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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Property prices and exposure to multiple noise sources: hedonic regression with road and railway noise2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Charging the polluters: a pricing model for road and railway noise2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines a method to estimate the short run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise. It is based on standardized calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary cost estimates from well established evaluation methods. Here official calculation methods and monetary values are used for Sweden, but the estimation method for the SRMC outlined can be directly applied using other standardized noise calculation methods and monetary values. This implies that the current knowledge regarding the calculation of total noise levels and the evaluation of the social cost of noise can be extended to estimate the marginal effect as well. This is an important finding since it enables policy makers to price noise externalities in an appropriate way. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that: (i) increasing the total traffic on the infrastructure has only a minor influence, (ii) estimates are quite sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and (iii) to the monetary values used. Hence, benefits transfer, i.e. using monetary values elicited based on road noise for railway noise, should be done with caution or not at all. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC. The fact that this model is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and even technologies is an important finding. It is essential that the noise charges give the operators the right incentives to choose their optimal allocation.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Noise charges in road traffic: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way of mitigating the negative effects of noise from road traffic is to include the external cost of noise in a road charging system. This study shows how standardized calculation methods for road traffic noise can be used together with monetary estimates of the social cost of noise exposure to calculate charges based on the social marginal cost. Using Swedish data on traffic volume and individuals exposed to road noise, together with official Swedish monetary values for noise exposure, we estimate road-noise charges for light (cars) and heavy (trucks) vehicles.

  • 5.
    Bergh, Torsten
    et al.
    Movea.
    Nordqvist, Karin
    Trafikverket.
    Strömgren, Per
    Movea.
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Movea.
    Bång, Karl Lennart
    KTH.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Capacity Issues in Sweden - Applications and Research2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, p. 36-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the Swedish trunk road system and present objectives, guidelines concerning capacity and level of service procedures to assess these issues in the feasibility and design procedure are also described.

    An important goal in Sweden is investments and speed limit changes over a 10 year time scale to decrease the C02-exposure. The long term speed limit overview with the objective to require median barriers at speed limits over 80 kph with results so far is presented. By now over 50 % of the former traffic load over 80 kph is decreased to 80 kph. Some 2,700 km have been retrofitted to 2+1 median barrier roads with speed limit mainly 100 kph.

    An overview is also given of the updated Swedish Highway Capacity Manual with new chapters especially on jam densities, entry lanes, weaving areas and traffic signals. Some interesting research projects are also briefly covered. These are 2+1 median barrier roads, capacities at motorway work zones, speed harmonisation with variable speed limits on motorways to increase capacity, ramp metering and Drive Me (autonomous driving full scale tests).

  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Winter model: roadside salt exposure under different weather conditions2008In: Surface transportation weather and snow removal and ice control technology, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, TRB , 2008, p. 159-170Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental model is a submodel in the Swedish winter maintenance management system, the Winter Model. The Winter Model will make it possible to assess the most important effects and their monetary value of changes in winter maintenance strategies and operations in Sweden. The effects are assessed for road users, road administrators, and the environment. Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti- and deicing on roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. In this paper, research results from some recent field studies are used to illustrate how the transport mechanisms responsible for the roadside exposure to deicing salt is working under different weather conditions. In order to improve the current model describing the roadside exposure to salt for even better prediction, the occurrence of plowing actions is also suggested to be incorporated into the model. Further it is suggested that, if also the presumably small depositions of dry salt aerosol particles on larger distance are to be described, the transport mechanism of dry salt crystals, breaking up into small airborne fragments and transported by the wind is also to be incorporated into the model describing the roadside exposure to deicing salt. The results in this paper are beeing incorporated into the Swedish Winter Model.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Säker framkomlighet: trafiksäkerhetseffekter på mitträfflade vägar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the project “Safe accessibility” initiated by the Swedish Transport Administration, development of the use of rumble strips as a measure for improved traffic safety is carried out. Rumble strips are placed in the centre line on roads wider than 7 metres and with a speed limit of 80 km/h or higher. At the request of the Swedish Transport Administration, VTI has completed a study analysing the effect of such rumble strips on the road. The main purpose with central rumble strips is to “wake up” drivers who for some reason unintentionally are starting to pass the middle line. Earlier studies abroad and Swedish in-depth fatal accident studies indicate that this measure would have a positive safety effect, especially on running off the road to the left and head-on accidents. The aim of this report is to study the accident rates on roads which have been equipped with rumble strips in the middle. The most important parameter to study is the rate of fatalities or seriously injured road users (FSI-rate) after the measure (performance of rumble strips) compared to the FSI-rate before the measure. It should also have been desirable to study the course of accidents of the actual accident types. However, it has not yet been possible to perform such studies due to uncertain accuracy in the accident spot determination and description of the accident course. The analysis is based on information about the location of roads with rumble strips from the regional offices of the Swedish Transport Administration and accident data from the data base STRADA in the period 2003–2009. The work is a before/after-study in which accident rate before the milling of rumble strips in the middle of the road is compared with the period after. Some of the roads have been equipped with automatic speed cameras during the project. In the present summary, mainly results from roads which were not equipped with speed cameras are accounted for; 212 objects of the total length of 2,570 km. But 17 of these 212 objects have got a reduction of speed limit in September 2008. Thus there are 195 objects with unchanged speed limit, which consist the main results of the study.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Metod för beräkning av fördröjningar på vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjlighet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI report presents a method for calculating expected queue length and travel time delay on one lane road sections without overtaking possibilities. The method was developed 2001 and presented in a working paper. The background for the model development was that the Swedish Road Administration (now the Swedish Transport Administration) planned to build so called 1+1 roads, i.e. roads with longer sections without overtaking possibilities. The method developed has later on also shown to be valuable for level of service calculations of 2+1 roads with varying share of two lane sections and for developing speed-flow relationships for the Administration’s ”Effect calculations for road facilities”. The method uses section length, traffic flow, average speed and standard deviation as input. The method is divided with respect to calculation of effects due to single slowrunning vehicles and effects at “normal” speed distribution. Since no data were available when the model was developed, the model results were instead compared to traffic simulations with the microscopic traffic simulation model AIMSUN. The results show a good correlation but the analytical model gives in general approximately 1.2 per cent lower travel time delay. The differences can probably partly be explained by the stochastic parts of the simulation model. One should also remember that neither the analytical model nor the simulation model has been calibrated and validated with real data for this type of roads. Thus, the differences between the models do not necessary imply that the analytical model is the one deviating from reality.

  • 9.
    Dahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Div Ergonom & Aerosol Technology.
    Gharibi, Arash
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University.
    Bohgard, Mats
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface2006In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1314-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7 x 10(11) and 3.2 x 10(12) particles vehicle(-1) km(-1) at speeds of 50 and 70 km h(-1). This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 11.
    Forssén, Jens
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Wei, Weigang
    Ghent University.
    Van Renterghem, Timothy
    Ghent University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    A model of sound scattering by atmospheric turbulence for use in noise mapping calculations2014In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 810-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound scattering due to atmospheric turbulence limits the noise reduction in shielded areas. An engineering model is presented, aimed to predict the scattered level for general noise mapping purposes including sound propagation between urban canyons. Energy based single scattering for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence following the Kolmogorov model is assumed as a starting point and a saturation based on the von Kármán model is used as a first-order multiple scattering approximation. For a single shielding obstacle the scattering model is used to calculate a large dataset as function of the effective height of the shielding obstacle and its distances to source and receiver. A parameterisation of the dataset is used when calculating the influence of single or double canyons, including standardised air attenuation rates as well as façade absorption and Fresnel weighting of the multiple façade reflections. Assuming a single point source, an aver aging over three receiver positions and that each ground reflection causes energy doubling, the final engineering model is formulated as a scattered level for a shielding building without canyon plus a correction term for the effect of a single or a double canyon, assuming a flat rooftop of the shielding building. Input parameters are, in addition to geometry and sound frequency, the strengths of velocity and temperature turbulence.

  • 12.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP Environment.
    Good sound environment in green areas modify road-traffic noise annoyance at home2009In: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009), uo: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , p. 9p. 1579-1587Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing recognition among noise researchers that natural elements and natural areas of the built environment have potentials to reduce annoyance due to traffic noise. It has been suggested that presence of vegetation (e.g., trees, bushes, grass, flowers) contributes to an aesthetically pleasing environment, which influence overall residential satisfaction and people?s perception of the noise. Other expected benefits of natural elements/areas are prevention or modification of adverse effects of work-, personal-, or environmental stress (e.g., noise) through restoration processes. Within the large TVANE-project, the present study examined the effect of green areas (park or similar at walking distance) on noise responses in residential settings (n=468) exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h 45 to 65 dB). A binary multiple logistic regression analysis, with sound exposure as the prime variable assumed to predict general noise annoyance at home, indicated that presence of green areas, a closer distance to it from the subject?s home, and perceived green-area characteristics (good sound environment, high attractiveness and potentials for recreational activities) significantly lowered noise annoyance. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationship between noise and annoyance is influenced by access to nearby green areas provided that they have good environmental quality, particularly regarding the perceived sound environment

  • 13.
    Goubert, Luc
    et al.
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    The PERSUADE project: developing the concept of poroelastic road surface into a powerful tool for abating traffic noise2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE 2010, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, , p. 10p. 7329-7338Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the noise-abating action plans emanating from the European Noise Directive, there is much need for effective and efficient measures to abate traffic noise. In September 2009, the EC-funded project PERSUADE was started with a view to developing the concept of poroelastic road surface (PERS) into a durable, safe and environmentally friendly tool for extreme noise reduction. The main ingredients for PERS are recycled tyre granules and a polymer binder (generally polyurethane, not bitumen). The work will be carried out by a European consortium of twelve partners specialized in different fields and will be coordinated by the Belgian Road Research Centre. This contribution will discuss the state of the art for PERS and outline the working plan for the PERSUADE project.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from pavements and tyres: properties, controlling factors and mitigation measures2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Sjövall, Billy
    SLB-analys.
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga att minska PM10-halter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project three road sweepers' effect on PM10 concentrations in ambient air and on the road surface has been tested. Two studies have been carried out; one in street environment at Sveavägen in central Stockholm, Sweden, and one with controlled trials at Barkarby airport.

    The tests at Sveavägen showed that the sweepers' effect on total PM10 concentrations was small. In particularly favourable meteorological conditions, however, significant decreases in the local PM10 contribution of up to 20% could be found. Sweeper A contributed more often to elevated PM10 concentration during drive-by than sweeper B, while sweeper B more frequently contributed to elevated NOx levels. The dust depot on the road surface proved difficult to evaluate. In sweeper A's road stretch was, however, the main depot along the roadside, while it was greatest along the road center in sweeper B's stretch.

    Tests at Barkarby showed that sweeper B, under dry conditions (sweeper A was deleted) managed to clean up an applied material to about 85-95% (slightly lower for PM10). In moist conditions (sweeper B was deleted) the efficiency of sweeper A was slightly over 40% for the entire material, while significantly lower (approx. 5%) for PM10. Sweeper C, which only took part in the moist test, cleaned approximately 99% of the applied material and the efficiency for PM10 was the same.

    Overall, this project shows that road sweepers can contribute to decreased concentrations of PM10 in environments where road dust suspension is an important source of particulate matter, but also that sweeping technology and sweeping strategy need to be developed to work well under different meteorological conditions.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Slitagepartiklar från vägbeläggningar med gummiinblandad bitumen: jämförelser med referensbeläggning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dubbdäcksslitage av vägbeläggningar orsakar emissioner av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) vars tillåtna halt i omgivningsluften är reglerad enligt en miljökvalitetsnorm. Ett sätt att minska partikelemissionen är att anpassa beläggningarnas egenskaper. Föreliggande projekt har undersökt betydelsen för partikelbildningen av inblandning av gummi från bildäck i två beläggningars bitumenfas. Undersökningen genomfördes i VTI:s provvägsmaskin där två gummiinblandade beläggningar av olika konstruktion (GAP11 och GAÖ11) och en referensbeläggning (ABS11) undersöktes. De bildade partiklarnas halter och storleksfördelningar studerades.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from road pavements with rubber mixed bitumen: comparison with reference pavement2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyre wear of road pavements causes emissions of inhalable particles (PM10). Allowed concentration of PM10 is regulated by an EU directive which is implemented in an environmental quality standard in Sweden. One way of reducing pavement wear particles is to adjust the properties of the road pavement. In the present project the effect on particle emission from mixing milled tyre rubber into the pavement bitumen has been investigated. Tests were made by the VTI road simulator using two pavement constructions containing rubber (GAP11 and GAÖ11) and one reference pavement (ABS11). GAP=GAR (Gap Graded Asphalt Rubber), ABS=SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) and GAÖ=OGAR (Open Graded Asphalt Rubber). The concentrations and size distributions of the emitted particles were measured.

    The results show that GAP11 causes lower PM10 concentrations (in this laboratory environment 20–25%) than the reference pavement ABS11, while the GAÖ11 does not differ from the reference. Size distributions show that PM10 has a bi-modal distribution with two mass maxima at 4–5 and 7–8 μm. GAP11 decreases the mass size distribution mainly in the finer mode, while GAÖ11 seems to affect mainly the coarser mode. Ultrafine particles are emitted during all tests and have number distribution maxima at around 20–30 nm. These particles are formed in the interaction between tyre studs and pavement and/or tyre rubber. Higher speed generates higher concentrations of ultrafine particles.

    All in all, the results indicate a lowering effect on PM10 emissions caused by GAP11, while the GAÖ11 does not seem to lower the emissions as compared to the reference pavement ABS11.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Avdelningen för ergonomi och aerosolteknik, Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Avdelningen för ergonomi och aerosolteknik, Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Lindbom, John
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Rudell, Bertil
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Avdelningen för kärnfysik, Fysiska institutionen, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    WearTox: effekter på alveolmakrofager och epitelceller av slitagepartiklar från vägbana och däck2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under slutet på 90-talet genomfördes mätningar av luften partikelhalter i sex svenska städer där syftet var att studera vilka halter som förekommer i gatu-, respektive taknivå och studera partiklarnas ursprung (Areskoug m. fl. 2001). Något förvånande visade det sig att den tydligt dominerande källan till partiklar i gatunivå under vinterhalvåret då halterna är som högst, inte är avgasrelaterade partiklar utan härrör från slitage av vägbana, däck och bromsar. Slitage av vägbanan orsakad av dubbdäcksanvändning bidrar mycket starkt till partikelhalterna, men även vintersandningen är en bidragande orsak. Den nyvunna kunskapen om slitagepartiklarnas betydelse för partikelhalterna kräver ökad kunskap om vilka faktorer som styr bildningen, om partiklarnas egenskaper, om deras eventuella betydelse för hälsoeffekter och om vilka åtgärder som kan bidra till att sänka bidraget.

    Projektet WearTox är ett av de första som Vägverket initierade för att fylla dessa kunskapsluckor. Projektet har utförts av VTI i samarbete med Lunds universitet och Linköpings universitet.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att studera den toxiska potentialen hos slitagepartiklar från beläggning och däck hos exponerade mänskliga luftvägsceller. slitagepartiklarnas fysikaliska, kemiska och morfologiska egenskaper. Under arbetets gång tillkom önskemål om karaktärisering av ytterligare kombinationer av däck vägbana och även från försök med sandad vägbana. Dessa tilläggsbeställningar inkluderade dock inte toxikologiska studier utan begränsade sig till karaktäriseringen av partiklarna.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Håkansson, Karsten
    Geo Innova.
    Lindeberg, Johanna
    SGI.
    Nilsson-Påledal, Sören
    SGI.
    Järnvägens föroreningar - källor, spridning och åtgärder: en litteraturstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pollutants in the railway environment emanate both from emissions from the

    traffic and from the treatment of embankments to control weeds and prevent

    timber sleepers from rotting. During the last years particular attention has

    been paid to air pollution from rail traffic. High concentrations of inhalable

    particles (PM10) have been observed mainly in tunnel environments. This report

    is an international literature survey aiming at compiling and synthezising

    current knowledge concerning railway pollutants, their sources, dispersion and

    possible measures to reduce pollution. The study does not take into account

    point sources in connection to accidents or diesel powered railway traffic.

    The main railway pollutants are identified as inhalable particles, herbicides,

    PAH and heavy metals. Except for a compilation of current knowledge about

    these pollutants, some lack of knowledge has been identified. More

    comprehensive studies of railway pollution and pollutant dispersion in air,

    soil and water are absent in the literature. For water recipients and other

    sensitive environments exposed to railway pollution as well as for certain

    rail stretches with potential considerable emissions, this kind of studies

    should be well advised. Especially, understanding the relationship between

    emission, dispersion and exposure is important if we are to take suitable

    measures. An important knowledge gap concerns the formation, properties and

    potential health effects of inhalable particles from railway traffic.

    Inhalable particles in our ambient air are considered one of our most serious

    health-related environmental problems. Therefore there is a need for increased

    knowledge about railway contributions and health effects of pollutants in

    different environments as well as about which measures are most effective.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road dust and air quality in Sweden2008In: Surface transportation weather and snow removal and ice control technology, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, TRB , 2008, p. 187-196Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years it has become evident that wear particles from road pavements, tires, brakes, and road maintenance strongly contribute to episodes with very high concentration of inhalable particles (PM10) in outdoor air. These episodes normally occur during dry periods in winter and spring when accelerated wear and particle production occurs due to the use of studded tires and winter gritting. A lot of new knowledge about wear particles is needed in order to develop cost-efficient measures to deal with them. A great advantage is the possibility to study aerosols from each source both separately and in different combination in a controlled environment. At VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute) a road simulator, previously used for pavement and tire wear studies, is used as a wear particle generator. Measurements of PM10 in the road simulator hall have been used to study the influence of pavement properties, tire type, and vehicle speed on pavement wear. In several cities in Sweden, different winter maintenance chemicals (e.g., calcium magnesium acetate and magnesium chloride) have recently started to be used as dustbinders in springtime in order to abate the dust problem. Also other measures aiming at abating road dust concentrations are under way, including reduced studded tire use and speed reductions. In this paper compilations of results from several recent research projects and field case studies will be presented. Different pavements, tires, winter maintenance abrasive material, as well as measures like reduced studded tire wear and chemical dustbinding are discussed.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ferm, Martin
    IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet AB.
    Effekter av dammbindning av belagda vägar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable particles from road dust is a health problem and a major cause of the environmental quality standard for particles in outdoor air not being reached in Sweden. Formation of road dust along paved roads in the Nordic countries is largely related to the use of studded tires and winter operation of highways, such as sanding and salting. To reduce dust suspension chemical dust control is sometimes used, meaning that a chemical solution is sprayed onto the road which is thus kept moist and dust is prevented from whirling up. Mainly, chloride salts are used, but also more environmentally friendly alternatives have been tested. All are stated to operate for dust control, but some problems have arisen with friction reduction, which have contributed to the uncertainty surrounding their use. The purpose of this report is to investigate which dust control agents that have the best effect, while not compromising road safety by reducing friction. A literature survey on the effects of dust control agents was made prior to field trials in this study. This survey is annexed to this report. In the field experiments four dust binders were tested; calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and sugar solution on a road south of Linköping.

  • 22.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rolling resistance model, fuel consumption model and the traffic energy saving potential from changed road surface conditions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate traffic energy changes due to the improvement of road surface standard one need to describe:

    • • rolling resistance at different road surface conditions
    • • all other driving resistance
    • • fuel consumption (Fc) as a function of driving resistance.

    Based mainly on empirical data from coastdown measurements in Sweden a general rolling resistance model – with roughness (iri), macrotexture (mpd), temperature and speed as explanatory variables – was developed and calibrated for a car; a heavy truck and a heavy truck with trailer.

    This rolling resistance model has been incorporated into a driving resistance based Fc model with a high degree of explanation. The Fc function also includes variables for horizontal curvature (ADC) and the road gradient (RF). If mpd per road link is reduced by up to 0.5 mm, the total Fc in the road network will be reduced by 1.1%. By reducing iri per link by 0.5 m/km, speed will increase in parallel to reduced rolling resistance and there will be approximately no resulting effect on Fc. If rut depth is decreased in parallel to iri there will be a further increase in speed. For individual road links there might be an energy saving potential if the proportion of heavy vehicles is big enough.

  • 23.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Haider, Manfred
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Conter, Marco
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Goubert, Luc
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Bergiers, Anneleen
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Glaeser, Klaus-Peter
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).
    Schwalbe, Gernot
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).
    Zöller, Marek
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).
    Boujard, Olivier
    IFSTTAR.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ejsmont, Jerzy A.
    Technical University of Gdansk (TUG).
    Wang, T
    University of California, Pavement Research Center, UC Davis and Berkeley, Davis, California.
    Harvey, J.T.
    University of California, Pavement Research Center, UC Davis and Berkeley, Davis, California.
    Rolling resistance: basic information and state-of-the-art on measurement methods. Final version2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    MIRIAM has established a sub-project (SP), designated SP 1, to deal with measurement methods for rolling resistance and related issues. This subject forms the most fundamental basis for the MIRIAM ambition to consider rolling resistance in pavement management or other types of infrastructure systems. Without robust measurement methods and equipment that can use them there will be no reliable data as input to such systems and the end result will be most uncertain, if useful at all.

    In order to develop and study measurement methods, there must be a basic understanding of the influencing parameters as well as what energy losses that should be included in the concept of rolling resistance. These issues are, therefore, important parts of the work in SP 1.

    This report is intended to provide basic knowledge about the part of the tyre and road interaction which relates to rolling resistance; for example, the mechanisms that create rolling resistance, and the influence on rolling resistance of various tyre and road parameters. The intention is also to suggest a definition of rolling resistance for the purposes of this project, as well as to provide some detailed state-of-the-art knowledge about the measurement methods and equipment that are useful for collecting rolling resistance data.

  • 24.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Coastdown measurement with 60-tonne truck and trailer: estimation of transmission, rolling and air resistance2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of coastdown measurements, driving resistance parameters have been estimated for a truck with trailer (60t) and a box vehicle body. At a vehicle speed of 20 m/s, average meteorological wind conditions and a load factor of 50% the following distribution of the driving resistance components has been obtained:

    • transmission resistance (churning losses), 5%
    • rolling resistance (test route surface conditions), 41%
    • air resistance, 54%.

    There are also measurements for the truck without a trailer. Rolling resistance is dependent on road surface conditions, in particular roughness (iri) and macro texture (mpd). The total rolling resistance consists of three parts: a basic, an iri and a mpd part. The road surface effect amounts to approximately 40% of the total rolling resistance. The iri effect seems to be the dominating part of the surface effects on the contrary to light vehicles.

    Driving resistance parameters have been estimated by means of regression analysis. A major problem is how to avoid high correlations between explanatory variables. One objective of the experiment design has been to minimize such dependencies. This study might also be of interest for methodological reasons and in particular for including:

    • the introduction of high accuracy road gradients as well as other road surface properties
    • the estimation of vehicle mass from coastdown to coastdown
    • the equipment (based on Doppler technique) used in order to measure the coastdown driving pattern
    • the method used in order to separate parts of the driving resistance
  • 25.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    A method for estimation of average engine fuel maps: power measurements at drive wheels2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for engine maps in order to simulate fuel consumption for road vehicles after mechanistic principles. In an engine map, fuel consumption (g/kWh or g/s) is expressed as a function of engine speed and engine torque. In general, there is a considerable lack in engine map data. The main purpose of this study is to develop a tool for assigning any segment of the car fleet a representative engine map. Two methods have been developed: a "matrix" method based on interpolation of measured values to a uniform grid of values and a "function" method based on regressions. The function alternative is in focus in this documentation. The estimated functions have a high degree of explanation (>0,97). On commission of the Swedish Road Administration, Rototest AB has measured stationary fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for more than 400 cars of different year models. If this data set could be used in mechanistic simulation models one could expect increased representativity in different applications. Advantages with the Rototest method, where the engine at measurements is mounted in the vehicle, could be increased representativity and lower costs compared to motor test bench, which is the traditional method for engine map measurements. One problem with the Rototest data set is that engine torque or power, which is needed in an engine map, is not available, only the output power from the final gear box. In order to estimate crankshaft torque, transmission losses need to be estimated.

  • 26.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    An analysis of the Swedish HGV fleet with driving resistance in focus: vehicle parameters as a basis for HBEFA emission factor estimation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to estimate energy use and exhaust emissions from road traffic, on a regional or a national level, one needs representative emission factors. Emission factors are estimated based on vehicle driving resistance. Driving resistance is estimated based on representative driving patterns and vehicle parameters. In the HBEFA program, used for estimation of road traffic exhaust emissions, the vehicle fleet is divided into vehicle categories. One such category is Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV). The HGV category is divided into vehicle segments after maximum vehicle weight (GVW). One further division is into vehicle combinations, a rigid truck (RT) or a truck with trailer (TT). Vehicle segments are divided into Euro classes approximately corresponding to year model intervals. For each segment and Euro class there is a set of emission factors. Then there is need for vehicle parameters per vehicle segment and Euro class. HGV emission factors on the Euro class level are treated as independent of calculation year. Emission factors for HGV vehicles in HBEFA are calculated by means of the PHEM computer program. The PHEM simulations are based on driving resistance estimation. In order to estimate vehicle parameters, data available in the Swedish national vehicle register (1997, 2004 and 2009) and in transport surveys (1997 and 2003) has been compiled. Survey data including mileage is necessary in order to estimate vehicle parameters for average road conditions. The split into RT and TT segments demands access to mileage data describing the use of trailer. The total number of HGV in the Swedish vehicle fleet is approximately the same 2010 as 1990. Despite this there are most important changes within the HGV fleet in this time period, such as the proportion of trucks with GVW>26t has increased from 6 to 36 per cent. In this group there are some segments with very large changes of proportion. In parallel to an important change in the segment distribution one could expect a change in distribution also inside individual segments and Euro classes by time influencing the average vehicle parameters and finally the emission factors.

  • 27.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Marginalkostnadsskattningar för buss och lätt lastbil: buller, trafiksäkerhet och vägslitage2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to estimate marginal costs for noise, traffic safety and road wear and tear for buses and light trucks. The noise costs are computed using the Nord 2000 model together with values from ASEK 5. Marginal costs for traffic safety are estimated using accident information from STRADA, together with a distribution showing the shares of traffic in urban and non-urban areas and values from ASEK 5. The marginal costs for road wear and tear are computed by an adjustment of costs for average weighted vehicles from ASEK 5. The adjustment is based on the number of equivalent standard axle loadings. For buses the number of standard axles is computed using information from the road traffic registry. The number of standard axles on light trucks is computed using the maximum total weight of that vehicle category. The marginal cost for noise is differentiated between roads with various traffic load and roads with differently populated surroundings.

  • 28.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology .
    Forssén, Jens
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Van Renterghem, Timothy
    Ghent University.
    Wei, Weigang
    Ghent University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Salomons, Erik
    TNO Urban Environment and Health.
    Urban background noise mapping: The multiple-reflection correction term2014In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 293-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping of road traffic noise in urban areas according to standardized engineering calculation methods systematically results in an underestimation of noise levels at areas shielded from direct exposure to noise, such as inner yards. In most engineering methods, road traffic lanes are represented by point sources and noise levels are computed utilizing point-to-point propagation paths. For a better prediction of noise levels in shielded urban areas, an extension of engineering methods by an attenuation term Acan has been proposed, including multiple reflections of the urban environment both in the source and in the receiver area.

    The present work has two main contributions for the ease of computing Acan. Firstly, it is shown by numerical calculations that Acan may be divided into independent source and receiver environment terms, As and Ar. Based on an equivalent free field analogy, the distance dependence of these terms may moreover be expressed analytically. Secondly, an analytical expression is proposed to compute As and Ar for 3D configurations from using 2D configurations only. The expression includes dependence of the street width-to-height ratio, the difference in building heights and the percentage of facade openings in the horizontal plane. For the expression to be valid, the source should be separated from the receiver environment by at least four times the street width.

  • 29.
    Jerson, T
    et al.
    WSP Environment.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Öhrström, E
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf Gunnarsson, A
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    How does noise annoyance relate to traffic intensity?2010In: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, 18-22 October 2010, Nagahama, Japan, Curran Associates, Inc., 2010, , p. 7p. 1-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the Swedish research program TVANE, where a number of questionnaire surveys has been performed. A comparison between three areas demonstrate that the reported annoyance is higher where the traffic intensity is higher even if the equivalent noise level is the same. The traffic intensity varies with a factor of 7 between the areas, and the reported annoyance is increased 1.3 –2.5 times.

  • 30.
    Jerson, Tomas
    et al.
    WSP Group.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Elmotorvagn Coradia Duplex - Littera X40: indata till beräkningsmodellerna NMT96 och Nord 20002012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten från bullermätningarna visar att den aktuella motorvagnstypen X40 har lägre bulleremission än befintliga tågtyper som t.ex. snabbtåget X2. I diagrammen 1 och 2 redovisas X2-tågets predikterade ljudnivåer i jämförelse med mätresultaten från X40-passager.

    Erhållna data har normaliserats enligt beräkningsmodellerna NMT96 och Nord 2000 och ingångsdata för beräkningar av bullerimmission från elmotorvagn X40 redovisas i tabeller 6 och 7 i avsnitt 6 ”Indata beräkningsmodeller”.

  • 31. Jerson, Tomas
    et al.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Öhrström, Evy
    TVANE - Train vibration and noise effects: presentation of a Swedish research project2009In: Noise Control Engineering. International Congress And Exhibition.: 37th 2008. (Inter-Noise 2008), Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , p. 7p. 1397-1403Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For efficient planning of noise and vibration reducing measures, it is important to have knowledge of the health effects of noise and vibrations from railway traffic as well as from road traffic noise. Issues of relevance are “the railway bonus”, the effect of simultaneous exposure to railway and road traffic noise, the effect of vibrations from railway traffic per se as well as in combination with noise, and effects of high intensive railway traffic. The TVANE-project aims to investigate all these issues by socio-acoustic field surveys, noise and vibration measurements, and laboratory experiments

  • 32.
    Jerson, Tomas
    et al.
    WSP.
    Öström, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Combined effects of noise and vibration from train and road traffic2007In: Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems, 2007, , p. 4p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research project addresses three aims. The first is whether a “train bonus” can be expected, i.e. whether noise from railway traffic is perceived as less annoying than road traffic noise and the same level. The second aim is to investigate the connection between disturbance and exposure to simultaneous noise and vibration from train traffic. The third issue is to investigate concurrent effects from simultaneous exposure to noise from train and road traffic.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Applied Environmental Science ITM, Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    NORTRIP - Non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions: development of a model for assessing the effect on air quality and exposure2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The PM10 concentrations exceed the EU limit values in almost all countries in Europe. Especially, in many Nordic cities, non-exhaust particle emissions are the main reason for high PM10 levels along densely trafficked roads. This is connected to the use of studded tyres and winter time road traction maintenance, e.g. salting and sanding. The ultimate aim of the project has been to develop a process based emission model, that can be applied in any city without site specific empirical factors, for management and evaluation of abatement strategies and that is able to describe the (non-exhaust) emissions on an hourly or at least daily basis with satisfactory accuracy. The model is built upon existing road dust emission models, combined with field and laboratory measurements. The major features of the model are:

    • Road dust and salt loading is calculated based on a mass balance equation
    • Production of road dust, and subsequent emissions, are based on the total wear of road, brakes and tyres
    • Maintenance activities (e.g. salting, sanding, cleaning, ploughing) contribute to the mass balance as well as processes such as drainage and splash/spray
    • Retention of road surface dust is dependent on the surface moisture content
    • The road surface moisture is calculated based on a mass balance equation for surface water and ice
    • Evaporation is based on energy balance modelling of the road surface
    • Maintenance activities (e.g. cleaning, ploughing, salt solutions) and processes (e.g. drainage, splash/ spray) are included in the moisture mass balance
    • The impact of salting on both dust retention and melt temperature is considered
  • 34.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Biodrivmedel: en litteraturöversikt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels in the transport sector have been known as alternatives to gasoline and diesel for a long period of time. However, the use of these fuels in significant amounts has only recently commenced. The development in Sweden can be traced to a desire to decrease oil dependency and emissions of green house gases. Biofuels have the potential to contribute to that these goals are met. Sweden's national goal 2003 concerning the use of biofuels was 3 percent of all fuels in the road transport sector. The actual use reached 2.5 percent. Within the EU the goal is set to 5.75 percent by the end of 2010. The biofuels that are most commonly discussed in national and international perspectives are reviewed in his report. The aim of the report is to provide an overview of trends, use and potentials for biofuels. A distinction is made between those biofuels that are commercially available today (first generation) and those that will be introduced in the future (second generation). First, a general overview of the fuels' production processes and properties is given, and then of production costs and lifecycle perspectives. Effects of biofuels on the environment are discussed and also use and potentials in Sweden, Europe and in the world.

  • 35.
    Jonsson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wet dust sampler: technological innovation for sampling particles and salt on road surface2008In: Surface Transportation Weather andSnow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, TRB , 2008, p. 102-111Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique to sample dust on road surfaces is presented. It is based on the use of water to wash a road surface, hence the name wet dust sampler (WDS). The sample water is collected allowing for a range of analyses. The WDS is a prototype, and this technical note describes the development of the equipment, problems encountered, performance and repeatability, and suggested areas of use.

  • 36.
    Jonsson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Effekt av dammbindning av belagda vägar: en litteraturöversikt2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Appendix 1 till: "Effekter av dammbindning av belagda vägar" av Mats Gustafsson, Göran Blomqvist, Per Jonsson & Martin Ferm.

    Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie är att få en aktuell bild av kunskapen kring effekter av de olika typer av dammbindningsmedel, som av Vägverket bedöms som mest intressanta för användning på belagda vägar.

  • 37.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Träds inverkan på belysningseffekt på gång- och cykelvägar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees and vegetation in the street environment are important components of urban areas and they increase the environmental quality in cities. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of trees on shade effects (illuminance and spectral distribution) in pedestrian and bicycle paths by quantifying the reduction of streetlight caused by tree intrusion in order to give recommendations for the management and maintenance of trees in the street environment. Measurements of the shading were tree intrusion and tree area as well as changes in R/FR. R/FR is a measurement on how shade from vegetation affects the spectral distribution. The results show that any type of intruding vegetation into the sidewalk area has a potential blocking effect on the illuminance and that the effect increased the more the trees are infringing. Tree shadow caused the illuminance to drop between 27-77%. Current guidelines for free height above pedestrian zones, bicycle roads and driving lanes are consequently not high enough to prevent shade effects by trees. The free height of vegetation and trees should be as high as the lighting pole in order to avoid light reductions due to tree intrusion.

  • 38.
    Kalman, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Biligiri, Krishna Prapoorna
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Project PERSUADE: optimization of poroelastic road surfaces in the laboratory2011In: 40th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2011 (INTER-NOISE 2011): (INTER-NOISE 2011), Tokyo: Institute of Noise Control Engineering of Japan (INCE/J), Acoustical Society of Japan (ASJ) , 2011, , p. 9p. 699-707Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper gives a presentation of the Work Package 2 "Mixture optimization" of the European project PERSUADE; a project which aims at developing poroelastic road surfaces (PERS). The latter are assumed to provide a pavement material that provides exceptional tire/road noise reduction. The task of PERS mixture optimization is extremely complicated, as there are a multitude of variants that one would like to try, but resources allow testing only some of them. The WP2 scope of the work includes selecting test methods that reflect the performance of PERS. So far we have focused on mixes with both hard and rubber aggregates to get mixes which are polishing resistant. The paper presents the test methods we finally have chosen and the criteria we have put on the mixes to pass these tests. The paper discusses some test results briefly and acoustical absorption test results in particular. The paper is mainly a methodology description.

  • 39.
    Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Beräkningar av energiåtgång och koldioxidutsläpp vid byggande, drift och underhåll av vägar: beräkningar enligt fyra typfall2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical values have been estimated per km road regarding the use of energy and carbon dioxide emissions for construction as well as maintenance and operation for four separate cases. These cases have been defined from standard motorways, 2+1-roads (Swedish standard road with alternating one and two lanes in each direction) and normal two lane roads. The two lane road was further divided mainly with respect to traffic flow into two separate cases. These four cases have then been analysed during the phases of construction and service for 60 years. The resource needs have been quantified in terms of material and activities. In the next step, the resources used have been translated into energy and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, a typical tunnel and motorway junction have been added to the list of cases analysed in the same manner.

  • 40.
    Karlsson, Rune
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Road surface influence on rolling resistance: coastdown measurements for a car and an HGV2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of road surface properties, such as macrotexture and unevenness, on rolling resistance and fuel consumption is an important factor to consider when deter¬mining the coating of a road surface. Results of a VTI study show that the effect of unevenness is in general significantly smaller than that of macrotexture.

    The relative smallness of this influence makes measurements of it a challenging task. In literature a wide range of results can be found and there is still much confusion and uncertainty about how large the influence actually is. In this study, an attempt is made to obtain more reliable estimates of how macrotexture and unevenness affect rolling resistance. The primary method used here is the coastdown method. It has been applied to a private car and to a heavy goods vehicle (HGV). Concerning the effect of unevenness on rolling resistance, only the coastdown method provides any information. Results show that the effect of unevenness is in general significantly smaller than that of macrotexture.

    The coastdown method provides, besides information about rolling resistance, other useful data for the vehicle, such as air resistance coefficients, temperature coefficients and transmission resistance.

  • 41.
    Kortsari, Annie
    et al.
    CERTH/HIT.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Pein, Iris
    FGM-AMOR.
    Möller, Malena
    Trivecor.
    Allesiani, Francesco
    MIZAR, Italy.
    Recommendations for future policy support and research needs2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work and of the present document is to propose guidelines and recommendations for the European Commission and other research bodies and policy agencies towards policy-making, as well as to define future research priorities in the thematic area of seasonal variations of transport demand sustainable mobility.

  • 42.
    Kragh, Jörgen
    et al.
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Nielsen, Erik
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Olesen, Erik
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Goubert, Luc
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Vansteenkiste, Stefan
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    De Visscher, Joëlle
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Optimization of thin asphalt layers, OPTHINAL. Final report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ERA-NET ROAD initiated a transnational research project titled "Optimization of thin asphalt layers". Thin asphalt layers have been used extensively and with promising results for more than 15 years in several countries in Europe and abroad. They seem to be cost effective, fast to build and may have good surface properties. In recent years thin asphalt layers have been shown to imply reduced traffic noise levels, increased traffic safety (skid resistance and forward visibility during wet condition) and to be durable compared with traditional alternatives.

    The DRI-BRRC-VTI Consortium was trusted with carrying out the ERA-NET ROAD project and began with a State-of-the-Art report covering, among other things, a literature study and an inventory of experience with using thin asphalt layers. The results of this phase of the project were documented in a separate project report.

    The main conclusions were that the application of thin asphalt layers is certainly worthwhile, in particular as a renewable "skin" of a stable road construction having sufficient bearing capacity. The skin serves road users' need for skid resistance and other important functions. Compared with more conventional and traditional surfacing such as dense asphalt concrete 0/11 or stone mastic asphalt 0/11, thin asphalt layers in general come out somewhat better in most respects; for example concerning cost, use of nature resources, rolling resistance, and traffic noise emission. However, there are also drawbacks or problems under special traffic that need to be handled, for example TAL durability when exposed to wear from studded tyres. The availability of premium quality aggregate is a prerequisite for applying thin asphalt layers, and good quality aggregate may be difficult to procure.

    The present report looks at possibilities to optimize the application of thin asphalt layers, including an analysis of the cost of applying thin asphalt layers compared with the cost of applying more conventional solutions. The study has been limited to thin asphalt layers with a maximum thickness of 30 mm.

    Recommendations are given concerning the best practice in applying thin asphalt layers and suggestions are given for future research needed to fill the gaps in available knowledge.

  • 43.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Evaluation of speed reducing measures in Gothenburg2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has analysed the effects of implemented traffic safety measures, in particular with regards to the socio-economic effects of speed reduction measures taken within the urban area of Göteborg, 1990-2003. The calculations are based on the document “"Traffic accident development in Gothenburg, 1990 -2003”" (Lennart Adolfsson). Measures taken include speed bumps and similar speed reduction measures such as hour glass shaped indents on the road by public transport stops, and roundabouts. VTI was commissioned to review the document with focus on the reasonability of the expected reduction of fatalities and serious injuries, and the subsequent monetary evaluation of the above mentioned speed limiting measures. The socioeconomic saving for each SEK invested is estimated to equal approximately 40 SEK”. Estimates made by VTI show that the figure known as the cost effectiveness ratio, represent 3.7 MSEK per saved life in traffic safety cost, having taken into account discounted establishment costs and excluding increased travelling time and raised maintenance / running costs. It has been assumed that approximately 50 per cent of the reduced fatality and serious injury rate can be attributed to the implemented speed reduction measures. According to recommendations by ASEK 5 to calculate the establishment costs based on the 2010 price index, the equivalent figures are estimated at 5.2 MSEK per saved life based on attributing 50 per cent, respectively of the injury rate reduction to said measures. A financial ratio representing the socio-economic effect better is the Net Present Value Ratio (NPVR), as it takes taxes and charges into account. Estimates made by VTI also take running costs into account. However, due to the unavailability of primary data, cost estimates for increased travelling time were based on assumptions. Based on a depreciation period of 15 years for targeted traffic safety and environmental measures at a cost of capital rate of 3.5 per cent, NPVR = 21.7. This is a very high value.

  • 44.
    Mitsakis, Evangelos
    et al.
    CERTH/HIT.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Galdi, Enzo
    Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy.
    Massa, Giovanni
    Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy.
    Final (validated) decision support instrument2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable contains the final version of the core product of the DELTA project, the Decision Support Instrument (DSI). After its first version, the DSI has undergone a thorough validation process in order to ensure the reliability of its results, to increase its acceptance by the target groups and to facilitate its future potential. The document includes the validation methodology applied, the validation results and a thorough description of the DSI.

  • 45. Morgan, Phil
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blokland, Gijsjan van
    The selection of new reference test tyres for use with the CPX method, to be specified in ISO/TS 11819-32009In: INTER-NOISE 2009: 38th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2009, Institute of Noise Control Engineering ( INCE ) , 2009, , p. 9p. 462-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The draft for ISO standard ISO 11819-2:2000 for CPX tyre/road noise measurements includes specifications for a set of four standard reference test tyres. These commercially available tyres were selected to cover the different mechanisms responsible for the generation of tyre/road noise. Three were chosen to be representative of passenger car tyres and one to be representative of heavy vehicle tyres. Since the draft standard was first written, these tyres have either been superseded or discontinued. It has therefore been necessary for ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 33 (Measuring Methods for Comparing Traffic Noise on Different Road Surfaces), the Working Group responsible for the Standard, to define recommendations for an updated set of reference tyres, at the same time considering whether fewer tyres could be used. This paper provides a summary of the recommendations for the new reference tyres and an overview of the review process which formed the basis of the recommendations, presenting specific results from the evaluation of candidate replacements for ISO tyre A.

  • 46.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsflödessamband för svenska typvägar: förslag till reviderade samband baserat på TMS-mätningar från 2009-20112013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents suggestions for new speed-flow relationships for motorways (MV), low standard motorways (4F), oncoming lane separated highways with grade separated intersections (MML), oncoming lane separated highways with at grade intersections (MLV), and two-lane highways. The suggestions are based on measurements from Trafikverket’s traffic count measuring system TMS in combination with model calculations. The TMS data have, for each road category, been quality checked, processed and analyzed. The data material is presented as speed-flow graphs for personal cars, trucks/buses without trailers and trucks with trailers. A comparison of the current speed-flow relationships and the TMS measurements was then conducted for each road category. The revised set of relationships then constituted the base for the 2012 revision of Trafikverket's publication "Effect calculations for road facilities". The analysis conducted resulted in suggestions to decrease the free flow speed and the travel speed at higher flows for most of the road categories. For motorways also a decrease in capacity is suggested. For oncoming separated highways (both MML and MLV) are minor changes of the capacity suggested. The suggested capacity value is for MML and MLV 1550 vehicles/h independently of speed limit and lane/road width.

  • 47. Otsuka, Takako
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    A study of the history of traffic noise in a large city: modern Tokyo compared to Edo - the predecessor to Tokyo2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, , p. 14p. 2406-2419Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of mechanized civilization, transportation of goods and people has become fast and convenient, at the expense of transportation noise which has become a serious problem. This paper aims at comparing the acoustical environment of a modern multi-million city (Tokyo) with the situation one to three centuries ago in the corresponding old city (Edo); also at that time one of the largest cities in the world. Attempts are made to explore traffic noise of Edo through historical records and to compare Edo and Tokyo in this respect. Naturally, as the noise in Edo was not quantified, this study is only qualitative. Edo was a highly developed city in the 17th-19th centuries with a unique system of distribution and ecology and was considered to be an unusually clean city of those times. It is concluded that traffic in Edo was intensive; yet relatively quiet as it was dominated by other modes of transportation than today and with non-motorized vehicles. Yet, sound from people who operated the road vehicles or who carried other people and goods must have been quite loud. At nighttime Edo was closed to traffic and was a quiet city, only interrupted by sound from night watches and fire guardians. Tokyo, on the other hand, is noisy both day and night.

  • 48.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Data collection mechanism (DCM)2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Data Collection mechanism (DCM) is to support the data collection activity in the DELTA project. All data and information will be stored into a structured Knowledge base which will then be used for the classification of cities and mobility schemes, as well as the definition of a Decision Support Instrument (DSI). The DCM includes information about the type and structure of the selected variables (the data and information to be collected), the data templates, the validation of the variables, the data sources, and the data collection process.

  • 49.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Knowledge base of regions with seasonal varying demand profiles2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document describes the work carried out for developing the Knowledge Base in WP 2, Task 2.5 Development of a Knowledge Base of cities with seasonal demand. Data was delivered from Task 2.3 (IR2.1 Data collection report from participating regions) and Task 2.4 (IR2.2 Data collection report from additional regions). The knowledge database is delivered in an MS Access (2003 or 2007) file, which is provided as an Annex to this report and can be downloaded from the website of the project (www.delta-project.eu). The development of the Knowledge Base was carried out by VTI.

  • 50.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Asphalt rubber pavements in Sweden: noise and rolling resistance properties2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, , p. 10p. 7379-7388Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt rubber (AR) pavements of the type which is commonly used in Arizona have been adapted for the Swedish climate and conditions. Both a gap-graded and an open-graded version have been constructed at several places and with a few different aggregate sizes. The objective of the work has been to determine the properties of these pavements in com-parison to conventional SMA and porous asphalt pavements. In this case the focus has been on noise and rolling resistance properties and how these properties change with pavement age or traffic exposure.

    Measurements so far in this study have indicated a couple of dB extra noise reduction due to the use of AR technology. Regarding rolling resistance properties, AR is neutral; i.e. proper-ties are similar to those of SMA and porous asphalt. There are indications that the favourable effects of AR might increase with pavement age, but more time is needed to verify this.

12 1 - 50 of 75
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