traffic and 27% in regional liner traffic. The drivers' use was correspondingly 100% in charter service, 79% in commercial liner traffic and 85% in regional liner traffic. The results from the web questionnaire show a lower level of usage. The conclusion is that measures are needed to increase the user rate, especially in line traffic.

    In the observation study, drivers were asked if they remind the passengers to use the seat belt, in the same way the passengers were asked if they have received information when going but charter service or commercial liner traffic. In charter service, 86% experienced they had received information, in commercial liner traffic it was 61% and in regional liner traffic it was 19%. The conclusion is that there are major shortcomings in the information on the belt, which should be addressed, especially in line traffic.

    The decision to use a belt or not is individual. Factors like how old you are, what experience you're having on a safe bus, what kind of road you travel, when you travel and how you're looking at safety generally plays a part.

  • 5.
    Banks, Victoria A.
    et al.
    University of Southampton.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. University of Southampton.
    O'Donoghue, Jim
    Jaguar Land Rover Research.
    Stanton, Neville A.
    University of Southampton.
    Is partially automated driving a bad idea?: Observations from an on-road study2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 68, p. 138-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automation of longitudinal and lateral control has enabled drivers to become “hands and feet free” but they are required to remain in an active monitoring state with a requirement to resume manual control if required. This represents the single largest allocation of system function problem with vehicle automation as the literature suggests that humans are notoriously inefficient at completing prolonged monitoring tasks. To further explore whether partially automated driving solutions can appropriately support the driver in completing their new monitoring role, video observations were collected as part of an on-road study using a Tesla Model S being operated in Autopilot mode. A thematic analysis of video data suggests that drivers are not being properly supported in adhering to their new monitoring responsibilities and instead demonstrate behaviour indicative of complacency and over-trust. These attributes may encourage drivers to take more risks whilst out on the road. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 6.
    Bazilinskyy, Pavlo
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petrovych, Veronika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dodou, Dimitra
    Delft University of Technology.
    de Winter, Joost C. F.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Take-over requests in highly automated driving: A crowdsourcing survey on auditory, vibrotactile, and visual displays2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 82-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important research question in the domain of highly automated driving is how to aid drivers in transitions between manual and automated control. Until highly automated cars are available, knowledge on this topic has to be obtained via simulators and self-report questionnaires. Using crowdsourcing, we surveyed 1692 people on auditory, visual, and vibrotactile take-over requests (TORs) in highly automated driving. The survey presented recordings of auditory messages and illustrations of visual and vibrational messages in traffic scenarios of various urgency levels. Multimodal TORs were the most preferred option in high-urgency scenarios. Auditory TORs were the most preferred option in low-urgency scenarios and as a confirmation message that the system is ready to switch from manual to automated mode. For low-urgency scenarios, visual-only TORs were more preferred than vibration-only TORs. Beeps with shorter interpulse intervals were perceived as more urgent, with Stevens’ power law yielding an accurate fit to the data. Spoken messages were more accepted than abstract sounds, and the female voice was more preferred than the male voice. Preferences and perceived urgency ratings were similar in middle- and high-income countries. In summary, this international survey showed that people's preferences for TOR types in highly automated driving depend on the urgency of the situation.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 8.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Exploring the suitability of virtual reality for driving simulation2018In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2018 / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Antibes, France, 2018, p. 163-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head mounted displays (HMDs) is an emerging technology and the availability of affordable systems is growing fast. Replacing projector and large screen solutions with head mounted displays may appear as an appealing solution. However, inherent properties and technical limitations of these systems need to be understood and considered before making the leap to virtual reality.

    This paper outlines some of the most fundamental limitations of head mounted displays relevant to this context, both from a technical and human factors perspective. Desirable properties of scenarios and types of studies are deduced, based on these limitations. Finally, a meta analysis is performed on the feasibility of transferring simulator studies found in the literature to platforms with head mounted displays. The results suggest that a noticeable amount (40%) of the investigated simulator studies could likely have been performed with head mounted displays. This number could be increased further with technical advances in display resolution, display technology, reduction in latency, etc.

  • 9.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Pettersson, Emil
    Volvo GTT.
    Model and Road Surface Sensitivity of Longitudinal Performance Based Standards2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based standards (PBS) is a regulation policy to address the complexity of variations in vehicle combinations. It enables a direct way of addressing certain requirements associated with the safety, environment and road network and their implications to the vehicle specific quantities without stipulating vehicle properties.

    Computer-based simulations may be an efficient tool to assess the performance measures. However, using simulations through models in a legislation raise questions of model accuracy and model complexity. What is a required level of modelling details to be used to assess a PBS measure?

    We investigate three level of complexity of models and the impact this have on three longitudinal performance measures; Startability, Gradeablity and Acceleration Capability. Simulations for 10 vehicle combinations are compared with two different engine alternatives. For Nordic countries, slippery road conditions are common during winter conditions. Hence, low friction is included in the comparison.

    The comparison suggested that the complexity could potentially be kept really low, without major loss of accuracy. However, for slippery conditions, a higher levels of complexity might be required.

  • 10.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kusachov, Artem
    Winter testing in driving simulators2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many traffic accidents are due to winter conditions like slippery roads and limited visibility. The road administrators put a lot of effort into snow removal and de-icing the roads, and the vehicle manufacturers have been working with functionality to support drivers in winter conditions for decades.

    Many issues of driving in winter conditions originate in drivers’ behaviours such as risk taking and lack of awareness. Studying drivers’ behaviour in winter conditions in general, and the effect of various countermeasures of the vehicle, would increase the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and could possibly be used to reduce the accident risks. Motion-base driving simulators are tools frequently used for driving behaviour research. However, the validity of the results of such studies depends to a large extent on the realism of the simulation. The purpose of this project was to study winter simulation with the aim to improve the realism of simulator driving in winter conditions.

    Driving in winter is in many ways different from driving in summer. The difference can to a considerable extent be explained by the tire-to-road interaction. Winter driving is typically characterized by softer motion and slower development of tire forces. In the present project two aspects of the motion have been studied, the motion feedback in the simulator and models for tire-to-snow behaviour.

    Vehicle motion during winter driving is characterized by large vehicle body slip angles and the associated yaw motions. Thus, understanding the importance of yaw motion feedback is essential to simulate winter conditions. A study was designed to investigate the impact that lack of yaw motion will have on the driver, and if it alters his driving behaviour. It was found that the yaw motion alters the driving behaviour, implying that it contains vital information for a wide range of driving situations. A second study was carried out to investigate if the rotation centre, which is a consequence of the yaw and lateral motions, can be used to present valuable information about the vehicle state to the driver. Indicative results suggest that the rotation centre of the motion is valuable to the driver, but further studies are needed. The softer and slower motions of winter driving suggest that pre-positioning of the simulator’s motion platform could be performed to improve the motion envelope. A third implementation study performed in the project suggests this.  

  • 11.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lu, Zhenji
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Current insights in human factors of automated driving and future outlook towards tele-operated remote driving services2018In: International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018): Integrating People and Intelligent Systems, January 7-9, 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Springer, 2018, p. 10-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive players regarding differences in terminology, HMI input/outputs, and escalation intervals. Scholarly research is also reviewed pertaining to proactive strategies for driver engagement. Additionally, human factors research and findings will be presented regarding recommendations for situation awareness, human machine interfaces, TOR, as well as shared control concepts. The tutorial will conclude with discussion and brainstorming around outlook toward tele-operated remote driving services (Tele-Driving); what they have to offer beyond assisted/automated driving, autonomous vehicles, and ride-hailing/car-sharing paradigms; as well as the design/conduct of human factors research regarding Tele-Driving.

  • 12.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petrovych, Veronika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Happee, Riender
    Delft University of Technology.
    Looking at drivers and passengers to inform automated driver state monitoring of in and out of the loop2018In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 597, p. 695-707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The “drivenger” aim of the current study was to investigate attentional differentiation of drivers (who are in control) from passengers (who have no control) to inform future driver-in-the-loop monitoring/detection systems and facilitate multiple levels of manual/automated driving. Eye-tracking glasses were worn simultaneously by the driver and front seat passenger on 32 on road trips. Halfway en-route, the passenger was tasked with pretending with their eyes to be driving. Converging with a recent and independent drivenger study, our results found differences of higher probabilities of small saccades and significantly shorter blinks from our drivers and pseudo-drivers. Additionally, a new measure of eye eccentricity differentiated between driver/passenger roles. While naturalistic attentional manipulations may not be appropriately safe/available with actual automated vehicles, future studies might aim to further use the eye behavior of passengers to refine robust measures of driver (in)attention with increasing reductions in measurement intrusiveness and data filtering/processing overhead requirements.

  • 13.
    Dols, Juan F.
    et al.
    University Polytechnic of Valencia, Spain.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

  • 14.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Pereira Cocron, Marta
    TU Chemnitz, Germany.
    Griesche, Stefan
    DLR, Germany.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Troberg, Sonja
    Scania, Sweden.
    Zanovello, Luca
    Ducati, Italy.
    Collecting end-users needs regarding driver state-based automation in the ADAS&ME project2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU funded project ADAS&ME (Adaptive ADAS to support incapacitated drivers & Mitigate Effectively risks through tailor made HMI under automation) develops adapted Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. A web based survey was designed to collect the opinion of ADAS&ME end-users about automated functions that could support the driver/rider during different driving tasks. In total, 1094 persons answered the survey. The results reveal that most of the participants had heard of automated functions previously, and that about half of them also had experience using such functions. Several participants indicated concerns about data security. Furthermore, the results give an insight into how end-users perceive automation and what they see as advantages and limitations for implementation of automated driving systems corresponding to the ADAS&MEs’ goals.

  • 15.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Pereira Cocron, Marta
    TU Chemnitz.
    Griesche, Stefan
    DLR.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Troberg, Sonja
    Scania.
    Zanovello, Luca
    Ducati.
    Nikolau, Stella
    CERTH.
    Collecting end-user needs regarding driver statebased automation in ADAS&ME project2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. University of Southampton.
    de Winter, Joost
    Delft University of Technology.
    Stanton, Neville A.
    University of Southampton.
    A toolbox for automated driving on the STISIM driving simulator2018In: MethodsX, ISSN 1258-780X, E-ISSN 2215-0161, Vol. 5, p. 1073-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators have been used since the beginning of the 1930s to assist researchers in assessing driver behaviour without putting the driver in harm's way. The current manuscript describes the implementation of a toolbox for automated driving research on the widely used STISIM platform. The toolbox presented in this manuscript allows researchers to conduct flexible research into automated driving, enabling independent use of longitudinal control, and a combination of longitudinal and lateral control, and is available as an open source download through GitHub. The toolbox allows the driver to adjust parameters such as set speed (in 5 kph increments) and time-headway (in steps of 1, 1.5, and 2 s) as well as automation mode dynamically, while logging additional variabless that STISIM does not provide out-of-the-box (time-headway, time to collision). Moreover, the toolbox presented in this manuscript has gone through validation trials showing accurate speed, time-headway, and lane tracking, as well as transitions of control between manual and automated driving. • A toolbox was developed for STISIM driving simulators.• The toolbox allows for automated driving.• Functionality includes tracking of speed, headway, and lane.

  • 17.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • 18.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vinterdäck till cykel: ett jämförande test2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to compare the winter road grip of various bicycle tyres, as well as a pair of unstudded winter tyres, through cycling tests. In addition to grip, other characteristics that could be important to a cyclist, such as rolling resistance and wear resistance, were also tested.

    The tyre’s grip on ice was tested by brake tests and manoeuvring tests indoors in an ice hockey rink. Four different test drivers were used to capture differences in driver behaviour, as well as to get a variation in the cyclist’s weight. The tyre rolling resistance was measured by indoor coast-down tests. Finally, the grip was tested on dry and wet asphalt by outdoor brake tests. Between the various tests, the studded tyres were examined with regard to the number of lost studs. In total, seven different studded tyres, two unstudded winter tyres and a summer tyre were tested.

    The brake tests on dry and wet asphalt could not show any difference in performance between the different tyres. The winter tyres, studded as well as unstudded, had as good grip on asphalt as the tested summer tyre. In the case of ice grip, the two tyres with the highest number of studs, 240, were clearly superior to the others.

    The rolling resistance tests showed differences between the different tyres and it is not the number of studs but rather the rubber properties and the puncture protection that has the greatest impact on the rolling resistance. The wear tests indicated that some of the tested models may be particularly prone to losing studs, but as the tests included only two samples of each tyre model, it is not possible to draw certain conclusions regarding wear resistance.

  • 19.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Comprehensive study of the performance of winter tires on ice, snow, and asphalt roads: The influence of tire type and wear2017In: Tire Science and Technology, ISSN 0090-8657, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 175-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the performance of winter tires on snow, ice, and asphalt. A set of 77 different winter tires were carefully selected for the study. Of these, 27 were new and 50 were worn from real traffic use. All three tire types for winter conditions (Nordic, European, and studded) were represented. All tires have been tested using a mobile tire-testing device for snow and asphalt and using a stationary tire-testing facility for ice. Both devices recorded the tire forces and motions, enabling a close to complete stationary characterization of the tires. In addition, 42 of the tires were tested on a passenger car, where brake performance was evaluated for the three different road conditions. This enables a comparative study of performance between tire types and wear for various winter road conditions. The results suggest that the recorded data represent real vehicle performance. Some conclusions from the measurements are that the effect of wear is consistent between the tire groups and that the performance degradation is most noticeable on studded tires on ice and on European tires on snow.

  • 20.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tunga lastbilars däckanvändning och olycksrisk vintertid2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, it is today regulated that winter tyres must be used on the drive axle of heavy vehicles (total weight in excess of 3,500 kg) during the winter season period, December 1 to March 31, in case of winter conditions. This requirement is based entirely on accessibility, and it is considered that winter tyres on the drive axle provides better conditions for heavy vehicles to go forward in icy and snowy conditions. Previous accident risk studies have not been able to demonstrate that the use of winter tyres instead of summer tyres for heavy vehicles in winter could lead to reduced risk of accidents. In Norway and Finland, the regulations on tyre use for heavy vehicles in winter time has recently been revised. Prior to a discussion of possible regulations in Sweden on winter tyres also on other axles, there is reason to update the previous accident risk studies. The purpose of this study has been to calculate the risk of accidents on ice/snow conditions for comparison between summer and winter tires for heavy trucks. The study was performed according to the method previously used in the VTI studies conducted in 2000 and 2008. This meant that two questionnaires were sent out by the end of the winter 2015/2016. One survey to analyse the vehicle mileage on ice/snow conditions with different combinations of tires, and one questionnaire directed solely to the vehicle owners whose vehicles according Strada during the winter season have been involved in an injury accident. Accident risk calculations were limited to vehicles with a total weight of 16 tons.

  • 21.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Mätning av cykeldäcks friktionsegenskaper som underlag för simuleringsstudier2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project measurements of a bicycle tyre on an asphalt surface have been carried out in the VTI stationary tyre testing facility, in order to provide slip curves describing friction properties of the tyre. The measurement results have then been used to obtain tyre parameters for simulation purposes. The following tyre parameters have been measured: cornering stiffness, camber stiffness, brake slip stiffness and lateral relaxation length.

    The tested tyre generated a maximum friction level of approximately 1.0 on the asphalt. Typical values of the tyre parameters were: normalized cornering stiffness 0.3; standardized camber stiffness 0.01; standard brake slip stiffness 250. Compared to the few previously published measurements on bicycle tyres, cornering stiffness was generally about 50 percent higher than previously reported. The values for camber stiffness correspond well to the values shown by a racing tyre study but are 25–50 percent lower than the values measured on more normal tyres in another study. For brake slip stiffness there are no previous measurements to compare with. Measurement of the lateral relaxation length was unfortunately affected by problems with the measuring equipment and we could not determine the relaxation length with the desired accuracy. From the measurements, we estimate the relaxation length to 200–300 mm for the tested tire, which is a factor 2–3 to greater than reported in the only earlier study that measured relaxation length for bicycle tyres.

  • 22.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cunto, Flavio
    Universidade Federal do Ceara.
    Jacques, Maria Alice Prudêncio
    University of Brasilia.
    Editorial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic injuries and loss of life is one of the major global health problems today with 1.24 million people killed annually, i.e. one person every 25 s is killed in a road crash. Many countries have learnt to mitigate the problems associated with road traffic crashes but there is still much more to be done. Estimates indicate that, unless action is taken over the next 15 years, the number of annual fatalities in road crashes may rise to 2.4 million, with the increase occurring in low and middle-income countries.

    There is a great necessity for global cooperation to stop the growth of traffic fatalities. To reverse this trend, knowledge, information and experience from success stories and good practice must be shared. Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C) is an international conference aiming at increasing road safety globally by providing a platform for this essential knowledge exchange and helping the participating countries to find a good balance between road safety and mobility.

    The foundation of the RS5C is in state of the art research and good practice. By providing a mutual ground for sharing knowledge and a forum to discuss mutual problems and their solutions, researchers, officials and other stakeholders can learn from results, experiences and success stories.

    RS5C aims to be a leading source of research results, information and interaction in the road transport area with a focus on safety and health associated with road transport. This aim is accomplished by cooperation with local as well as global organisations to ensure that RS5C meets local needs with global state of the art. Moreover, RS5C will produce papers of high scientific quality that are open and accessible for everyone.

    The 12 peer-reviewed papers in this special issue cover a wide range of topics, demonstrating a broad spectrum of road safety issues from motorized to non-motorized road users, as well as vehicle, road and environmental conditions.

  • 23.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds our knowledge of truck driver behaviour in and experience of automated truck platooning, focusing on the effect of partially and fully automated truck platoons on driver workload, trust, acceptance, performance, and sleepiness.

    Twenty-four male drivers experienced three conditions in a truck driving simulator, i.e., baseline, partial automation, and full automation: the baseline condition was driving with standard cruise control; partial automation was automated longitudinal control ten metres behind the truck in front, with the driver having to steer; and full automation was automated longitudinal and lateral control. Each condition was simulated in three situations: light traffic, heavy traffic, and heavy traffic plus fog.

    The experiment demonstrated that automation affects workload. For all workload measures, partial automation produced higher workload than did the full-automation or baseline condition. The two measures capturing trust were consistent and indicated that trust was highest under the baseline condition, with little difference between partial and full automation. Driver acceptance of both levels of automation was lower than acceptance of baseline. Drivers rated their situation awareness higher for both partial and full automation than for baseline, although both levels of automation led to higher sleepiness.

    The challenge when implementing truck platooning is to develop a system, including human–machine interaction (HMI), that does not overburden the driver, properly addresses driver sleepiness, and satisfies current legislation. The system also must be trusted and accepted by drivers. To achieve this, the development of well-designed HMI will be crucial.

  • 24.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Performance of High Capacity Vehicles, Winter Versus Summer2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector is facing a major challenge to reduce energy consumption and limit environmental impact; therefore, there is a great interest in increasing the efficiency of the transport system in Sweden, which makes the High Capacity Vehicles (HCVs) an attractive solution. In order to introduce HCVs in Sweden, the existing regulations should be modified; one approach is to use performance based standards (PBS) as in e.g. Australia and Canada. However, it is very important that the winter road conditions in Sweden is considered and a PBS system suitable for Swedish condition is developed. In this paper performance of a selection of HCVs are compared for both summer and winter condition, which shows a strong correlation between the two.

  • 25.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: final report2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden, and ended in Autumn 2017. The purpose of the project was to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from the vehicle, rather than mandating prescriptive length and weight limits. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment were addressed, but the focus has been on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis were performed. This report gathers the outcomes of the project.

  • 26.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings Universitet.
    Camén, Carolina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Linköpings Universitet.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 27.
    Mårdh, Selina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Mårdh, Pamela
    Region Östergötland.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Driving restrictions post-stroke: Physicians' compliance with regulations2017In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on an individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. Information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal.The present study sought to determine physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects.

    Method: A retrospective study of medical records on stroke patients was carried out. The study covered all of the medical records on stroke incidents (n = 342) during a year at a typical medium to large-sized hospital in Sweden.

    Results: A journal entry on driving cessation post-stroke was missing in 81% of the medical records. Only 2% of the patients were scheduled for a follow-up meeting specifically concerning fitness to drive. Significantly more men than women had an entry on driving in the journal.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the Swedish regulations on driving cessation post-stroke were not followed at the participating hospital. It is crucial that all stroke patients receive information on driving cessation because their condition might affect fitness to drive. Analysis of follow-up records showed that there was no consistent method for assessment of a patient's fitness to drive. There was also a gender difference in the material, which warrants further investigation.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Volvo GTT.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo GTT.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    High speed control of long combination heavy commercial vehicles within safe corridors2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main scope of the project was to initiate a technical framework for studying manual and automated high-speed driving of long vehicle combinations (LVCs) in a driving simulator environment.

    The project included implementation and evaluation of vehicle models representing a rigid truck solo (reference vehicle) and an A-double LVC in VTI driving simulator IV (Sim IV). The A-double combination consisted of a 6x4 tractor unit followed by a three-axle semi-trailer, two-axle converter dolly and a second three-axle semi-trailer unit. The total vehicle length of the A-double was 32 metres and the total weight was set to 80 tonnes. The implementation of the vehicle models was evaluated by drivers from Volvo product development. The evaluation was carried out during normal driving conditions, with speeds ranging from 0 to 90 km/h.

    Besides the implementation and evaluation of vehicle models, the project also included a driving simulator study in which manual and automated driving of the A-double have been studied. The participants in the study were 12 professional truck drivers from a haulage contractor and 8 drivers from Volvo product development. The driving scenario consisted of a relatively curvy and hilly single-lane Swedish county road (Road 180), without additional road users and safety critical events. Two automated driving strategies for steering, propulsion and braking were formulated, whereof one of the steering strategies included results from an optimal control based receding horizon approach. The drivers’ manual lane keeping and speed profiles were recorded for post-analysis. In addition, the drivers’ subjective acceptance of automated driving trajectories was also collected.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Laine, Leo
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    On actions of long combination vehicle drivers prior to lane changes in dense highway traffic: A driving simulator study2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 55, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address drivers’ actions prior to mandatory lane changes of long combination vehicles in dense highway traffic. The studied driver actions were: turn indicator activation, speed reduction and lateral intrusion. We categorised and compared the drivers’ actions with respect to the surrounding traffic cooperation and the level of urgency. Urgency here was based on the remaining distance to a targeted exit ramp. The results show that when the subject vehicle is close to the exit ramp, drivers used speed reduction significantly more than when the vehicle is further away. No significant difference was found for the use of lateral intrusion considering the distance to the exit ramp. As regards traffic cooperation, significant differences were found for both speed reduction and lateral intrusion. The drivers’ speed reduction and lateral intrusion were significantly greater when the surrounding traffic cooperation was low.

  • 30.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andhill, Carl Johan
    Dynagraph.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication presents a project aiming to develop virtual representations of real roads for use in driving simulators. The development was done in order to enable assessments of new systems on existing and well known roads in a driving simulator, and will increase the external validity of virtual testing. Furthermore, the usage of the virtual model of such roads makes the simulator results better comparable to earlier performed or later following road tests. The roads connecting Göteborg-Borås-Alingsås-Göteborg were selected. The purpose for this is due to their proximity to the vehicle industry in west Sweden and to the test tracks “Hällered” and “AstaZero”. However, the tools and methods developed can be used to build a virtual representation of any other road through a surrounding landscape and/or more urban environment. The project was carried out in steps, starting with data collection (investigation and assessment of available data from different sources as well as measurement of road properties) followed by data treatment (remove irrelevant data and errors, filtering, etc.), modelling (mathematical description of road properties) and simulation (selection of data formats for real time simulation).

  • 31.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nyman, Joakim
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

    To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

    With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

    To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

    An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

    An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

    In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

  • 32.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.32016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

    Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

  • 33.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    A lane-change scenario developed for assessment of active safety and ADAS in heavy vehicles: evaluated in a driving simulator study2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles.

    The definition of the lane-change scenario was based on a literature review, and an investigation of lane-change accidents in Sweden.

    A lane-change manoeuvre is in the literature typically described by accepted gap at the initiation of the manoeuvre as well as duration of the manoeuvre and speed during the manoeuvre. The literature review showed that there is a lack of real-world data regarding lane-change manoeuvres with heavy vehicles. The data that exist are collected mainly in the US and for discretionary lane changes, and a distinction between sizes of heavy vehicles is rarely made. Regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles on European level, there is a general lack of useful and reliable accident data. The most comprehensive data are available from the US and show that lane-change accidents account for a large share of accidents involving heavy vehicles.

    The investigation of lane-change accidents was made in the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), on 10 500 police-reported accidents with heavy vehicles involved during the years 2003 to 2013. In STRADA, lane-change accidents are categorized together with overtaking accidents. Therefore, it is not possible to identify lane-change accidents and their share of heavyvehicle accidents directly from STRADA. Instead, lane-change accidents were identified by reading the accident narratives for overtaking accident and rear-end accidents (in total 5 612 accidents). Rearend accidents were included because the manner of collision may resemble lane-change collisions.

  • 34.
    Sedran, Stefano
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Amati, Nicola
    Politecnico di Torino.
    A Heavy Vehicle Dynamics Model for Driving Simulators2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a heavy vehicle dynamics model for driving simulators. The model was thought to be open, with a high level of readability and flexibility for future understanding, modification and use. A stepwise increment of the model complexity was utilized to understand the most contributing factors and to obtain a model capable of running in real-time. The model has been validated objectively using a previously validated model and through subjective evaluation in a driving simulator.

  • 35.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    A case study exploring firefighters’ and municipal officials’ preparedness for electrical vehicles2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study presents a social perspective on new vehicle technology. It explores the self-reported preparedness of the fire departments (i.e., rescue services) in Sweden’s three largest cities regarding rescue operations involving electrical vehicles (EVs).

    Methods: In this multi-method study, in-depth interviews were performed with emergency service officers and municipal officers in each city.

    Results: The results indicate that firefighters have little experience of accidents with EVs and they are learning reactively. The risks were not clearly identified. More knowledge is needed of identifying and disconnecting electricity in EVs. A more efficient way to find information about new vehicles is vital concerning the safety aspect in rescue operations. The level of knowledge about new vehicle technology varied between departments. For the municipal officers, environmental aspects are of most interest, whereas safety and rescue operations involving EVs are rarely addressed. The responsibility for disseminating information about the safe handling of EVs was unclear.

    Conclusion: The fire departments need more resources for education and training to keep up with technical developments and to be proactive. Another desired development is a solution for easy access to vehicle information. Since the environmental issues are setting the agenda, not the safety issues, lesser environment risks could become greater safety risks. We stress the need for various occupational decision making at all levels of society to cooperate in order to take responsibility for the safe introduction for new more environmentally friendly transport vehicle technique and disseminating safety information in a collected and systematic way.

  • 36.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    SLU.
    Göransson, Eva
    SLU.
    Barn och fyrhjulingar: riskacceptans och attityder kring fyrhjulingar på landsbygden ur ett föräldraperspektiv2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was aimed to explore attitudes and behavior among parents with children using ATVs, as well as their experience of incidents and injuries. The results will form the basis for the proposed measures for further actions by different stakeholders. Two focus groups, one with younger people and another with parents as well as an in-depth interview with a distributor of ATVs were performed initially. The interviews were analyzed and resulted in six themes that formed the basis of an interview guide that was used to make nationwide telephone interviews with parents and some of their children (with the permission from parents). 50 telephone interviews were conducted during the period from autumn 2015 to spring 2016. Of those interviewed, 41 were adults and 9 children aged 5–14 years.

    The results were analyzed and the answers for each question were compiled and presented in the report. The analysis revealed eight themes, which are described in the report: 1. The use of ATVs. 2. Risk awareness. 3. The information does not help – “Not us, but the other”. 4. The parents’ perception of children's abilities. 5. The children’s learning. 6. The children’s perspective. 7. Rules and responsibilities 8. What about the risk acceptance? The results showed, among other things the parents were aware of risks, and several showed a risk acceptance but also a strong commitment to children’s safety. A number of draft recommendations to increase the safe use of ATVs is presented in the end of the report.

  • 37.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Åström, Eva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Unga resenärers upplevelser av kollektivtrafiken2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to gain in-depth knowledge of factors that affect the attitude of young travelers and to explore their experience of public transport. Knowledge that can explain why the traveler makes his or her choice to travel or not travel collectively now and in the future, was investigated through three focus group interviews with a total of 24 young people aged 18-20. The survey was conducted in autumn 2016 and was a collaboration with Västtrafik in the Västra Götaland region, organizer of public transport in the region of the second largest city in Sweden.

    The results indicated two main themes: A) The experience of the commute and its relations, describing the situation, what happens and how it is approached, and B) The attitudes towards the trip and its potentials in relation to the commuter’s values and needs. We suggest that the adolescent’s choice in the future will be affected by their experiences and attitudes today.

    The results of this study stress the need to see the content of the trip, and the travelers experience as important. The commute traveling time may be valuable instead of lost, if the trip could be relaxing and with a sufficient amount of integrity for the young commuters. One of the more surprising results were that the young commuters had a generally positive attitude towards the public transports, Västtrafik got a good rating, even though they did not feel like they had another transportation option. The participants had many ideas for improvement presented in the rapport.

  • 38.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Marin-Lamellet, Claude
    IFSTTAR.
    SAFE Move for older drivers: A French-Swedish research initiative2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with the aging of the population, it is crucial for older drivers to keep driving in order to ensure their mobility and autonomy in daily life as long as possible. Driving is an important aspect of maintaining mobility and independence. Driving is a complex task, requiring a range of visual, psychomotor and cognitive abilities. The regulation of driving activity is crucial for continuing to drive in a safe manner. The SAFE MOVE project is based on the hypothesis that a correct estimation of one’s driving ability is necessary to drive safely. The project has identified groups of estimators (correct/under/over) of driving ability by means of questionnaire and driving on-road. Two interventions were tested: simulator-based training program and use of Advanced Driving Assistances Systems (ADAS) on-board vehicle. Both training and the development of ADAS might be two options to support older drivers and prolong their time as active safe drivers.

  • 39.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Karlsson, I. C. MariAnne
    Chalmers.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    End Users’ Acceptance and Use of Adaptive Cruise Control Systems2016In: Human Factors in Transportation: Social and Technological Evolution Across Maritime, Road, Rail, and Aviation Domains / [ed] Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Di Vallicelli, Andrea; Stanton, Neville A.; Landry, Steven J., Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016, p. 243-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Kagawa University.
    Suzuki, Keisuke
    Kagawa University.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Development of a safe driving guidance system that targets 30 km/h zones2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents between vehicles and vulnerable road users, and the senior part of the population particularly, is a traffic safety problem that must be addressed continuously. A safe driving guidance system such as an intelligent speed adaptation system that suppress the speed to prevent and mitigate accidents is an important measure that can address this traffic safety problem. In specific, the accidents targeted in this paper are those that appear in intersections. An intelligent speed adaptation system with acoustic and graphical information that is adapted to the driver’s characteristics to increase the compliance with the guidance provided by the system is developed. Two driving simulator studies were conducted as part of the development procedure. The results of these experiments indicated that a speed restraining effect could be determined of the system and different human-machine-interfaces were compared. The safe driving guidance system was also optimized to driver characteristics and a target value was presented with an optimal value. Implications for system design and human-machine-interaction is discussed.

  • 41. Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Mental models of driving and speed: biases, choices and reality2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a review of research performed by Svenson with colleagues and others work on mental models and their practical implications. Mental models describe how people perceive and think about the world including covariances and relationships between different variables, such as driving speed and time. Research on mental models has detected the time-saving bias [Svenson, O. (1970). A functional measurement approach to intuitive estimation as exemplified by estimated time savings. It means that drivers relatively overestimate the time that can be saved by increasing speed from an already high speed, for example, 90– 130 km/h, and underestimate the time that can be saved by increasing speed from a low speed, for example, 30–45 km/h. In congruence with this finding, mean speed judgments and perceptions of mean speeds are also biased and higher speeds given too much weight and low speeds too little weight in comparison with objective reality. Replacing or adding a new speedometer in the car showing min per km eliminated or weakened the time-saving bias. Information about braking distances at different speeds did not improve overoptimistic judgments of braking capacity, but information about collision speed with an object suddenly appearing on the road did improve judgments of braking capacity. This is relevant to drivers, politicians and traffic regulators.

  • 42.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Effects of ADHD on driver attention and speed, evaluated in a driving simulator2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been considered to have a 3–4 times higher crash risk than control drivers without ADHD. A core issue which has not been properly dealt with is the role of comorbid diagnoses which frequently appear together with ADHD, especially Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), sometimes generically referred to as “conduct problems”. The increased crash risk associated with ADHD diagnosis presented in the literature is often based on studies performed with participants with more than one diagnosis. This means that the comorbidity may be high and, consequently, the effect of ADHD on traffic safety may be overestimated. This has been shown in a meta-analysis presenting a relative risk of 1.30 instead.

    The existing research on drivers with ADHD is unsatisfying when it comes to methodology, specifically concerning inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants. This has led to a misunderstanding of the driving ability for people with ADHD, which has been cited and spread in the literature for two decades. People with ADHD diagnosis might suffer from this misinterpretation and the specific effects of ADHD on driving behavior remain unclear. There is a potential for better control for confounding factors, for exposure (mileage) and for comorbidity, especially CD and ODD.

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in driving behavior between experienced drivers with and without ADHD, respectively.

  • 43.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Malicka, Alicja
    La Trobe University.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology .
    Hickson, Louise
    University of Queensland .
    Wood, Joanne
    Queensland University of Technology .
    Exploring older adults hearing and vision and driving: the Swedish study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to evaluate self-reported driving abilities and self-reported use of visual and hearing aids for driving, among older adults with varying degrees of Hearing Impairment (HI), Vision Impairment (VIA measure of visual processing related to driving performance was also assessed. The following research questions were examined: How are self-reported and clinically measured declines in sensory and cognitive skills associated with: Each other, Level of comfort in various driving situations, and Use of hearing and vision aids when driving.

    Participants included 109 older adults (58 women, 51 men) aged over 60 years (Mage = 69.5 years (SD=5.25), age range: 60—87) holding a valid driver’s license. Tests of vision, hearing and visual processing were performed to collect objective data. All participants filled in a questionnaire covering subjective measures of vision, hearing, driving habits, and use of vision and hearing aids. Correlations were made to examine the relations between objective and subjective measures

  • 44.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving: a literature review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have been proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measuring visual function in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests are increasingly supplemented by cognitive tests.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests.

    The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; available tests and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review: contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View.

    It was also concluded that 1) testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, 2) good visual acuity is not alone sufficient for safe driving, and 3) tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.

  • 45.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine attitudes among older adults in Sweden as regards a possible legislation for medical assessment at license renewal depending on their health status (vision and hearing) and gender.

    Methods: A questionnaire study measuring attitudes towards medical assessments at license renewal and an examination of vision, hearing, and cognitive abilities was conducted by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. 109 participants older than 60 years participated in the study (58 women, 51 men). They were categorized into four groups according to their health status: (1) without any visual or hearing impairment, (2) visual impairment, (3) hearing impairment, and (4) visual and hearing impairment. All data collection was performed in a driving assessment situation.

    Results: The answers showed positive attitudes towards recurring vision test (94% positive) and recurring medical assessments (93% positive). A majority wanted to include tests of visual acuity, contrast vision, and visual field. The most common choice was a starting point of 70 years and an interval of 2–3 years. Gender effects showing that woman were more positive towards some assessment and shorter time intervals between them was revealed. No significant effect of hearing or vision decline was found. Better results on cognitive tests was associated with positive attitudes towards medical testing.

    Conclusions: The participants were positive towards medical assessments at license renewal, indicating that there is an acceptance in the population for such legislation. Even short intervals such as every two or three years were accepted.

  • 46.
    Åkerstedt, Zandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Akutvård under ambulansfärd: naturalistiska data från simulerade typsituationervid körning på testbana2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot project with three substudies (a literature survey, a workshop, and a field experiment at test track) is reported. The intent is to develop realistic and prototypical driving scenarios with associated patient-care tasks, for use in ambulance-simulator studies and training of ambulance personnel, in a future project. The goals were to survey the current knowledge and to collect relevant data on vehicle dynamics and behaviour during simulated emergency scenarios. Prior research has foremost studied the quality of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) during transport and shown that it is difficult to perform high-quality CPR depending on the transport procedure, vehicle type, and the design of the care space. From the workshop, care interventions were chosen for the subsequent field experiment; based on frequency and difficulty. Factors that affect the care interventions during transport were categorised as motion related, design related, road surface status, and cooperation. The field experiment at a test track showed that workload and difficulty in performing the care interventions were rated higher when the transport entailed more and faster speed changes and turns. Motion-related factors was the highest-rated category with regard to effect on care interventions.

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