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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Betnér, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Simulatorbaserad testmetod: bedömning av körförmåga hos individer med synfältsbortfall2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project is a method project in its proper sense. The aim of the project was to develop a method to assess if individuals with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. The starting point for the project was that the method should be a simulator based method because essentially two criteria were desirable. First, it was important that several events occurred systematically and that events were possible to evaluate, i.e., that it was possible to discriminate between good and bad performances. Second, these events should be the same events for all individuals that was to be tested. The aim was to develop a method that optimizes the validity and reliability with respect to testing of each and one of unique individuals. The testing procedure of the individual level was important because the method would not be used for research purposes but primarily to determine whether a unique individual with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. Several details that can go wrong during an ordinary experiment, when running subjects, have a minimal impact concerning the experiment because it is most often possible to complement the experimental data collection with another subject. This is not an option for this project.

    These criteria and points raised above collectively resulted in the method developed. When an individual completed the scenario developed, a test protocol was generated (after a lot of work). This protocol reveals how the individual performed during the 37 (+2) events (and related measures) based on a safety margin perspective. To support the rater with the assessment of a subject a) data from a reference group (over 100 individuals) and b) a developed test protocol (with critical thresholds for different measurements) were used. The assessment was carried out by two independent raters. If the raters agreed no further judgments were performed. If the raters disagreed a third rater assessed the subjects’ performance. The purpose of the test protocol is that those individuals who want to use the test protocol results as a basis for an exemption application, can do so. It is still the Transport Agency, which decides on an exemption cases.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo AB.
    Svanberg, Bo
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Holmertz, Pontus
    HiQ.
    Night-time scenarios in simulators: a prestudy of needs, knowledge and possible solutions2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study in this publication investigates the need and potential for night-time scenarios in driving simulators, determines how such night-time scenarios could be reproduced and identifies the objects most important to reproduce. Although on average 12 out of every 24 hours are dark and considering that most situations are more demanding for drivers in dark conditions, simulations of driving scenarios with different degrees of darkness are not common. The project work comprised a pre-study that involved an investigation of the need and potential of night-time scenarios with the help of input from different stakeholders, consolidation of what is known up to now through benchmarking and state of the art, and a review of available technical solutions. The objective was to identify pros and cons with existing solutions and aspects that are important to consider in order to reproduce the most important components in realistic night-time scenarios. Based on the results, six important use cases were identified and two of these (‘Driver fatigue’ and ‘Objects without light sources’) were studied in more detail. It was concluded that for night-time scenarios there is enough darkness in general in the simulator environment. The question is whether it is possible to create sufficient contrast for objects that are meant to be observable. For daytime scenarios, the light levels in the simulator are clearly unrealistically low and this limitation might even trigger unwanted sleepiness.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Modelling and Simulation for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System Functions2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future vehicles are expected to be equipped with wireless communication technology, that enables them to be “connected” to each others and road infrastructures. Complementing current autonomous vehicles and automated driving systems, the wireless communication allows the vehicles to interact, cooperate, and be aware of its surroundings beyond their own sensors’ range. Such sys- tems are often referred to as Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which aims to provide extra safety, efficiency, and sustainability to transporta- tion systems. Several C-ITS applications are under development and will require thorough testing and evaluation before their deployment in the real-world. C- ITS depend on several sub-systems, which increase their complexity, and makes them difficult to evaluate.

    Simulations are often used to evaluate many different automotive applications, including C-ITS. Although they have been used extensively, simulation tools dedicated to determine all aspects of C-ITS are rare, especially human factors aspects, which are often ignored. The majority of the simulation tools for C-ITS rely heavily on different combinations of network and traffic simulators. The human factors issues have been covered in only a few C-ITS simulation tools, that involve a driving simulator. Therefore, in this thesis, a C-ITS simulation framework that combines driving, network, and traffic simulators is presented. The simulation framework is able to evaluate C-ITS applications from three perspectives; a) human driver; b) wireless communication; and c) traffic systems.

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and its applications are chosen as the first set of C-ITS functions to be evaluated. Example scenarios from CACC and platoon merging applications are presented, and used as test cases for the simulation framework, as well as to elaborate potential usages of it. Moreover, approaches, results, and challenges from composing the simulation framework are presented and discussed. The results shows the usefulness of the proposed simulation framework.

    List of papers
    1. Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
    2015 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

    Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

    Keywords
    Electronics, Software, Automation, Vehicle, Autonomous vehicle, Safety, Behaviour
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-9271 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2015.7225677 (DOI)2-s2.0-84951010000 (Scopus ID)9781467372664 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2015, 28 June 2015 through 1 July 2015
    Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016
    Keywords
    Simulator (driving), Cooperative intelligent transport system, Technology, Development, Network (traffic)
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10736 (URN)10.1145/2901378.2901397 (DOI)978-1-4503-3742-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16)
    Projects
    VICTIgSAFER-VICTIg
    Funder
    Knowledge Foundation
    Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
    3. Cooperative Driving Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Driving Simulation
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

    Keywords
    Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
    National Category
    Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12688 (URN)
    Conference
    DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France
    Funder
    Knowledge Foundation
    Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Detournay, Jerome
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Frimodig, Viktor
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Oscar Uddman
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Rodriguez, Victor Diez
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Shahanoor, Golam
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss postcompetition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

  • 7.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria & Högskolan i Halmstad, CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations2017In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero), Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan , 2017, article id 20174621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function, which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road space utilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are not desired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especially from non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining the safety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performs the cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers using time to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks are always high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6 seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

  • 8.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria & Högskolan i Halmstad, CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios2017In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2017, p. 315-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

  • 9.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

  • 10.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework—consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators—for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Cooperative Driving Simulation2016In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

  • 12.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Halmstad University.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

  • 13.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Tracking techniques for automotive virtual reality2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is a review of available technologies for tracking the user in virtual reality systems. Tracking the user location is important for generating views that adapts to the user’s movements.

    This review begins with the basic terms used in virtual reality in general. Followed by the important characteristics for tracking equipment. This is followed by a chapter on the fundamental algorithms used for position calculations. Then the most common technologies with their advantages and disadvantages are presented. The text conclude with how these technologies are used in automotive virtual reality.

  • 14.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Exploring the suitability of virtual reality for driving simulation2018In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2018 / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Antibes, France, 2018, p. 163-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head mounted displays (HMDs) is an emerging technology and the availability of affordable systems is growing fast. Replacing projector and large screen solutions with head mounted displays may appear as an appealing solution. However, inherent properties and technical limitations of these systems need to be understood and considered before making the leap to virtual reality.

    This paper outlines some of the most fundamental limitations of head mounted displays relevant to this context, both from a technical and human factors perspective. Desirable properties of scenarios and types of studies are deduced, based on these limitations. Finally, a meta analysis is performed on the feasibility of transferring simulator studies found in the literature to platforms with head mounted displays. The results suggest that a noticeable amount (40%) of the investigated simulator studies could likely have been performed with head mounted displays. This number could be increased further with technical advances in display resolution, display technology, reduction in latency, etc.

  • 15.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study2016In: Proceedings of the DSC 2016 Europe / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association , 2016, p. 179-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

  • 16.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: A comparative study2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

  • 17.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior2016In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 5:1-5:12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using mixed reality in vehicles provides a potential alternative to using driving simulators when studying driver-vehicle inter- action. However, virtual reality systems introduce latency in the visual system that may alter driving behavior, which, in turn, results in questionable validity. Previous studies have mainly focused on visual latency as a separate phenomenon. In this work, latency is studied from a task-dependent viewpoint to investigate how participants’ driving behavior changed with increased latency. In this study, the investigation was performed through experiments in which regular drivers were subjected to different levels of visual latency while performing a simple slalom driving task. The drivers’ performances were recorded and evaluated in both lateral and longitudinal directions along with self-assessment questionnaires regarding task performance and difficulty. All participants managed to complete the driving tasks successfully, even under high latency conditions, but were clearly affected by the increased visual latency. The results suggest that drivers compensate for longer latencies by steering more and increasing the safety margins but without reducing their speed.

  • 18.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Pettersson, Emil
    Volvo GTT.
    Model and Road Surface Sensitivity of Longitudinal Performance Based Standards2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based standards (PBS) is a regulation policy to address the complexity of variations in vehicle combinations. It enables a direct way of addressing certain requirements associated with the safety, environment and road network and their implications to the vehicle specific quantities without stipulating vehicle properties.

    Computer-based simulations may be an efficient tool to assess the performance measures. However, using simulations through models in a legislation raise questions of model accuracy and model complexity. What is a required level of modelling details to be used to assess a PBS measure?

    We investigate three level of complexity of models and the impact this have on three longitudinal performance measures; Startability, Gradeablity and Acceleration Capability. Simulations for 10 vehicle combinations are compared with two different engine alternatives. For Nordic countries, slippery road conditions are common during winter conditions. Hence, low friction is included in the comparison.

    The comparison suggested that the complexity could potentially be kept really low, without major loss of accuracy. However, for slippery conditions, a higher levels of complexity might be required.

  • 19.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Väggrepp på våt asfalt för slitna och nya vinterdäck: jämförelse av olika kategorier av vinterdäck2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har mätt väggrepp på våt, saltad asfaltväg vid temperaturer kring noll grader för slitna och nya vinterdäck i syfte att undersöka hur väggreppet för de tre olika förekommande typerna av vinterdäck i Sverige försämras med ålder och slitage. Även sommardäck har ingått i studien. Totalt har 84 däck testats, varav 31 helt nya däck och 53 begagnade. Resultaten visar att dubbdäck och nordiska odubbade vinterdäck presterar likvärdigt på detta underlag. Skillnaden mellan nya och slitna däck av dessa två typer är för de flesta undersökta prestandamått i praktiken obefintlig. De nya europeiska däcken presterar cirka 10–13 procent bättre än nya dubbdäck och nordiska odubbade vinterdäck på den våta asfalten vid det aktuella väderförhållandet. För de slitna däcken är prestandaövertaget för de europeiska däcken mindre, cirka 5–7 procent bättre än de andra två typerna av vinterdäck. Sommardäcken presterar i princip likvärdigt eller bättre än de europeiska vinterdäcken, både som nya och slitna.

  • 20.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Comprehensive study of the performance of winter tires on ice, snow, and asphalt roads: The influence of tire type and wear2017In: Tire Science and Technology, ISSN 0090-8657, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 175-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the performance of winter tires on snow, ice, and asphalt. A set of 77 different winter tires were carefully selected for the study. Of these, 27 were new and 50 were worn from real traffic use. All three tire types for winter conditions (Nordic, European, and studded) were represented. All tires have been tested using a mobile tire-testing device for snow and asphalt and using a stationary tire-testing facility for ice. Both devices recorded the tire forces and motions, enabling a close to complete stationary characterization of the tires. In addition, 42 of the tires were tested on a passenger car, where brake performance was evaluated for the three different road conditions. This enables a comparative study of performance between tire types and wear for various winter road conditions. The results suggest that the recorded data represent real vehicle performance. Some conclusions from the measurements are that the effect of wear is consistent between the tire groups and that the performance degradation is most noticeable on studded tires on ice and on European tires on snow.

  • 21.
    Jansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Linking gaze tracking with a simulated world2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this study was to develop a software able to link eye tracking data to simulator data, making it possible to automatically detect what the driver is looking at in the simulated world. This was achieved by merging data from a SmartEye system with data from the simulator. Thereby realtime visualisation of where the driver is looking is facilitated, and what the driver is targeting can be shown to the test leader to trigger events in the scenarios, etc. This also facilitates automatic gaze annotations that can be used in subsequent analyses when studying visual behaviour.

    The developed software, VIMSI, is responsible for collecting eye tracking data from SmartEye, filter and aggregate this data with data from the simulation and then send processed data to the graphics to visualize the result. The software was tested in one of VTI’s driving simulators. This initial testing of VIMSI showed that the software is capable of visualising what the driver is looking at in real time. The software also makes it possible to log data from the test drives which can be useful when studying driver behaviour. To improve the functionality of VIMSI, it is necessary to consider using UDP instead of IPC when directing data from the VIMSI software to the graphics engine VISIR. This will enable the use of another software, ScenarioReplay, developed at VTI for replaying test drives. A proper configuration and calibration of the SmartEye cameras is necessary to achieve high quality of the data from the SmartEye Pro software, which is a precondition for VIMSI.

  • 22.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: final report2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden, and ended in Autumn 2017. The purpose of the project was to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from the vehicle, rather than mandating prescriptive length and weight limits. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment were addressed, but the focus has been on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis were performed. This report gathers the outcomes of the project.

  • 23.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andhill, Carl Johan
    Dynagraph.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication presents a project aiming to develop virtual representations of real roads for use in driving simulators. The development was done in order to enable assessments of new systems on existing and well known roads in a driving simulator, and will increase the external validity of virtual testing. Furthermore, the usage of the virtual model of such roads makes the simulator results better comparable to earlier performed or later following road tests. The roads connecting Göteborg-Borås-Alingsås-Göteborg were selected. The purpose for this is due to their proximity to the vehicle industry in west Sweden and to the test tracks “Hällered” and “AstaZero”. However, the tools and methods developed can be used to build a virtual representation of any other road through a surrounding landscape and/or more urban environment. The project was carried out in steps, starting with data collection (investigation and assessment of available data from different sources as well as measurement of road properties) followed by data treatment (remove irrelevant data and errors, filtering, etc.), modelling (mathematical description of road properties) and simulation (selection of data formats for real time simulation).

  • 24.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nyman, Joakim
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

    To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

    With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

    To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

    An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

    An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

    In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

  • 25.
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Aderum, Tobias
    Autoliv Research.
    Ågren, S. Magnus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Jonsson, Göran
    Volvo Cars.
    Heldal, Rogart
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research & Technology AB.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems2016In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future transportation systems will be a heterogeneous mix of items with varying connectivity and interoperability. A mix of new technologies and legacy systems will co-exist to realize a variety of scenarios involving not only connected cars but also road infrastructures, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS), where each constituent system - one of the units that compose an SoS - can act as a standalone system, but the cooperation among the constituent systems enables new emerging and promising scenarios. In this paper we investigate how to architect cars so that they can be constituents of future transportation systems. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom.

  • 26.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.32016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

    Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

  • 27.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    A lane-change scenario developed for assessment of active safety and ADAS in heavy vehicles: evaluated in a driving simulator study2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles.

    The definition of the lane-change scenario was based on a literature review, and an investigation of lane-change accidents in Sweden.

    A lane-change manoeuvre is in the literature typically described by accepted gap at the initiation of the manoeuvre as well as duration of the manoeuvre and speed during the manoeuvre. The literature review showed that there is a lack of real-world data regarding lane-change manoeuvres with heavy vehicles. The data that exist are collected mainly in the US and for discretionary lane changes, and a distinction between sizes of heavy vehicles is rarely made. Regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles on European level, there is a general lack of useful and reliable accident data. The most comprehensive data are available from the US and show that lane-change accidents account for a large share of accidents involving heavy vehicles.

    The investigation of lane-change accidents was made in the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), on 10 500 police-reported accidents with heavy vehicles involved during the years 2003 to 2013. In STRADA, lane-change accidents are categorized together with overtaking accidents. Therefore, it is not possible to identify lane-change accidents and their share of heavyvehicle accidents directly from STRADA. Instead, lane-change accidents were identified by reading the accident narratives for overtaking accident and rear-end accidents (in total 5 612 accidents). Rearend accidents were included because the manner of collision may resemble lane-change collisions.

  • 28.
    Sedran, Stefano
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Amati, Nicola
    Politecnico di Torino.
    A Heavy Vehicle Dynamics Model for Driving Simulators2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a heavy vehicle dynamics model for driving simulators. The model was thought to be open, with a high level of readability and flexibility for future understanding, modification and use. A stepwise increment of the model complexity was utilized to understand the most contributing factors and to obtain a model capable of running in real-time. The model has been validated objectively using a previously validated model and through subjective evaluation in a driving simulator.

1 - 28 of 28
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