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  • 1. Adesiyun, Adewole
    et al.
    Bezuglyi, Artem
    Bidnenko, Natalya
    Laszlo, Gaspar
    Golovko, Sergyi
    Kraszewski, Cezary
    Krayushkina, Kateryna
    Kushnir, Olexander
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Szpikowski, Miroslaw
    Andrezj, Urbanik
    Voloshyna, Iryna
    Vozniuk, Andrii
    Vyrozhemsky, Valeriy
    Short-term Research Visits2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Adolph, Thorsten
    et al.
    Federal Highway Research Institute.
    Eggers, Andre
    Federal Highway Research Institute.
    Thomson, Robert William
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Mizuno, Koji
    Nagoya University.
    Comparison of the dummy response in two different restraint system crash tests2014In: 2014 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2014, p. 545-561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Project FIMCAR, a proposal for a frontal impact test configuration was developed which included an additional full width deformable barrier (FWDB) test. Motivation for the deformable element was partly to measure structural forces as well as to produce a severe crash pulse different from that in the offset test. The objective of this study was to analyse the safety performance of vehicles:

    • in the full width rigid barrier test (FWRB) and
    • in the full width deformable barrier test (FWDB)

    In total, 12 vehicles were crashed in both configurations. Comparison of these tests to real world accident data was used to identify the crash barrier most representative of real world crashes. For all vehicles, the airbag visible times were later in the FWDB configuration. This was attributed to the attenuation of the initial acceleration peak, observed in FWRB tests, by the addition of the deformable element. These findings were in alignment with airbag triggering times seen in real world crash data. Also, the dummy loadings were slightly worse in FWDB compared to FWRB tests, which is possibly linked to the airbag firing and a more realistic loading of the vehicle crash structures in the FWDB configuration. Evaluations of the lower extremities have shown a general increasing of the tibia index with the crash pulse severity.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Validating speed and road surface realism in VTI driving simulator III2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New simulator models concerning vibration, noise and graphics have been designed and implemented in the VTI Simulator III. The objective of this study is to validate this simulator in terms of road surface realism. Twenty-four drivers participated in the study and drove the same route both in the simulator and on real roads. Three road sections ranging from very smooth to rather uneven were incorporated in the design. The comparison included the objective driving parameter speed as well as subjective parameters from questionnaires and rating scales (evenness, quietness and comfort level). A road section with five speed limit changes was of particular interest in the analyses. No statistically significant difference could be found between the simulator and the car, neither in the parameter speed (in sections with no speed limit changes) nor in the ratings evenness and quietness. Despite similar speed profiles surrounding the speed limit signs, there was a statistically significant difference between the speed in the car and in the simulator, with more rapid accelerations and decelerations in the simulator. The comfort rating was shown to be higher in the car compared to the simulator, but in both cases the general trend showed higher comfort on smoother roads. These results indicate absolute validity for the ratings evenness and quietness, and for the measure speed, and relative validity for comfort and speed surrounding speed limit signs.

  • 4. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Evaluation of extrication techniques. - Is there any other quality measurement then time?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Barn i bil - socioekonomiska faktorer: litteratur- och enkätstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify relationships between no use/misuse of safety belt/child restraints and socio-economic aspects. The conclusions from the study will provide a basis for the future development of information and campaigns to increase the correct use of restraints. The study consisted of two parts: a literature review and a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2,010 parents of children aged 2 months–9 years. The response rate was about 70 per cent. The level of misuse among small children was lower than among older children and lower in the family car compared with the overall situation. Parents who neglected to use the safety belts themselves were more likely to be careless in ensuring that the child used recommended restraint. The results also indicated that parents who were more likely to act in contradiction with rules and recommendation concerning use of restraints were also more likely to allow their children to travel without safety belts.

  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skylt vid skolskjutshållplatser i Linköping: en utvärdering av barns, bussförares och förbipasserandes uppfattningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Linköping municipality has in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 made an inventory of bus stop sites for school children within the municipality. At those locations where no bus stop sign existed, a new type of sign was set up to mark the school bus stop site.

    This evaluation aims to highlight the positive and negative aspects of experience and perception of the new sign. The evaluation has taken place by means of in-depth interviews with a sample of children in the schools in Nykil, Vreta Kloster and Ljungsbro. In addition, questionnaires were sent to bus drivers driving in those areas, and telephone interviews were done with private motorists passing the designated stop sites.

    The results indicate that the sign can contribute to an increased sense of security and safety among children, it increases the possibility for bus drivers to know where the children are to be picked up and it contributes to the passing vehicles in terms of knowing that they can expect children in the vicinity of the sign. There is, however, reason to look at why not all children are picked up at their dedicated bus stop and to consider how information on the new signs can be designed.

  • 7.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skadedata i STRADA för motorcyklister2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att med de skadedata som finns i STRADA belysa motorcyklisternas trafiksäkerhetssituation. Polis- och sjukhusdata har använts för olika delar av genomförda bearbetningar. Tyngdpunkten i redovisningen ligger på sjukhus-informationen. I underlaget för officiell statistik från STRADA för åren 2003-2007 finns uppgifter om ca 6500 motorcyklister. Det gäller dödade och skadade samt oskadade förare. Antalet sjukhusrapporterade motorcyklister är drygt 3800 stycken. Projektet har disponerats i tre delprojekt A, B och C.

    I delprojekt A Särskilda omständigheter vid vägtrafikolyckor med motorcykel studeras polisens olycksbeskrivning (AccidentDescription i STRADA) för de 2011 olyckor åren 2003-2007 där en motorcyklist varit inblandad och där någon dödats eller skadats svårt, det behöver inte vara motorcyklisten.

    Delprojekt B Motorcyklister i sjukhus-STRADA omfattar 3 838 sjukhusrapporterade motorcyklister, varav 3 288 är män (96 % förare) och 550 kvinnor (65 % förare). Den vanligaste olyckstypen för motorcyklister vid klassificering efter motpart (Against) är singelolyckor (2347 stycken) som står för 61 procent, därtill kommer 3 procent där motparten är olika typer av fasta föremål.

    I delprojekt C Motorcykelförares olyckshistorik studeras de personer som varit in-blandade i fler än en olycka åren 2003-2007 varav vid minst ett tillfälle som motor-cyklist. Urvalet ger 2, 3 eller 4 olyckor per person. Samtliga 3 personer inblandade i 4 olyckor är unga män. Inblandning i 3 olyckor gäller 30 män och 3 kvinnor medan 348 män och 36 kvinnor varit med i 2 polisrapporterade olyckor. Totalt har 18 av personerna dödats, samtliga män och i 15 fall som motorcyklister.

  • 8.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Improving the realism in the VTI driving simulators: Shake final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has three advanced moving base driving simulators. The aim of this project was to develop and implement new models concerning vibration, noise and graphics in order to improve the realism in the simulators. Moreover, a validation study was to be conducted.

    Within the frame of the project the following were achieved:

    • improvement of the tyre/road vibration models,
    • •improvement of the motion system by changing the rotation centre,
    • •improvement of the noise module facilitating reproduction of noise from tyre/road,
    • •synchronization of the impressions from graphics, noise and vibrations caused by the road surface.

    The validity of the models was tested in the VTI Simulator III. Statistical testing of differences between the car and the simulator indicated absolute validity for the subjective ratings of evenness and noise level and the objective measure speed, with the exception of areas surrounding speed limit signs where only relative validity was found. Relative validity was also indicated for the variable overall comfort. The results from the different validations show that the improvements have been successful and the driver in the simulator can now see, hear and feel the sensation of any road surface irregularities exactly when the wheels hit that part of the road. However, several improvements in the simulator models can still be desired.

  • 9.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Simulating the effect of low lying sun and worn windscreens in a driving simulator2010In: Proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010: trends in driving simulation design and experiments, Bron: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Brolin, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Östh, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sato, Fusako
    Japan Automotive Research Institute.
    Ono, Koshiro
    Japan Automotive Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Folksam.
    Aiming for an average female virtual human body model for seat performance assessment in rear-end impacts2015In: The 24th ESV Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The female part of the population suffers more Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) in car crashes than males. Several studies have illustrated the need to consider the female population when developing and assessing the WAD prevention performance of advanced restraint systems in rear-end collisions. Presently only one crash test dummy is available, the average sized male BioRID. Recently a virtual dummy model of an average female, EvaRID, was developed and used in rear impact simulations. The results stressed the need for models representing the female part of the population, as well. Virtual crash simulations have become essential in traffic safety and with models of both an average male and female, further steps in addressing improved assessment of WAD prevention can be taken. The present paper presents a starting point of research aiming to develop an open-source average female Finite Element (FE) model with an anatomically detailed cervical spine. This paper provides a review of the literature to identify gender specific neck biomechanics and anatomical differences, followed by a review of published FE models of the cervical spine. Data on vertebral body dimensions (height, width, depth, spinal canal diameter, facet joint angles) have been compiled from biomechanical literature. Significant gender differences exist for the vertebral body depth and width, the spinal curvature in the seated posture, and the spinal stiffness and range of motion. All have the potential to influence the outcome of an impact and should be accounted for in the development of WAD prevention. The review of FE models of the cervical spine presented 17 models based on male geometry but only one model scaled to represent a female. An overview of the models are given with respect to the solver, geometry source, number of elements, and implementation of the facet joints, ligaments, and muscles. It is recommended that an average female model is developed with focus on; 1) the shape of the female vertebral body, especially the depth and width that provides less support area than for males,2) defining the spinal curvature representative of seated female volunteers who generally display less lordosis than males, 3) the dimensions of the spinal ligaments, rather than the material properties, to capture the larger range of motion and less spinal stiffness of female subjects compared to males, and validation to female volunteers and PMHS tests for range of motion, while failure prediction seem less gender sensitive.

     

     

  • 11.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utveckling av VTI:s modell för beräkning av trafikarbete på svenska vägar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, VTI delivers a description of both a historical description and a prognosis of the annual vehicle mileage using a forecast model. Based on the results from this model a simplified description is made of the future traffic in HBEFA, which is the basis for the annual calculation of traffic emissions. The purpose of this project was to undertake a general revision of the method, both historical and future, in the forecast model. The assessment shows, for example, that a computational model can continually evolve and improve. Recent data have become available through the meter readings for mileage and better data are now available to take into account heavy trucks used for overseas shipments. A function adaptation of mileage as a function of vehicle age shows a good agreement with the measured driving distances for vehicles up to and including about 25 to 30 years of age. A sensitivity analysis of making various assumptions regarding the mileage and age distribution shows the effect on the amount of fuel consumption and regulated emissions for different categories of vehicles.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Chang, Fred
    Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Plymouth, Michigan.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Plymouth, Michigan.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    AGU Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID: A 50th Percentile Female Rear Impact Finite Element Dummy Model2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 855-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs), or whiplash injuries, due to low-severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorized countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Recent protective systems have been shown to be more beneficial for males than for females. Hence, there is a need for improved tools to address female WAD prevention when developing and evaluating the performance of whiplash protection systems. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash test dummy.Methods: The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on literature data. The model, called EvaRID (female rear impact dummy), was based on the same design concept as the existing 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to female volunteer data from rear impact sled tests.Results: The EvaRID V1.0 model and the volunteer tests compared well until ~250 ms of the head and T1 forward accelerations and rearward linear displacements and of the head rearward angular displacement. Markedly less T1 rearward angular displacement was found for the EvaRID model compared to the female volunteers. Similar results were received for the BioRID II model when comparing simulated responses with experimental data under volunteer loading conditions. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II FE models have limitations, predominantly in the T1 rearward angular displacement, at low velocity changes (7 km/h). The BioRID II model was validated against dummy test results in a loading range close to consumer test conditions (EuroNCAP) and lower severity levels of volunteer testing were not considered.The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems. However, updates of the joint stiffness will be required to provide better correlation at lower load levels. Moreover, the seated posture, curvature of the spine, and head position of 50th percentile female occupants needs to be established and implemented in future models.

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chang, Fred
    CAE Dep, United States.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Europe GmbH, Wateringen, Netherlands.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Universität Zürich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    EvaRID: A 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 249-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and the injury risk is greater for females than males. However, whiplash protection systems have shown to be more beneficial for males than females. Hence there is a need for improved tools to address female protection. The objective is to develop and evaluate a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy FE model. The model was based on the same design concept as the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to rear impact tests with female volunteers. The EvaRID model and volunteer tests showed good correlations until 250 ms of the head and T1 accelerations, linear displacements and head angular displacement. Considerably less T1 angular displacement was found for the EvaRID; similar results were obtained for the BioRID II. Thus, the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II models have limitations at low ÎŽv (7km/h). The EvaRID model demonstrated the potential to become a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats/whiplash protection systems, however, this will require updating the joint stiffness. The model may be used as a template for the development of a physical female dummy.

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Davidsson, Johan
    SAFER - Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dynamic kinematic responses of female volunteers in rear impacts and comparison to previous male volunteer tests2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 347-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective was to quantify dynamic responses of 50th percentile females in rear impacts and compare to those from similar tests with males. The results will serve as a basis for future work with models, criteria, and safety systems.

    Methods: A rear impact sled test series with 8 female volunteers was performed at velocity changes of 5 and 7 km/h. The following dynamic response corridors were generated for the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra) and head relative to T1: (1) accelerations in posterior-anterior direction, (2) horizontal and vertical displacements, (3) angular displacements for 6 females close to the 50th percentile in size. Additionally, the head-to-head restraint distance and contact time and neck injury criterion (NIC) were extracted from the data set. These data were compared to results from previously performed male volunteer tests, representing the 50th percentile male, in equivalent test conditions. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the parameter value differences for the males and females.

    Results: At 7 km/h, the females showed 29 percent earlier head-to-head restraint contact time (p =.0072); 27 percent shorter horizontal rearward head displacement (p =.0017); 36 percent narrower head extension angle (p =.0281); and 52 percent lower NIC value (p =.0239) than the males in previous tests. This was mainly due to 35 percent shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance for the females (p =.0125). The peak head acceleration in the posterior-anterior direction was higher and occurred earlier for the females.

    Conclusions: The overall result indicated differences in the dynamic response for the female and male volunteers. The results could be used in developing and evaluating a mechanical and/or mathematical average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models can be used as a tool in the design of protective systems and for further development and evaluation of injury criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Horion, Stefan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.
    Hell, Wofram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Female volunteer motion in rear impact sled tests in comparison to results from earlier male volunteer tests2008In: 2008 INTERNATIONAL IRCOBI CONFERENCEONTHE BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY17. – 19. September 2008– BERN (Switzerland)PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 461-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle related crashes causing neck injuries (whiplash) are costly and common, and injury statistic data shows a larger risk of neck injuries for females than for males. This study aims at investigating differences between female and male dynamic response in rear impacts. Rear impact sled tests with female volunteers were carried out and the results were compared with previously performed tests with males in matching test conditions. The volunteer tests were performed at a change of velocity of 7 km/h. The comparison of the average response of the males and the females and their response corridors showed several differences. The horizontal head acceleration peak value was on average 40% higher and occurred on average 18% earlier for the female volunteers compared to the male volunteers. The NIC value was 45% lower and 30% earlier for the females, probably due to a 27% smaller initial head-to-head restraint distance and thereby a 24% earlier head restraint contact. The results provide characteristic differences between dynamic responses of females and males in low speed rear impacts. These results contribute to the understanding of human dynamic response in rear impacts. In addition, they can be used in the process of future development if numerical and/or mechanical human models for crash testing.

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia, School of Kinesiology, Vancouver, Canada.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Motion of the Head and Neck of Female and Male Volunteers in Rear Impact Car-to-Car Impacts2012In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 378-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare dynamic motion responses between 50th percentile female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. These data are fundamental for developing future occupant models for crash safety development and assessment.

    Methods: High-speed video data from a rear impact test series with 21 male and 21 female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h, originally presented in Siegmund et al. (1997), were used for further analysis. Data from a subset of female volunteers, 12 at 4 km/h and 9 at 8 km/h, were extracted from the original data set to represent the 50th percentile female. Their average height was 163 cm and their average weight was 62 kg. Among the male volunteers, 11 were selected, with an average height of 175 cm and an average weight of 73 kg, to represent the 50th percentile male. Response corridors were generated for the horizontal and angular displacements of the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra), and the head relative to T1. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the differences in parameter values for the males and females.

    Results: Several differences were found in the average motion response of the male and female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h. Generally, females had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. This was mainly due to shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance and earlier head-to-head restraint contact for the females. At 8 km/h, the female volunteers showed 12 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head displacement (P =.018); 22 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head relative to T1 displacement (P =.018); and 30 percent lower peak head extension angle (P =.001). The females also had more pronounced rebound motion.

    Conclusions: This study indicates that there may be characteristic differences in the head-neck motion response between 50th percentile males and females in rear impacts. The exclusive use of 50th percentile male rear impact dummies may thus limit the assessment and development of whiplash prevention systems that adequately protect both male and female occupants. The results of this study could be used in the development and evaluation of a mechanical and/or computational average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models are used in the development and evaluation of protective systems. It would be of interest to make further studies into seat configurations featuring a greater head-to-head restraint distance. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia, School of Kinesiology, Vancouver, Canada.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Motion of the head and neck of female and male volunteers in rear impact car-to-car tests at 4 and 8 km/h2010In: 2010 INTERNATIONAL IRCOBI CONFERENCE ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY 15. + 16. September 2010– HANOVER (Germany) PROCEEDINGS, 2010, p. 29-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study indications of differences in motion pattern of females and males have been found. The objective was to quantify dynamic motion responses of female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. Such data can be used as an input in the development process of improved occupant models such as computational models and crash test dummies. High-speed video data from rear impact tests at 4 km/h and 8 km/h with 12 female and 11 male volunteers was analysed. The females in this study had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. Furthermore, the females had more pronounced rebound motion.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Säker framkomlighet: trafiksäkerhetseffekter på mitträfflade vägar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the project “Safe accessibility” initiated by the Swedish Transport Administration, development of the use of rumble strips as a measure for improved traffic safety is carried out. Rumble strips are placed in the centre line on roads wider than 7 metres and with a speed limit of 80 km/h or higher. At the request of the Swedish Transport Administration, VTI has completed a study analysing the effect of such rumble strips on the road. The main purpose with central rumble strips is to “wake up” drivers who for some reason unintentionally are starting to pass the middle line. Earlier studies abroad and Swedish in-depth fatal accident studies indicate that this measure would have a positive safety effect, especially on running off the road to the left and head-on accidents. The aim of this report is to study the accident rates on roads which have been equipped with rumble strips in the middle. The most important parameter to study is the rate of fatalities or seriously injured road users (FSI-rate) after the measure (performance of rumble strips) compared to the FSI-rate before the measure. It should also have been desirable to study the course of accidents of the actual accident types. However, it has not yet been possible to perform such studies due to uncertain accuracy in the accident spot determination and description of the accident course. The analysis is based on information about the location of roads with rumble strips from the regional offices of the Swedish Transport Administration and accident data from the data base STRADA in the period 2003–2009. The work is a before/after-study in which accident rate before the milling of rumble strips in the middle of the road is compared with the period after. Some of the roads have been equipped with automatic speed cameras during the project. In the present summary, mainly results from roads which were not equipped with speed cameras are accounted for; 212 objects of the total length of 2,570 km. But 17 of these 212 objects have got a reduction of speed limit in September 2008. Thus there are 195 objects with unchanged speed limit, which consist the main results of the study.

  • 19.
    Clark, A
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Douglas, C
    Monash University.
    Fildes, B
    Monash University.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yang, J
    Chalmers.
    Sparke, L
    Holden Innovation.
    Mathematical modelling of pedestrian crashes: Parameter study of the influence of the sedan vehicle contour2006In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 39, no Suppl. 1, p. 160-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kettwich, Carmen
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Inverkan av elektroniska reklamskyltar på trafiksäkerhet: en studie på E4 i Stockholm2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report presents four studies that were conducted with the aim to evaluate how electronic billboards (ERS) affect traffic safety. Study 1 is a literature review to examine how billboards impact road safety. The conclusions from the review showed that animated pictures and the location of the billboards have a major impact on driver behaviour as well as that darkness and adverse weather conditions can create glare which makes driving difficult especially for older drivers.

    The second and third studies compared the speed and the number of accidents before and after the installation of the billboards. Neither difference in traffic volume nor in average speed could be demonstrated. There was nothing in the studied accidents to suggest that the accident was affected by a billboard.

    The fourth sub-study is a field study investigating 41 drivers (driving and visual behaviour) on the E4 as they pass the billboards. Results showed several cases of visual distraction. The results also show a negative attitude to the billboards for a majority of the drivers.

    In summary, no effects from the billboards on traffic safety could be showed at the macro level. However, the effects of visual distraction must be taken into consideration and investigated further before deciding whether billboards will be implemented on Swedish roads.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Användning av MCS-data för skattning av ÅDT - Götebord: Etapp 22012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Användning av MCS-data för skattning av ÅDT - Stockholm: Etapp 22012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Årlig förändring av cykelflöden i Göteborgs stad: uppdaterad med 2014-års data2014Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Planering av en regional resvaneundersökning i Östergötland: Samverkan mellan olika intressenter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vintervädrets betydelse för att fotgängare skadas i singelolyckor2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the winter weather on injuries in single-pedestrian accidents have been studied using data from the Swedish emergency hospitals, and from the Swedish Transport Administration’s information system on roads weather. We have studied the winter seasons 2008/2009 until 2013/2014. The study’s purpose was to examine the weather that was prevailing at the time of the pedestrian injury and during the 24 hours before the accident. Two populations of single-pedestrian accidents have been analysed; all who have reported that slippery surface due to snow or ice was a contributing cause of the injury; all who have been injured in urban areas in the four selected municipalities: Umeå, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. A connection between the injury data and weather data were made both for the hours when the injury occurred, and for the 24-hour period prior to the injury. Compared to non-urban areas, in urban areas there were more than 10 times as many who were injured in single-pedestrian accidents due to slippery road condition (snow /ice). This study shows that female pedestrians are injured due to snowy or icy road surface to a greater extent than men. The females’ injuries are also more severe. When comparing the distribution of different accident causes between males and females an analysis of the odds ratio showed that males have a higher proportion of injuries due to snowy or icy road surface compared to females. Prioritizing maintenance on pedestrian and cycle paths during the winter season seems to be beneficial both in terms of injury reductions and in terms of costs for health care due to injuries from slipping on snowy / icy surfaces. The study indicates the possibility of using the weather data of the type used in this study as a tool in the planning and execution of winter maintenance.

  • 26.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol, droger och läkemedel hos omkomna personbilsförare: år 2005–20132015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that drunk drivers constitute a large traffic safety problem and a number of Swedish studies have been conducted about this group of drivers. Much less is known about drivers that are impaired by drugs or medicines and the aim of this study is to improve the knowledge about the presence of such substances in killed drivers of passenger cars. The study is based on 1143 drivers of passenger cars that were killed in accidents during 2005–2013. Only medicines that include narcotic substances are included since other types of drugs supposedly have very limited influence on the ability to drive. Medical substances were found in 8.3 per cent of the drivers and drugs in 6.1 per cent. In comparison, alcohol was prevalent among 21.8 per cent of the drivers. More than one type of substance (alcohol, drug or medicine) were found in 5.4 per cent of the drivers. The following conclusions can be drawn from the study:

    A significant difference was found in the number of drivers who were tested positive for drugs or medicines between those who had a BAC-level over 0.2 ‰ (18.5 %) and those who had a BAC-level of 0 (10.5 %). There were no significant difference with respect to drugs and medicines between drivers with low (0.2–0.6‰) and high BAC-level (≥0.6‰).

    • THC (cannabis) is the most prevalent drug among drivers that are also influenced by alcohol, followed by amphetamine. For drivers that are not influenced by alcohol, amphetamine is more common than THC.
    • Opioids are equally common among drivers who have taken only medicines and drivers who have combined medicines and illegal drugs. Sedatives are instead more common among those who also have taken drugs while it is very uncommon to combine illegal drugs and hypnotics.
    • An analysis of background variables show that drivers who had alcohol or drugs in their blood differ from sober drivers in several respects (age, gender and time of accident) while those who had taken medicines were quite similar to the sober drivers.

    The three groups also differ from each other, which makes it important to treat the groups separately in case of for example, countermeasures.

  • 27.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Förekomst av droger och läkemedel hos förare i dödsolyckor: Utvärdering av datakvalitet2014Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Förstudie om antal alkoholutandningsprov i trafiken2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antal alkoholutandningsprov som utförs varje år har minskat med drygt 50 procent mellan år 2010 och 2015. I den här PM:et belyses frågan om antal alkoholutandningsprov och dess betydelse för rattfylleriets omfattning. PM:et ska ses som ett underlag för fortsatta diskussioner om polisens övervakning men även om vilken ytterligare forskning som behövs inom området. Underlaget baseras på tre delar: (i) en jämförelse mellan antal utandningsprov som görs i Sverige och antalet i andra länder, (ii) en jämförelse av subjektiv och faktisk upptäcktsrisk baserat på data från ESRA–projektet (European Survey of Road Users’ Safety Attitudes) och (iii) en sammanställning av aktuell forskning på området.

    Uppgifter om antal utandningsprov saknas i många länder men en jämförelse har kunnat göras mellan Sverige och 13 andra europeiska länder. Resultaten visar att Sverige var det land bland dessa som år 2010 utförde flest prov per invånare. År 2015 var det sex länder som utförde fler prov per invånare än vad Sverige gjorde

    Litteraturgenomgången visar att om man ökar antal prov leder det till en högre subjektiv upptäcktsrisk vilket i sin tur leder till en högre allmänpreventiv effekt. Det behövs dock mer forskning om vilken nivå på övervakningens omfattning som ger bäst avvägning mellan polisens resurser och antal rattfylleribrott.

    Andra faktorer som till exempel sociala normer är också viktiga. Resultat från ESRA-studien visar bland annat att det är väldigt få som kör rattfulla i Sverige även om den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken är ganska låg jämfört med flera av de andra länderna. En slutsats av det är att det behövs mer forskning om de specifika förhållanden som gäller i Sverige. Senast det gjordes någon större studie om rattfylleriövervakningens effekter i Sverige var i början på 1990-talet. Idag sker en stor del av forskningen i USA och Australien och dess grannländer och det är svårt att direkt översätta dessa resultat till svenska förhållanden.

  • 29.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Riskkurva för alkohol: studie baserad på omkomna personbilsförare i Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of a driver to be killed or injured in a crash increases considerably under the influence of alcohol. The risk increases with increased alcohol concentration. In this study, a risk curve for car drivers representing Swedish conditions has been calculated. The curve shows the risk of being killed in a car crash given a specific alcohol concentration, relative to the corresponding risk of a sober driver. The results show that the estimated relative risk is about 12 times in the lowest concentration interval, 0.2–0.4 per mille. The relative risk then increases considerably with increased alcohol concentration and is almost 1,300 times for the interval 2.2–2.4 per mille. The analyses also show that the estimated risk differs between daytime and nighttime. The risk curves are similar for low concentrations but the curve representing nighttime driving increases faster than the curve representing daytime driving. For example, the estimated relative risk is about 3,300 times at night when the alcohol concentration is between 2.2 and 2.4 per mille. The calculations are mainly based on in-depth studies of fatal car crashes and data from police controls.

  • 30.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Prognosintervall för antal allvarligt skadade i vägtrafikolyckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of seriously injured road users is used both as an indicator of traffic safety trends in Sweden and in more specific studies of, for example, different road user groups. A seriously injured person is defined as a person who suffers injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 1 percent. The term very seriously injured is used as a complement and is defined correspondingly but refers to injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 10 percent. In practice, the level of impairment is not known at the time of the accident, and therefore the number of seriously and very seriously injured persons are forecasted. The basis for the forecasts are Strada, the national database for road traffic accidents in Sweden, and a method developed by Folksam (a Swedish insurance company) that estimates the risk that a person’s injuries will lead to permanent medical impairment in the future. The aim of this study is to present the size of the uncertainty of the forecasts for different subpopulations such as geographical areas, roads user groups, age and gender. The uncertainty of the forecasts is illustrated as forecasting intervals. It became clear during the study that derivation of the intervals was relatively easy for the case with one injury per person but considerably more difficult when the persons had a combination of several injuries. Therefore, the width of the intervals was determined using simulation instead of theoretical calculations.

  • 31.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol och droger i trafiken - var står vi idag?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rattfylleri är ett av de största trafiksäkerhetsproblemen i Sverige. I den här artikeln ges en översikt över den senaste tidens forskning vad gäller problemets omfattning, attityder till att köra rattfull och de åtgärder som erbjuds. Genomgången, som avser svenska förhållanden, visar att vi har mer kunskap om rattfylleri med avseende på alkohol än med avseende på droger. Forskningen visar att alkoholrattfylleri är ett större trafiksäkerhetsproblem än drograttfylleri men att även drograttfylleri är förenat med stora risker. Det är därför viktigt att förbättra kunskapen om droger i trafiken. Det är också viktigt att beakta att det bakom många rattfylleribrott finns människor med missbruksproblem och att rehabilitering därför bör ingå som en del av trafiksäkerhetsarbetet.

  • 32.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kartläggning av personskadeolyckor med fyrhjulingar på väg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att kartlägga fyrhjulingsåkare som skadats i olyckor som skett på väg under perioden 2003–2013. Mer specifikt har syftet varit:

    • att beskriva egenskaper hos de skadade och andra omständigheter kring olyckan så som ålder, kön, misstanke om rattfylleri och hjälmanvändning
    • att, utifrån olycksbeskrivningen, analysera vad som orsakade olyckan
    • att analysera hur olyckans svårhetsgrad beror av generella egenskaper hos fordonet, vägen och föraren
    • att kartlägga vilka delar av kroppen som skadas.

    Kartläggningen har baseras på både polisrapporterade och sjukhusrapporterade olyckor i Strada och totalt har 1039 personer studerats.

  • 33.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Rattfylleriets omfattning bland svårt skadade förare: En skattning baserad på polisens misstanke2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten i den här studien visar att bland de förare som misstänks för påverkan av alkohol eller annat ämne enligt Strada så har detta också bekräftats i 65 procent av fallen (konfidensintervall: 54-76 %). Detta framkommer när registreringen i Strada jämförts med uppgifter i olycksmaterial som erhållits av polisen. I resterande fall är det många gånger okänt om föraren varit rattfull eller inte och därför kan endast en miniminivå av andel rattfulla skattas.

    Andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade personbilsförarna skattas till minst åtta procent. Motsvarande andel för motorcykelförare och mopedförare är sju respektive tio procent. Resultaten är alltså av samma storleksordning för alla dessa fordonsslag. Vidare visar resultaten att andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade är högre på natten än på dagen och högre i singelolyckor än i kollisionsolyckor.

    Man kan också konstatera att polisen endast i mycket begränsad utsträckning verkar utnyttja den möjlighet som finns att begära blodprov från förare som varit inblandade i en trafikolycka, även om ingen misstanke om rattfylleribrott finns.

  • 34.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Förekomst av droger och läkemedel i trafik i Sverige: resultat från EU-projektet DRUID2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population, i.e. among drivers on the road, was 2.5 per cent between the years 2006 and 2011 in Sweden. The prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among drivers killed in traffic the same years was 31.2 per cent. In comparison with other countries in the EU project DRUID, Sweden has the highest proportion of negative results, i.e. drivers without the presence of alcohol, drugs or medicine. This applies to both drivers on the road and drivers killed in traffic.

    The studies that form the basis of this report have been performed within the project DRUID - Driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine, which is a project within the EU's Sixth Framework Programme, which lasted five years (2006-2011). This report presents two sub-studies from the DRUID project. The aims of these studies were: - to study the prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population (study among drivers on the road). - to study the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among killed drivers (study of killed drivers).

    In the study among drivers on the road, saliva samples were collected. Toxicological results were analysed from 6,199 drivers in Södermanland, Örebro and Östergötland out of 10,223 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were stopped by the police in March 2008- February 2009. In the study of killed drivers we have toxicological results from 157 fatalities out of 178 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were killed in traffic accidents in 2008.

  • 35.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Co-operation between police and social treatment services offering treatment to drink and drug drivers: experience in Sweden2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe and analyze a measure that has been introduced in Sweden with the objective of quickly offering treatment for the alcohol or drug problems suspected drink or drug drivers may have. The goal of the measure is that every suspected drink or drug driver shall, as soon as apprehended by the police, be offered contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, which can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment.

    Method: Interviews and questionnaire surveys, as well as forms that describe the treatment received by each individual case.

    Results: About 20 percent of all those who receive the offer from the police accept contact with the social services or the care and treatment service, and approximately 40 percent of these also attend the consultation. There is a favorable fundamental attitude to the method among the participating authorities. However, some shortcomings in application are revealed. One example concerns drug drivers who are offered contact with the social services or the care and treatment service to a considerably lesser extent than drink drivers. Another neglected group are the people who are at first suspected of drink driving but are later found to have an alcohol concentration below the legal limit. Compared with those who have an alcohol concentration above the legal limit, this group is offered contact to a lesser extent and also have a lower propensity to accept the offer.

    Conclusions: The results indicate a strong support for the method from involved authorities, but participation could be improved by giving more attention to neglected groups.

  • 36.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skadade motorcyklister: en analys av var i vägnätet som motorcyklister skadas och skadornas svårhetsgrad2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to examine where on the road network motorcyclists are injured. Accidents involving four-wheelers (ATVs, quad bikes) have also been studied, although to a lesser degree. The study is based on police reported injury accidents in Sweden during the period 2003–2012. The results show that motorcyclists, to a greater degree than car occupants, are injured within built-up areas. The same is not true for drivers of four-wheelers. Injury patterns are distributed in the same way as for car occupants between built-up and non built-up areas. Killed and severely injured motorcyclists are overrepresented in accidents at intersections when compared to occupants of passenger cars. The opposite is true for injured four-wheeler drivers who are overrepresented on road sections. The exposure of motorcycle traffic on different parts of the road network is largely unknown. It is therefore, in general, not possible to calculate injury risks. However, when compared to other roads, there seems to be an increased risk of being killed or severely injured on roads with a 70 km/h speed limit.

  • 37.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Cassani, Mirella
    KITE.
    Amantini, Aladino
    KITE.
    Lai, Frank
    University of Leeds.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Arvidsson, Marcus
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Results from the analysis and input to the development and validation of the statistical models2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of Deliverable 5.1 of the ITERATE project is to present results of analyses made of the data collected in the ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments. The ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments consisted of train and car driving experiments carried out on a portable car/train driving simulator platform and in full scale car and train driving simulators. The analyses conducted and presented in this deliverable consist of hypothesis testing, cluster analysis and development of a procedure for estimation of parameters of relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model. Findings from the analyses show that country was found to be an important factor in both the car and train driving experiment. Significant effects of the factor workload were also established in many of the events analysed. The conclusion of comparisons between the data collected in the portable and full scale simulators is that the ITERATE portable driving simulator platform is a suitable tool to studying underlying factors controlling driver behaviour at least for the car diving. However, there were differences between the portable and full scale train simulators. These differences have to be considered in later stages of the project. The next step within the ITERATE project is to estimate relevant relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model based on the findings of the analyses presented in this deliverable. The analyses presented will also be important as inspiration for other studies outside of the present project with the ITERATE driving simulator dataset as an important source of data.

  • 38.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Säkerhet och arbetsmiljö vid väg- och spårarbeten: implementeringsprocessen av nytt regelverk och dess effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was, through the use of interviews, case studies, and a reference group meeting to describe and analyze the implementation process of new and revised regulations. This applies to both road and track in their administrative and operational activities within the Swedish Transport Administration and their contractors. The aim was also to analyze the effects the new and revised regulations had on roles and responsibilities but also their own and others' safety. For work on the road, new rules and regulations were established, which became effective as of 1st of January 2013. With regard to rail, a number of measures were implemented in 2011 to improve safety that included changed rules for work on and beside the tracks.

  • 39.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Unga mopedisters olycksinblandning: orsaker och konsekvenser2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to increase knowledge about the processes leading to accidents. This was done with a knowledge review, an in-depth study of moped crashes with serious injuries and an analysis of teenagers’ discussions on the internet about moped riding. Moped accidents are most common among young men. A number of different contributing factors have been identified as important for the possibilities to drive safely and avoid accidents. In addition to skills to maneuver the moped in traffic, other aspects important for motivation and choices before and during driving are presented. This may for example be age, sex, personality, group affiliation, socio economic standing and brain maturation. The statistics on moped sales show that fewer and fewer mopeds are sold in Sweden. The reduction in sales of class I is largest. There are several possible reasons for this, such as new rules for licensing or low economic growth. The reduction is also reflected in a reduction of the number of accident and injured persons over time. The domination by accidents involving 15-year-olds are also decreasing. From the interviews, it is obvious that riding moped in gangs is something that mainly boys are doing. Riding in gangs is also age related since when they are continuing to the gymnasium (high school), other interests than moped riding are taking over, occupying evenings and weekends. From the Internet analysis, it is clear that young people are discussing mopeds and moped riding in many different forums. The topics are spare parts, technical matters, tuning, speeding, helmet use, police chases etc. The discussions may be regarded as a basis for the development of role models and ideal for different subcultures within the moped world. Measures were discussed in the areas of police, rules and regulations, age limits, technical aspects, insurance, education, parental engagement, information campaigns, internet, vehicle classifications, infrastructure and future technical support systems.

  • 40. Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i körkortsutbildningen: en studie av effekter på körbeteende och bränsleförbrukning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to measure the effects of the education in environmental friendly driving that is included in the Swedish driver education for license class B on fuel consumption and a selection of driving behaviour that are typical for environmental friendly driving among drivers with license since half a year. Comparisons were made between a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had much  education in environmental friendly driving and a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had  little or none such education. Those with much education in environmental friendly driving had participated more in both driving lessons and theory lessons at driving schools than those with little education. The drivers drove an instrumented car along a pre-defined road of 30 km where 12 parts were used to collect data about fuel consumption and a selection of different driving behaviour.  The results show that education in environmental friendly driving during driver licensing has had an effect on fuel consumption. The group with much education used 8.7 percent less fuel than the group with little education. However, an expert/educator in environmental friendly driving who was driving the same roads had a much lower fuel consumption. This can probably be explained by the more complex driving behaviour, such as driving in mixed traffic with zero consumption and to minimize declutching and braking to the advantage of engine braking, requiring a higher mental load of novice drivers. 

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    15-åringar i Nordens trafik: Vad vet de? Vad tycker de? Vad gör de?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med enkätundersökningen var att skaffa ett underlag för att förbättra trafiksäkerheten bland ungdomar i Norden. I projektet har barn i åldern 12-17-år kallats ”de glömda barnen” eftersom väldigt lite görs för deras trafiksäkerhet. Slutsatser från studien är att det finns en rad kunskaper, attityder och beteenden som inte är på topp när det gäller trafiksäkerhet. Även om många ungdomar vet mycket och beter sig rätt är andelen som gör fel alldeles för hög. Det visar att det finns ett stort behov av att arbeta med ungdomarna och att en stor del av deras trafikolyckor skulle kunna förhindras med ett mer systematiskt och målinriktat arbete. När det gäller Sverige kan konstaterasatt de stora bristerna i nationellt stöd till skolans arbete med trafikfrågor också ger resultat i bristande attityder, kunskaper och beteenden.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Barn i bil: Litteratur som underlag till NTF Konsument2013Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters hjälmanvändning i ett regionalt perspektiv: fokusgruppsintervjuer samt analys av olycks- och skadedata2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to obtain knowledge about bicycle helmet use and its variations across Sweden. First, data on cyclists’ accidents, injuries and helmet use were studied in terms of regional differences. These data were taken from hospital reported accidents in the database Strada (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and from VTI’s observational studies of bicycle helmet use on bike routes. Cyclists aged 16 years or older were studied and especially in Stockholm, Malmö and Umeå. It is noted that in Malmö, the proportion of accidents between bicycles and motor vehicles are 25 per cent, which is a higher proportion than in the other cities. Accordingly single accidents in Malmö represent a smaller proportion (63%). In Umeå single accidents constitute a much larger percentage (81%) and collisions with motor vehicles, only eight per cent. It is unclear if there are differences in the traffic environment or operation and maintenance that may be the reason for the differences in the types of accidents. It may also be noted that the use of bicycle helmets in Stockholm is by far the highest in Sweden, both on bike routes and in accidents. In addition, the helmet use in bicycle accidents in Stockholm is lower than among observed cyclists on bike routes in traffic. It should be noted, however, that the observations are made only during daytime Monday to Friday. In the project also focus group interviews in Stockholm, Malmö and Umeå have been conducted with a total of 23 participants. These cities were selected because of differences in bicycle helmet use and to get a spread in cities with different climates and different traffic environments. The focus group interviews have given information about what affects the use or nonuse of helmets. With this knowledge measures could be performed and lead to a higher helmet use throughout the country.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hastighetsförseelser vid olika hastighetsgränser i Västerbottens och Norrbottens län, juli 2006 - juni 2007: Promemoria på uppdrag av Vägverket Region Norr2007Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hastighetsförseelser vid olika hastighetsgränser, maj-augusti 2007: Promemoria på uppdrag av Vägverket Region Norr2007Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kantstensparkering och trafiksäkerhet2011Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Mobile Phone use while Driving in Sweden2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Ashgate, 2003, p. 293-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nordiska invånares syn på trafiksäkerhet: Resultat från en enkätundersökning genomförd av Nordiska Trafiksäkerhetsrådet våren 2010 i Danmark, Finland, Färöarna, Norge och Sverige2011Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Smadit-metodens nytta och effekter: en uppföljande intervjustudie med misstänkta rattfyllerister2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Misstänkta rattfyllerister som snabbt efter en rattfyllerihändelse fått kontakt med socialtjänst eller beroendevård för hjälp när det gäller missbruk anser att insatsen varit till stor nytta. Metoden att upprätta en kontakt inom 24 timmar används över hela landet för att minska antalet påverkade förare i trafiken. Enligt detta notat har metoden effekt. Smadit – Samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken – kallas metoden som har till syfte att minska antalet påverkade förare på väg och till sjöss och att minska antalet återfall i rattfylleribrott. Samverkan sker mellan framför allt polis, kommuner (socialtjänst) och landsting (beroendevård). Metodens utgångspunkt är att misstänkta rattfyllerister så snabbt som möjligt ska komma i kontakt med socialtjänst eller beroendevård om de vill ha hjälp med att komma till rätta med missbruk eller beroende av alkohol eller droger. I den här studien har tolv personer som haft en rattfyllerihändelse ungefär ett år tidigare intervjuats om sin livssituation idag. Samtliga informanter har genom Smadit-metoden kommit till socialtjänst eller beroendevård och några har också deltagit i rehabiliterande/behandlande kurser eller program i syfte att ändra alkoholmissbruk eller beroende. Smadit kan anses ha stor nytta och en effekt för att minska rattfylleri utifrån följande: • Informanternas uppskattning och tacksamhet för att de fick Smadit-erbjudandet av polisen, eftersom de är osäkra på om de själva skulle ha kontaktat de instanser de behövde för att komma tillrätta med sina alkoholproblem. • Den insikt i alkoholvanor och alkoholkonsumtion som informanterna erhållit i samtal på socialtjänsten eller beroendevården, i samtal med övervakare eller genom deltagande i kurser och rehabiliteringsprogram. • Informanternas förändrade beteende när det gäller att dricka alkohol, där de flesta dricker mycket mindre än tidigare eller helt avstår. • Informanternas förändrade inställning till att det är viktigt att inte köra onykter med anledning av risken att orsaka död eller skada vid en olycka.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cosini, Rickard
    NTF.
    Barns färd i bil: en observationsundersökning genomförd av trafiksäkerhetsorganisationen NTF våren 20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Society for Road Safety, NTF, has conducted an observational survey at 347 preschools comprising 5,000 children aged 0-10 years. The aim of the study was to follow up Swedish laws and recommendations concerning how children are secured when travelling in car. The results show that: - 95 per cent of the children were belted. - 90 per cent did use some sort of child restraint system, which is required if the child is shorter than 135 centimetres. - 5 children aged 1-3 years out of 510 observed in the front passenger seat were placed in rearward facing child restraint system in front of an active airbag. This is illegal and dangerous in a crash where the airbag is activated. - Some children were seated forward facing earlier than stated in Swedish recommendations (which is from 5 years of age); 6 per cent of the 1-year-olds were travelling forward facing, 20 per cent of the 2-year-olds, 60 per cent of the 3-year-olds and 93 per cent of the 4-year-old children. - 15 per cent of the children were seated in front of an active airbag; 11 per cent of the children aged 1-4-years, 22 per cent of the children aged 5-6 years and 20 per cent of the children aged 7-10 years.

    This is against the recommendation indicating that the child has to be 140 centimeters long to be seated in front of an active airbag.

123 1 - 50 of 142
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