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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Freight train model for real-time simulation2017In: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 2: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to increse the freight transport capacity in Sweden, introduction of longer and heavier trains is investigated. To aid this investigation, a freight train simulator was designed and constructed. Here, the implemented freight train dynamics model is described, which includes slip control, a modular wagon model structrue and pneumatic brake system. Further, stable real-time performance of the implemented dynamics model is discussed.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature suggests that ocular diseases are negatively related to driving performance. The factors associated with safe driving is discussed and perceptual abilities are suggested to be related to crash involvement. The present study will focus on i) perceptual tasks or reaction time tasks and ii) attentional and cognitive tasks. All tasks will be visual and cognitive demanding and the objective is to understand how different visual cognitive tasks are related to driving performance. The motive is to be able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers with visual deficits but also understand how different mental mechanisms are related to safe, or unsafe, driving.

    The reaction time tasks are interesting since the reaction time of participants in the study can be measured when performing the driving task. The participants’ reaction time when an object is possible to detect can be measured i) within the complex driving scenario as well as in tasks ii) mimicking driving and iii) “regular” computerized reaction time tasks such as the Simon task. Hence, the objective is two-folded to develop a simulator based method able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers (among the visual deficit population). Second, to pinpoint the importance of visual reaction time and different cognitive tasks on driving performance.

    The cognitive, attentional demanding tasks are not as analyzed at this point but will be elaborated on in the presentation. The tasks are presented in the method section.

    The summarised data on patients with Glaucoma, Cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy reveal, on a general level, is that ocular diseases impair driver performance.  The literature also suggests, for instance, that not all Glaucoma patients fail on-road driving tests. In summary, the majority of the research literature results indicate, a) general decline in driving performance due to a visual impairment, but b) this is not true for all patients with the same visual deficit.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE.
    Skoglund, Tor
    Sweco Society AB.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The Human-Tech Matrix: A Socio-Technical Approach to Evaluation of Automated Transport Systems2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 876, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated transport system has the potential to improve traffic safety and flow, but also to the accessibility and comfort for users of the transport system. Realizing the positive effects with automated transport is about shaping regulatory, organizational and technical systems. Here, appropriate evaluation enables steering efforts in the desired direction. The overall aim of this study was to develop a methodological framework that could identify effects of an automated transport system, and outline methods and metrics for evaluation of these effects. We propose a tentative case-based methodology to define measures of the effects of an automated transport system that will give key stakeholders new possibilities to evaluate research and development projects and efforts connected to automation of the transport system, and thereby manage these in a human-centered direction.

  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nybom, Per
    ITRA AB.
    Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the seat belt usage in buses, to evaluate to what extent information about the need to use the seat belt are provided and to understand travelers' incentives of seatbelt usage. Based on the results the aim was to propose measures to increase the use of a belt when traveling by bus.

    Methods used are observational studies, discussion within focus groups and a web questionnaire. The results from the observation study showed that passenger seat belt usage was 92% in charter service, 50% in commercial liner traffic and 27% in regional liner traffic. The drivers' use was correspondingly 100% in charter service, 79% in commercial liner traffic and 85% in regional liner traffic. The results from the web questionnaire show a lower level of usage. The conclusion is that measures are needed to increase the user rate, especially in line traffic.

    In the observation study, drivers were asked if they remind the passengers to use the seat belt, in the same way the passengers were asked if they have received information when going but charter service or commercial liner traffic. In charter service, 86% experienced they had received information, in commercial liner traffic it was 61% and in regional liner traffic it was 19%. The conclusion is that there are major shortcomings in the information on the belt, which should be addressed, especially in line traffic.

    The decision to use a belt or not is individual. Factors like how old you are, what experience you're having on a safe bus, what kind of road you travel, when you travel and how you're looking at safety generally plays a part.

  • 7.
    Banks, Victoria A.
    et al.
    University of Southampton.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. University of Southampton.
    O'Donoghue, Jim
    Jaguar Land Rover Research.
    Stanton, Neville A.
    University of Southampton.
    Is partially automated driving a bad idea?: Observations from an on-road study2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 68, p. 138-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automation of longitudinal and lateral control has enabled drivers to become “hands and feet free” but they are required to remain in an active monitoring state with a requirement to resume manual control if required. This represents the single largest allocation of system function problem with vehicle automation as the literature suggests that humans are notoriously inefficient at completing prolonged monitoring tasks. To further explore whether partially automated driving solutions can appropriately support the driver in completing their new monitoring role, video observations were collected as part of an on-road study using a Tesla Model S being operated in Autopilot mode. A thematic analysis of video data suggests that drivers are not being properly supported in adhering to their new monitoring responsibilities and instead demonstrate behaviour indicative of complacency and over-trust. These attributes may encourage drivers to take more risks whilst out on the road. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 8.
    Bazilinskyy, Pavlo
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petrovych, Veronika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dodou, Dimitra
    Delft University of Technology.
    de Winter, Joost C. F.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Take-over requests in highly automated driving: A crowdsourcing survey on auditory, vibrotactile, and visual displays2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 82-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important research question in the domain of highly automated driving is how to aid drivers in transitions between manual and automated control. Until highly automated cars are available, knowledge on this topic has to be obtained via simulators and self-report questionnaires. Using crowdsourcing, we surveyed 1692 people on auditory, visual, and vibrotactile take-over requests (TORs) in highly automated driving. The survey presented recordings of auditory messages and illustrations of visual and vibrational messages in traffic scenarios of various urgency levels. Multimodal TORs were the most preferred option in high-urgency scenarios. Auditory TORs were the most preferred option in low-urgency scenarios and as a confirmation message that the system is ready to switch from manual to automated mode. For low-urgency scenarios, visual-only TORs were more preferred than vibration-only TORs. Beeps with shorter interpulse intervals were perceived as more urgent, with Stevens’ power law yielding an accurate fit to the data. Spoken messages were more accepted than abstract sounds, and the female voice was more preferred than the male voice. Preferences and perceived urgency ratings were similar in middle- and high-income countries. In summary, this international survey showed that people's preferences for TOR types in highly automated driving depend on the urgency of the situation.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 10.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Exploring the suitability of virtual reality for driving simulation2018In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2018 / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Antibes, France, 2018, p. 163-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head mounted displays (HMDs) is an emerging technology and the availability of affordable systems is growing fast. Replacing projector and large screen solutions with head mounted displays may appear as an appealing solution. However, inherent properties and technical limitations of these systems need to be understood and considered before making the leap to virtual reality.

    This paper outlines some of the most fundamental limitations of head mounted displays relevant to this context, both from a technical and human factors perspective. Desirable properties of scenarios and types of studies are deduced, based on these limitations. Finally, a meta analysis is performed on the feasibility of transferring simulator studies found in the literature to platforms with head mounted displays. The results suggest that a noticeable amount (40%) of the investigated simulator studies could likely have been performed with head mounted displays. This number could be increased further with technical advances in display resolution, display technology, reduction in latency, etc.

  • 11.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Pettersson, Emil
    Volvo GTT.
    Model and Road Surface Sensitivity of Longitudinal Performance Based Standards2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based standards (PBS) is a regulation policy to address the complexity of variations in vehicle combinations. It enables a direct way of addressing certain requirements associated with the safety, environment and road network and their implications to the vehicle specific quantities without stipulating vehicle properties.

    Computer-based simulations may be an efficient tool to assess the performance measures. However, using simulations through models in a legislation raise questions of model accuracy and model complexity. What is a required level of modelling details to be used to assess a PBS measure?

    We investigate three level of complexity of models and the impact this have on three longitudinal performance measures; Startability, Gradeablity and Acceleration Capability. Simulations for 10 vehicle combinations are compared with two different engine alternatives. For Nordic countries, slippery road conditions are common during winter conditions. Hence, low friction is included in the comparison.

    The comparison suggested that the complexity could potentially be kept really low, without major loss of accuracy. However, for slippery conditions, a higher levels of complexity might be required.

  • 12.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kusachov, Artem
    Winter testing in driving simulators2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many traffic accidents are due to winter conditions like slippery roads and limited visibility. The road administrators put a lot of effort into snow removal and de-icing the roads, and the vehicle manufacturers have been working with functionality to support drivers in winter conditions for decades.

    Many issues of driving in winter conditions originate in drivers’ behaviours such as risk taking and lack of awareness. Studying drivers’ behaviour in winter conditions in general, and the effect of various countermeasures of the vehicle, would increase the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and could possibly be used to reduce the accident risks. Motion-base driving simulators are tools frequently used for driving behaviour research. However, the validity of the results of such studies depends to a large extent on the realism of the simulation. The purpose of this project was to study winter simulation with the aim to improve the realism of simulator driving in winter conditions.

    Driving in winter is in many ways different from driving in summer. The difference can to a considerable extent be explained by the tire-to-road interaction. Winter driving is typically characterized by softer motion and slower development of tire forces. In the present project two aspects of the motion have been studied, the motion feedback in the simulator and models for tire-to-snow behaviour.

    Vehicle motion during winter driving is characterized by large vehicle body slip angles and the associated yaw motions. Thus, understanding the importance of yaw motion feedback is essential to simulate winter conditions. A study was designed to investigate the impact that lack of yaw motion will have on the driver, and if it alters his driving behaviour. It was found that the yaw motion alters the driving behaviour, implying that it contains vital information for a wide range of driving situations. A second study was carried out to investigate if the rotation centre, which is a consequence of the yaw and lateral motions, can be used to present valuable information about the vehicle state to the driver. Indicative results suggest that the rotation centre of the motion is valuable to the driver, but further studies are needed. The softer and slower motions of winter driving suggest that pre-positioning of the simulator’s motion platform could be performed to improve the motion envelope. A third implementation study performed in the project suggests this.  

  • 13.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lu, Zhenji
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Current insights in human factors of automated driving and future outlook towards tele-operated remote driving services2018In: International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018): Integrating People and Intelligent Systems, January 7-9, 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Springer, 2018, p. 10-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive players regarding differences in terminology, HMI input/outputs, and escalation intervals. Scholarly research is also reviewed pertaining to proactive strategies for driver engagement. Additionally, human factors research and findings will be presented regarding recommendations for situation awareness, human machine interfaces, TOR, as well as shared control concepts. The tutorial will conclude with discussion and brainstorming around outlook toward tele-operated remote driving services (Tele-Driving); what they have to offer beyond assisted/automated driving, autonomous vehicles, and ride-hailing/car-sharing paradigms; as well as the design/conduct of human factors research regarding Tele-Driving.

  • 14.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petrovych, Veronika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Happee, Riender
    Delft University of Technology.
    Looking at drivers and passengers to inform automated driver state monitoring of in and out of the loop2018In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 597, p. 695-707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The “drivenger” aim of the current study was to investigate attentional differentiation of drivers (who are in control) from passengers (who have no control) to inform future driver-in-the-loop monitoring/detection systems and facilitate multiple levels of manual/automated driving. Eye-tracking glasses were worn simultaneously by the driver and front seat passenger on 32 on road trips. Halfway en-route, the passenger was tasked with pretending with their eyes to be driving. Converging with a recent and independent drivenger study, our results found differences of higher probabilities of small saccades and significantly shorter blinks from our drivers and pseudo-drivers. Additionally, a new measure of eye eccentricity differentiated between driver/passenger roles. While naturalistic attentional manipulations may not be appropriately safe/available with actual automated vehicles, future studies might aim to further use the eye behavior of passengers to refine robust measures of driver (in)attention with increasing reductions in measurement intrusiveness and data filtering/processing overhead requirements.

  • 15.
    De Saxe, Christopher
    et al.
    WITS - University of the Witwatersrand.
    Kural, Karel
    HAN University of Applied Sciences.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Linköpings Universitet.
    Schmidt, Franziska
    IFSTTAR/MAST/EMGCU.
    Van Geem, Carl
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Robert, Berman
    WITS - University of the Witwatersrand.
    Woodrooffe, John
    University of Michigan.
    Cebon, David
    CAM - University of Cambridge.
    FALCON III: Defining a performance-based standards framework for high capacity vehicles in Europe2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The FALCON project (“Freight and Logistics in a Multimodal Context”) is a collaborative effort funded by the Conference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR), and has set out to address ambitious carbon emission reduction targets set by the European Commission. A primary goal of the project is to define a potential Performance-Based Standards (PBS) framework for cross-border road freight transport in Europe. First, a representative fleet of heavy vehicle combinations carrying modular loading units was formulated in collaboration with industry. The fleet was then simulated against a wide range of potential performance standards sourced from various countries. These findings together with expert opinion were then used to draft recommendations for a PBS framework for Europe.

  • 16.
    Dols, Juan F.
    et al.
    University Polytechnic of Valencia, Spain.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

  • 17.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Pereira Cocron, Marta
    TU Chemnitz, Germany.
    Griesche, Stefan
    DLR, Germany.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Troberg, Sonja
    Scania, Sweden.
    Zanovello, Luca
    Ducati, Italy.
    Collecting end-users needs regarding driver state-based automation in the ADAS&ME project2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU funded project ADAS&ME (Adaptive ADAS to support incapacitated drivers & Mitigate Effectively risks through tailor made HMI under automation) develops adapted Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. A web based survey was designed to collect the opinion of ADAS&ME end-users about automated functions that could support the driver/rider during different driving tasks. In total, 1094 persons answered the survey. The results reveal that most of the participants had heard of automated functions previously, and that about half of them also had experience using such functions. Several participants indicated concerns about data security. Furthermore, the results give an insight into how end-users perceive automation and what they see as advantages and limitations for implementation of automated driving systems corresponding to the ADAS&MEs’ goals.

  • 18.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Pereira Cocron, Marta
    TU Chemnitz.
    Griesche, Stefan
    DLR.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Troberg, Sonja
    Scania.
    Zanovello, Luca
    Ducati.
    Nikolau, Stella
    CERTH.
    Collecting end-user needs regarding driver statebased automation in ADAS&ME project2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. University of Southampton.
    de Winter, Joost
    Delft University of Technology.
    Stanton, Neville A.
    University of Southampton.
    A toolbox for automated driving on the STISIM driving simulator2018In: MethodsX, ISSN 1258-780X, E-ISSN 2215-0161, Vol. 5, p. 1073-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators have been used since the beginning of the 1930s to assist researchers in assessing driver behaviour without putting the driver in harm's way. The current manuscript describes the implementation of a toolbox for automated driving research on the widely used STISIM platform. The toolbox presented in this manuscript allows researchers to conduct flexible research into automated driving, enabling independent use of longitudinal control, and a combination of longitudinal and lateral control, and is available as an open source download through GitHub. The toolbox allows the driver to adjust parameters such as set speed (in 5 kph increments) and time-headway (in steps of 1, 1.5, and 2 s) as well as automation mode dynamically, while logging additional variabless that STISIM does not provide out-of-the-box (time-headway, time to collision). Moreover, the toolbox presented in this manuscript has gone through validation trials showing accurate speed, time-headway, and lane tracking, as well as transitions of control between manual and automated driving.

    • A toolbox was developed for STISIM driving simulators.
    • The toolbox allows for automated driving.
    • Functionality includes tracking of speed, headway, and lane.
  • 20.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • 21.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Prognosmodell för framtida resurs- och kompetensbehov inom järnvägsbranschen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the 2018–2029 National Plan for the Transport System, SEK 125 billion are to be set aside for the operation, maintenance and reinvestments of state railways during that period. This is an increase of about 40 percent compared with the corresponding plan for 2014–2025. Increased funding implies a greater volume of activities and indications have been received from players in the railway industry that all the resources and competences required to carry out planned railway, underground and tramway projects are not available. The Swedish Transport Administration therefore initiated a work process to produce a practical and useful forecast model that would predict the future resource and competence needs of the entire railway industry. Considering the complex structure of the railway industry, the wide variety of areas of activity and all the data (which was gathered manually for this project) needed for a forecast model, it transpired that the work task could not be completed within the framework of the project.

    The purpose of the project and this report has therefore been limited to suggesting a structure for the forecast model and, by using examples of four types of project - replacement of switches, replacement of tracks, building of passing loops, and the extension of double tracks - showing how the demand for resources and competences can be forecast. No analysis has been made of the supply side, that is, the current availability of manpower, retirements and study programmes. The reason for this is because there are no statistics that can be readily used to specify these parameters specifically for all the occupational groups and areas of activity of the railway industry. Because of this, the drafted version of the forecast model cannot be linked to the supply side and therefore it cannot show which occupational groups are expected to have a surplus or deficit of resources and competences.

  • 22.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vinterdäck till cykel: ett jämförande test2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to compare the winter road grip of various bicycle tyres, as well as a pair of unstudded winter tyres, through cycling tests. In addition to grip, other characteristics that could be important to a cyclist, such as rolling resistance and wear resistance, were also tested.

    The tyre’s grip on ice was tested by brake tests and manoeuvring tests indoors in an ice hockey rink. Four different test drivers were used to capture differences in driver behaviour, as well as to get a variation in the cyclist’s weight. The tyre rolling resistance was measured by indoor coast-down tests. Finally, the grip was tested on dry and wet asphalt by outdoor brake tests. Between the various tests, the studded tyres were examined with regard to the number of lost studs. In total, seven different studded tyres, two unstudded winter tyres and a summer tyre were tested.

    The brake tests on dry and wet asphalt could not show any difference in performance between the different tyres. The winter tyres, studded as well as unstudded, had as good grip on asphalt as the tested summer tyre. In the case of ice grip, the two tyres with the highest number of studs, 240, were clearly superior to the others.

    The rolling resistance tests showed differences between the different tyres and it is not the number of studs but rather the rubber properties and the puncture protection that has the greatest impact on the rolling resistance. The wear tests indicated that some of the tested models may be particularly prone to losing studs, but as the tests included only two samples of each tyre model, it is not possible to draw certain conclusions regarding wear resistance.

  • 23.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Comprehensive study of the performance of winter tires on ice, snow, and asphalt roads: The influence of tire type and wear2017In: Tire Science and Technology, ISSN 0090-8657, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 175-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the performance of winter tires on snow, ice, and asphalt. A set of 77 different winter tires were carefully selected for the study. Of these, 27 were new and 50 were worn from real traffic use. All three tire types for winter conditions (Nordic, European, and studded) were represented. All tires have been tested using a mobile tire-testing device for snow and asphalt and using a stationary tire-testing facility for ice. Both devices recorded the tire forces and motions, enabling a close to complete stationary characterization of the tires. In addition, 42 of the tires were tested on a passenger car, where brake performance was evaluated for the three different road conditions. This enables a comparative study of performance between tire types and wear for various winter road conditions. The results suggest that the recorded data represent real vehicle performance. Some conclusions from the measurements are that the effect of wear is consistent between the tire groups and that the performance degradation is most noticeable on studded tires on ice and on European tires on snow.

  • 24.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tunga lastbilars däckanvändning och olycksrisk vintertid2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, it is today regulated that winter tyres must be used on the drive axle of heavy vehicles (total weight in excess of 3,500 kg) during the winter season period, December 1 to March 31, in case of winter conditions. This requirement is based entirely on accessibility, and it is considered that winter tyres on the drive axle provides better conditions for heavy vehicles to go forward in icy and snowy conditions. Previous accident risk studies have not been able to demonstrate that the use of winter tyres instead of summer tyres for heavy vehicles in winter could lead to reduced risk of accidents. In Norway and Finland, the regulations on tyre use for heavy vehicles in winter time has recently been revised. Prior to a discussion of possible regulations in Sweden on winter tyres also on other axles, there is reason to update the previous accident risk studies. The purpose of this study has been to calculate the risk of accidents on ice/snow conditions for comparison between summer and winter tires for heavy trucks. The study was performed according to the method previously used in the VTI studies conducted in 2000 and 2008. This meant that two questionnaires were sent out by the end of the winter 2015/2016. One survey to analyse the vehicle mileage on ice/snow conditions with different combinations of tires, and one questionnaire directed solely to the vehicle owners whose vehicles according Strada during the winter season have been involved in an injury accident. Accident risk calculations were limited to vehicles with a total weight of 16 tons.

  • 25.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Mätning av cykeldäcks friktionsegenskaper som underlag för simuleringsstudier2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project measurements of a bicycle tyre on an asphalt surface have been carried out in the VTI stationary tyre testing facility, in order to provide slip curves describing friction properties of the tyre. The measurement results have then been used to obtain tyre parameters for simulation purposes. The following tyre parameters have been measured: cornering stiffness, camber stiffness, brake slip stiffness and lateral relaxation length.

    The tested tyre generated a maximum friction level of approximately 1.0 on the asphalt. Typical values of the tyre parameters were: normalized cornering stiffness 0.3; standardized camber stiffness 0.01; standard brake slip stiffness 250. Compared to the few previously published measurements on bicycle tyres, cornering stiffness was generally about 50 percent higher than previously reported. The values for camber stiffness correspond well to the values shown by a racing tyre study but are 25–50 percent lower than the values measured on more normal tyres in another study. For brake slip stiffness there are no previous measurements to compare with. Measurement of the lateral relaxation length was unfortunately affected by problems with the measuring equipment and we could not determine the relaxation length with the desired accuracy. From the measurements, we estimate the relaxation length to 200–300 mm for the tested tire, which is a factor 2–3 to greater than reported in the only earlier study that measured relaxation length for bicycle tyres.

  • 26.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cunto, Flavio
    Universidade Federal do Ceara.
    Jacques, Maria Alice Prudêncio
    University of Brasilia.
    Editorial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic injuries and loss of life is one of the major global health problems today with 1.24 million people killed annually, i.e. one person every 25 s is killed in a road crash. Many countries have learnt to mitigate the problems associated with road traffic crashes but there is still much more to be done. Estimates indicate that, unless action is taken over the next 15 years, the number of annual fatalities in road crashes may rise to 2.4 million, with the increase occurring in low and middle-income countries.

    There is a great necessity for global cooperation to stop the growth of traffic fatalities. To reverse this trend, knowledge, information and experience from success stories and good practice must be shared. Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C) is an international conference aiming at increasing road safety globally by providing a platform for this essential knowledge exchange and helping the participating countries to find a good balance between road safety and mobility.

    The foundation of the RS5C is in state of the art research and good practice. By providing a mutual ground for sharing knowledge and a forum to discuss mutual problems and their solutions, researchers, officials and other stakeholders can learn from results, experiences and success stories.

    RS5C aims to be a leading source of research results, information and interaction in the road transport area with a focus on safety and health associated with road transport. This aim is accomplished by cooperation with local as well as global organisations to ensure that RS5C meets local needs with global state of the art. Moreover, RS5C will produce papers of high scientific quality that are open and accessible for everyone.

    The 12 peer-reviewed papers in this special issue cover a wide range of topics, demonstrating a broad spectrum of road safety issues from motorized to non-motorized road users, as well as vehicle, road and environmental conditions.

  • 27.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds our knowledge of truck driver behaviour in and experience of automated truck platooning, focusing on the effect of partially and fully automated truck platoons on driver workload, trust, acceptance, performance, and sleepiness.

    Twenty-four male drivers experienced three conditions in a truck driving simulator, i.e., baseline, partial automation, and full automation: the baseline condition was driving with standard cruise control; partial automation was automated longitudinal control ten metres behind the truck in front, with the driver having to steer; and full automation was automated longitudinal and lateral control. Each condition was simulated in three situations: light traffic, heavy traffic, and heavy traffic plus fog.

    The experiment demonstrated that automation affects workload. For all workload measures, partial automation produced higher workload than did the full-automation or baseline condition. The two measures capturing trust were consistent and indicated that trust was highest under the baseline condition, with little difference between partial and full automation. Driver acceptance of both levels of automation was lower than acceptance of baseline. Drivers rated their situation awareness higher for both partial and full automation than for baseline, although both levels of automation led to higher sleepiness.

    The challenge when implementing truck platooning is to develop a system, including human–machine interaction (HMI), that does not overburden the driver, properly addresses driver sleepiness, and satisfies current legislation. The system also must be trusted and accepted by drivers. To achieve this, the development of well-designed HMI will be crucial.

  • 28.
    Islam, Md Manjurul
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Fröjd, Niklas
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    How well a single-track linear model captures the lateral dynamics of long combination vehicles2019In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of centre-of-gravity heights on the high-speed performance measures of long combination vehicles including truck with double centre-axle trailers, Nordic, and A-double combination vehicles is investigated. The high fidelity three-dimensional models, used in this research, are validated against physical test data. These models are often accurate in terms of the actual dynamic behaviours of the vehicle. On the other hand, the simple yaw-plane single-track models with linear tires require less number of vehicle parameters. In this paper, it is investigated how accurate the estimations of performance measures are at high forward speeds by such single-track linear (STL) models. The influence of load height is especially studied. The high-speed performance-based standard or PBS measures considered are rearward amplifications of both lateral acceleration and yaw velocity; lateral load transfer; yaw damping and high-speed transient offtracking. The results show that tire relaxation has a large effect and it is rather easy to add to an STL model, so it is assumed to be modelled in STL. With realistically high payload and a required accuracy of PBS measures of approximately 10%, only the accuracy of rearward amplification of yaw velocity calculated by the frequency response is fulfilled by the STL. With low payload, the same statement is valid, but with around 5% in required accuracy. The roll dynamics effects are more important than the tire non-linearities.

  • 29.
    Jacobson, Bengt J H
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Sundström, Peter
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fröjd, Niklas
    Islam, Manjurul
    Chalmers.
    An Open Assessment Tool for Performance Based Standards of Long Combination Vehicles2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” (Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden, 2013-2017) have generated a first version of an open PBS assessment tool, OpenPBS. The tool uses models and computations to calculate Performance Based Standards (PBS) measures for combination vehicles. The tool targets Long Combination Vehicles (LCVs, typically 25-35 m) but it can also calculate PBSes for shorter combinations and solo units. This report describes the tool. The report explains the concepts selected for the tool. Future developments are proposed.

  • 30.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Assessing dynamics of heavy vehicles in a driving simulator2018In: Proceedings of DSC 2018 EUROPE 17th Driving Simulation & Virtual Reality Conference & Exhibition September 2018, Antibes, France, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Performance Based Standards Project In Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great interest in increasing the efficiency of the transport system in Sweden, which makes the High Capacity Transports (HCT) an attractive solution. To gain more knowledge about HCT vehicles and their effects on traffic safety, infrastructure and environment, the Swedish government is undertaking a large research program focused on HCT vehicles in Sweden. One of the projects in the HCT program was “Performance based standards for high capacity transport in Sweden”. This project started at the end of 2013 to investigate the applicability of a regulatory framework based on performance based standards in Sweden, taking into consideration the winter road conditions. This paper presents a summary of the main outcomes of the project, which ended in 2017.

  • 32.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Performance of High Capacity Vehicles, Winter Versus Summer2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector is facing a major challenge to reduce energy consumption and limit environmental impact; therefore, there is a great interest in increasing the efficiency of the transport system in Sweden, which makes the High Capacity Vehicles (HCVs) an attractive solution. In order to introduce HCVs in Sweden, the existing regulations should be modified; one approach is to use performance based standards (PBS) as in e.g. Australia and Canada. However, it is very important that the winter road conditions in Sweden is considered and a PBS system suitable for Swedish condition is developed. In this paper performance of a selection of HCVs are compared for both summer and winter condition, which shows a strong correlation between the two.

  • 33.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Almen, Marcus
    SAAB.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Extending behavioral models to generate mission-based driving cycles for data-driven vehicle development2018In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving cycles are nowadays to an increasing extent used as input to model-based vehicle design and as training data for development of vehicles models and functions with machine learning algorithms. Recorded real driving data may underrepresent or even lack important characteristics, and therefore there is a need to complement driving cycles obtained from real driving data with synthetic data that exhibit various desired characteristics. In this paper, an efficient method for generation of mission-based driving cycles is developed for this purpose. It is based on available effective methods for traffic simulation and available maps to define driving missions. By comparing the traffic simulation results with real driving data, insufficiencies in the existing behavioral model in the utilized traffic simulation tool are identified. Based on these findings, four extensions to the behavioral model are suggested, staying within the same class of computational complexity so that it can still be used in large scale. The evaluation results show significant improvements in the match between the data measured on the road and the outputs of the traffic simulation with the suggested extensions of the behavioral model. The achieved improvements can be observed with both visual inspection and objective measures. For instance, the 40% difference in the relative positive acceleration (RPA) of the originally simulated driving cycle compared to real driving data was eliminated using the suggested model.

  • 34.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: final report2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden, and ended in Autumn 2017. The purpose of the project was to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from the vehicle, rather than mandating prescriptive length and weight limits. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment were addressed, but the focus has been on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis were performed. This report gathers the outcomes of the project.

  • 35.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Design cycles for a given driving mission2017In: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 1: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia / [ed] Maksym Spiryagin, Timothy Gordon, Colin Cole, Tim McSweeney, London: CRC Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Representative driving cycles are of key importance for design and dimensioning of powertrains. One approach for generation of representatives driving cycles is to define relevant driving missions which include different street types, obstacles and traffic conditions, and simulate them in a traffic simulation tool. Such a simulation approach will also require representative driver models to generate the speed profiles for the defined driving missions. Feasibility of this approach is investigated in this paper.

  • 36.
    Kural, Karel
    et al.
    HAN University of Applied Sciences.
    de Saxe, Christopher C
    University of Cambridge.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Asp, Thomas
    Trafikverket.
    Kraaijenhagen, Ben
    MAN Truck & Bus AG.
    Pauwelussen, Joop
    Council for Scientific and Insustrial Research, South Africa.
    Smart infrastructure access policy: a highway towards more efficient road transport2018In: Proceedings of the 7th Transport Research Arena (TRA), Vienna, Austria, 16-19 April 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes interim results of the ongoing CEDR-funded "FALCON" project, which aims to introduce a step improvement in transport efficiency in Europe through the definition of a new performance-oriented legislative framework for road freight transport, thus ensuring a proper match between vehicles and the infrastructure. A Smart Infrastructure Access Policy (SIAP) is being developed as the primary method of regulation, in which policy explicitly specifies the performance level required from the road freight vehicle with respect to safety, manoeuvrability, infrastructure loading, and environmental impact, while giving consideration to national topologies and operational conditions. This method is fundamentally different to the prescriptive approach which mandates only mass and dimension limits of vehicles. The prescriptive approach only indirectly and often ineffectively ensures acceptable vehicle performance, as is the case of current prescriptive European legislation (96/53/EC).

  • 37.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bullerskydd med hastighetsdämpande egenskaper2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to demonstrate that a successively denser interval of vertical markings on noise barriers near the road can slow down the mean speed. The concept has the potential to be a cost-efficient alternative or complement to road markings and road signs.

    The method for investigation was a field experiment to measure the speed before, during, and after the time period when the test markings were mounted.

    The results showed no effect of the test markings. It is possible that another type of traffic environment is needed than the type studied in the current field experiment in order to affect the drivers to slow down.

  • 38.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Läsbarhet och synbarhet av vägmärken med reflexfolie: ett fältexperiment i mörker samt enkätstudier2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Road signs are crucial for informing road users and need to be bright enough to be visible and readable, but not so bright that they cause glare. The brightness levels of road signs should also be appropriate for the vast majority of road users.

    Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate readability of road signs of retroreflection classes RA2 and RA3B, with regard to factors affecting the retroreflection per se, amount of light onto the signs, and how well the driver sees. Objective measures of reading distance and visual status, and subjective measures of how different categories of drivers experience that they detect, read, and experience glare from road signs were also to be taken into account.

    Methods: A field experiment measured reading distance (and visual acuity and contrast); and questionnaire studies measured opinions and experiences from different driver categories concerning driving in darkness in general, and about properties of road signs in darkness in particular.

  • 39.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings Universitet.
    Camén, Carolina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Linköpings Universitet.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 40.
    Mårdh, Selina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Mårdh, Pamela
    Region Östergötland.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Driving restrictions post-stroke: Physicians' compliance with regulations2017In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on an individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. Information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal.The present study sought to determine physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects.

    Method: A retrospective study of medical records on stroke patients was carried out. The study covered all of the medical records on stroke incidents (n = 342) during a year at a typical medium to large-sized hospital in Sweden.

    Results: A journal entry on driving cessation post-stroke was missing in 81% of the medical records. Only 2% of the patients were scheduled for a follow-up meeting specifically concerning fitness to drive. Significantly more men than women had an entry on driving in the journal.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the Swedish regulations on driving cessation post-stroke were not followed at the participating hospital. It is crucial that all stroke patients receive information on driving cessation because their condition might affect fitness to drive. Analysis of follow-up records showed that there was no consistent method for assessment of a patient's fitness to drive. There was also a gender difference in the material, which warrants further investigation.

  • 41.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Volvo GTT.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo GTT.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    High speed control of long combination heavy commercial vehicles within safe corridors2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main scope of the project was to initiate a technical framework for studying manual and automated high-speed driving of long vehicle combinations (LVCs) in a driving simulator environment.

    The project included implementation and evaluation of vehicle models representing a rigid truck solo (reference vehicle) and an A-double LVC in VTI driving simulator IV (Sim IV). The A-double combination consisted of a 6x4 tractor unit followed by a three-axle semi-trailer, two-axle converter dolly and a second three-axle semi-trailer unit. The total vehicle length of the A-double was 32 metres and the total weight was set to 80 tonnes. The implementation of the vehicle models was evaluated by drivers from Volvo product development. The evaluation was carried out during normal driving conditions, with speeds ranging from 0 to 90 km/h.

    Besides the implementation and evaluation of vehicle models, the project also included a driving simulator study in which manual and automated driving of the A-double have been studied. The participants in the study were 12 professional truck drivers from a haulage contractor and 8 drivers from Volvo product development. The driving scenario consisted of a relatively curvy and hilly single-lane Swedish county road (Road 180), without additional road users and safety critical events. Two automated driving strategies for steering, propulsion and braking were formulated, whereof one of the steering strategies included results from an optimal control based receding horizon approach. The drivers’ manual lane keeping and speed profiles were recorded for post-analysis. In addition, the drivers’ subjective acceptance of automated driving trajectories was also collected.

  • 42.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Laine, Leo
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    On actions of long combination vehicle drivers prior to lane changes in dense highway traffic: A driving simulator study2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 55, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address drivers’ actions prior to mandatory lane changes of long combination vehicles in dense highway traffic. The studied driver actions were: turn indicator activation, speed reduction and lateral intrusion. We categorised and compared the drivers’ actions with respect to the surrounding traffic cooperation and the level of urgency. Urgency here was based on the remaining distance to a targeted exit ramp. The results show that when the subject vehicle is close to the exit ramp, drivers used speed reduction significantly more than when the vehicle is further away. No significant difference was found for the use of lateral intrusion considering the distance to the exit ramp. As regards traffic cooperation, significant differences were found for both speed reduction and lateral intrusion. The drivers’ speed reduction and lateral intrusion were significantly greater when the surrounding traffic cooperation was low.

  • 43.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cykelvägars friktion: mätningar i fält i jämförelse med cykeldäcks friktion på olika underlag i VTI:s däckprovningsanläggning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Skidding is a common cause for cyclists getting seriously injured in traffic. Neither requirements nor prescribed friction measurement methods for cycleways have been based on the performance of bicycles. There is therefore a need for increased knowledge regarding the friction characteristics of bicycle tyres and the traction between a bicycle tyre and the road surface under different conditions. In this project we have compiled measurements with VTI's portable friction tester, PFT, on cycleways with a variety of road conditions. To relate the PFT friction values to the friction of bicycle tyres, we have also made comparative measurements with bicycle tyres in VTI's stationary tyre testing facility. These show a very good match between the PFT friction values and the maximum lateral friction available for a bicycle tyre. This means that the PFT friction values recorded on cycleways can also be said to represent the friction that a bicycle tyre would perform on the same surface. Our friction measurements on cycleways show that the skid resistance is affected by the road condition, the road surface material, as well as road markings and manhole-covers. Ice and snow cause a significantly lower friction level than at bare conditions. Differences in road conditions mean that different types of cycling infrastructure and different winter maintenance methods result in different friction levels. This means that there may be large variations in friction along one and the same cycle route. The surprise effect and thus the accident risk can then be great. Not only snow, ice and grit, but also leaves, clay and other dirt on the surface might lead to a reduced skid resistance. For the safety of cyclists, it is important to inform about where a slippery condition can occur and to adjust anti-icing actions, road design and construction according to that knowledge.

  • 44.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andhill, Carl Johan
    Dynagraph.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication presents a project aiming to develop virtual representations of real roads for use in driving simulators. The development was done in order to enable assessments of new systems on existing and well known roads in a driving simulator, and will increase the external validity of virtual testing. Furthermore, the usage of the virtual model of such roads makes the simulator results better comparable to earlier performed or later following road tests. The roads connecting Göteborg-Borås-Alingsås-Göteborg were selected. The purpose for this is due to their proximity to the vehicle industry in west Sweden and to the test tracks “Hällered” and “AstaZero”. However, the tools and methods developed can be used to build a virtual representation of any other road through a surrounding landscape and/or more urban environment. The project was carried out in steps, starting with data collection (investigation and assessment of available data from different sources as well as measurement of road properties) followed by data treatment (remove irrelevant data and errors, filtering, etc.), modelling (mathematical description of road properties) and simulation (selection of data formats for real time simulation).

  • 45.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nyman, Joakim
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

    To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

    With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

    To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

    An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

    An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

    In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

  • 46.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.32016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

    Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

  • 47.
    Politis, Ioanna
    et al.
    University of Cambridge.
    Langdon, Patrick
    University of Cambridge.
    Adebayo, Damilola
    University of Cambridge.
    Bradley, Mike
    University of Cambridge.
    Clarkson, P. John
    University of Cambridge.
    Skrypchuk, Lee
    Jaguar Land Rover Research & Technology.
    Mouzakitis, Alexander
    Jaguar Land Rover Research & Technology.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Brown, James W. H.
    University of Southampton.
    Revell, Kirsten
    University of Southampton.
    Stanton, Neville
    University of Southampton.
    An evaluation of inclusive dialogue-based interfaces for the takeover of control in autonomous cars2018In: Proceedings IUI International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, p. 601-606Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents formative research to inform the design of intelligent automotive user interfaces. It describes an evaluation of dialogue-based interfaces, mediating the driver to take back control from the autonomous mode of a car. Four concepts designed to increase driver Situation Awareness were evaluated in a driving simulator. They used dialoguebased interaction, where driving-related information was either asked from or repeated by the driver, with the alternative of a countdown-based interface with no additional information. An inclusive set of participants, with a wide age spectrum, tested the interfaces. The shorter and simpler interaction of the countdown timer was most accepted. The interface seeking answers to driving-related questions came next, and the interface requiring repetition of driving-related information, even when augmented by visual and tactile cues, was least accepted. Design guidelines on utilizing dialogue as a means of keeping the driver in the loop during a takeover were thus derived.

  • 48.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology.
    Comparison Of Noise Emission Of HCT And Classic Vehicle Combinations For Timber Transportation In Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of a special simulation tool, the noise emission of a high-capacity heavy vehicle (11 axles) was compared to that of a classic heavy vehicle (a truck-dolly-semitrailer with 8 axles). The two cases are designated “Extended vehicle” versus “Classic vehicle” in this study, having total lengths of 34 and 25 m, respectively. The Classic vehicle represents the most common articulated heavy vehicle configuration for transport of timber and other goods in Sweden. Tyres were assumed to be typical of each axle and their noise emission values were taken from a recent study. Noise from the propulsion unit were assumed to just meet the present maximum legal levels. It was found that noise emission from the Extended vehicle is approx. 1.5 dB higher than for Classic vehicle, as max. A-weighted level per vehicle passage, but as the number of vehicles in traffic is lower for a certain transportation volume, the resulting road traffic noise exposure in terms of A-weighted equivalent level LAeq is similar. Consequently, noise emission is not a factor that gives either vehicle type a clear advantage over the other.

  • 49.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    A lane-change scenario developed for assessment of active safety and ADAS in heavy vehicles: evaluated in a driving simulator study2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles.

    The definition of the lane-change scenario was based on a literature review, and an investigation of lane-change accidents in Sweden.

    A lane-change manoeuvre is in the literature typically described by accepted gap at the initiation of the manoeuvre as well as duration of the manoeuvre and speed during the manoeuvre. The literature review showed that there is a lack of real-world data regarding lane-change manoeuvres with heavy vehicles. The data that exist are collected mainly in the US and for discretionary lane changes, and a distinction between sizes of heavy vehicles is rarely made. Regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles on European level, there is a general lack of useful and reliable accident data. The most comprehensive data are available from the US and show that lane-change accidents account for a large share of accidents involving heavy vehicles.

    The investigation of lane-change accidents was made in the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), on 10 500 police-reported accidents with heavy vehicles involved during the years 2003 to 2013. In STRADA, lane-change accidents are categorized together with overtaking accidents. Therefore, it is not possible to identify lane-change accidents and their share of heavyvehicle accidents directly from STRADA. Instead, lane-change accidents were identified by reading the accident narratives for overtaking accident and rear-end accidents (in total 5 612 accidents). Rearend accidents were included because the manner of collision may resemble lane-change collisions.

  • 50.
    Schmidt, Franziska
    et al.
    Ifsttar .
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Van Geem, Carl
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Cocu, Xavier
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Jacob, Bernard
    IFFSTAR.
    FALCON II: Input For A European PBS Definition: Review Of Vehicle Legislations And Infrastructure Design Criteria2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, the regulation on weights and dimensions of trucks are complex : European rules are given by EC Directive 96/53/EC as modified by Directive (EU) 2015/719 [1]. These rules apply for international traffic, but countries can decide to add specific national rules. Moreover, these rules are often different from one country to another, due to policy choices and local history. More specifically, the impact of trucks on infrastructure has not always been the primary fact for defining these rules. But in other countries or other research domains, performance based standards (PBS) are used to determine what is allowed, in terms of performance. For example, vehicles may be allowed in terms of their induced damage on bridges (Bridge Formula, see [2]) or dynamic behavior (PBS as in Australia for example). In another context, materials and structures are now often defined in calls for tender in terms of performance (durability, resistance for example). In this context, the work package (WP) C (Fit for purpose road vehicles to influence modal choice) of CEDR project FALCON (Freight And Logistics in a multimodal CONtext) aims at developing Performance Based Standards [3]. For that, the first step is to create a state-of-the art of the European situation concerning vehicle policy and infrastructure. This paper summarizes this work: the first section gives insight on the European vehicle policy. The second section presents the infrastructure catalogue developed within the FALCON project. Finally, these infrastructure elements are characterized in terms of design criteria in Section 3.

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