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  • 1.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Determinants of Capacity Utilisation in Road Freight Transportation2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, p. 137-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent performance indicators in the European road freight transport sector show there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilisation in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. Using a joint econometric modelling framework, the paper shows that they can be explained as a function of haul, carrier, and truck characteristics. For estimation, a unique dataset from the Danish heavy vehicle trip diary was used. The results indicate distance and being a for-hire carrier have a positive effect on capacity utilisation, whereas the effect of truck size is non-linear.

  • 2.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Does fuel price affect trucking industry’s network characteristics?: evidence from Denmark2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The 2000s were dominated by rising fuel prices and economic recession. Both had an impact on the structure of the trucking industry and how freight was moved. This paper examines how fuel prices shaped trucking industry’s network characteristics such as the average length of haul, average load, and capacity utilization. In particular, we show the effect of fuel price on average length of haul using 29 quarterly independent surveys from the Danish heavy goods vehicle (HGV) trip diary from 2004 to 2011. The results show that the average length of haul is sensitive to changes in fuel price: a DKK 1 (0.18$) increase in diesel price/liter leads to a 4 percent decrease in the average length of haul in the 2004-2007 period. This implies that firms improve transport efficiency by reducing the number of kilometers needed to transport a tonne of cargo as a short run response to fuel price increases. This result, however, is not confirmed for the years following the 2008 financial crisis. It also depends on where in the distribution of the average length of haul one looks.

  • 3.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Economic effects of air transport market liberalization in Africa2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, p. 326-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the aviation industry is increasingly becoming important for Africa's economic development and integration, the ability of airlines to access foreign markets remains hindered by restrictive regulatory policies. Attempts have been made to fully liberalize the intra-African air transport market. Except for general assertions about the merits/demerits of liberalization, our empirical understanding of the welfare effects of such polices in Africa remains rudimentary. This study empirically measures the economic effects of air transport liberalization, mainly on two supply side variables: fare and service quality, measured as departure frequency. The empirical models evaluate how air fares and departure frequency respond to measures of openness in air services agreements, while controlling for other determinants. The results show up to 40% increase in departure frequency in routes that experienced some type of liberalization compared to those governed by restrictive bilateral air service agreements. Furthermore, there is a relatively larger increase in departure frequency in routes which experienced partial liberalization compared to fully liberalized ones. This can be explained by the diminishing marginal effect of progressive liberalization on departure frequency. While the effect of liberalization is substantial in improving service quality, there is no evidence of its fare reducing effect.

  • 4.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Economic effects of air transport market liberalization in Africa2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the aviation industry is increasingly becoming important for Africa's economic development and integration, the ability of airlines to access foreign markets remains hindered by restrictive regulatory policies. Attempts have been made to fully liberalize the intra-African air transport market. Except for general assertions about the merits/demerits of liberalization, our empirical understanding of the welfare effects of such polices in Africa remains rudimentary. This study empirically measures the economic effects of air transport liberalization, mainly on two supply side variables: fare and service quality, measured as departure frequency. The results show up to 40 % increase in departure frequency in routes that experienced some type of liberalization compared to those governed by restrictive bilateral air service agreements. While the effect of liberalization is substantial in improving service quality, there is no evidence of its fare reducing effect.

  • 5.
    Abate, Megersa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    De Jong, Gerard
    University of Leeds.
    The optimal shipment size and truck size choice: The allocation of trucks across hauls2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how firms allocate their trucks across hauls, and how this allocation changes under various economic environments. This study investigates how variations in route/haul, carrier and vehicle characteristics affect the optimal vehicle size choice and the associated choice of shipment size. We show that the two choices are derived from the same optimization problem. There can be a continuum of shipment sizes, but decision-makers in freight transport have to choose from a limited number of vehicle alternatives. Therefore, we use a discrete-continuous econometric model where shipment size is modeled as a continuous variable, and vehicle size/type choice as a discrete variable. The results indicate that when faced with higher demand, and during longer trips firms are more likely to use heavier vehicles and ship in larger quantities which suggest that firms are realizing economies of scale and economies of distance. The study also discusses the effect of vehicle operating cost on the vehicle selection process and its policy implications.

  • 6.
    Abate, Megersa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    de Jong, Gerard
    University of Leeds.
    Joint econometric models of freight transport chain and shipment size choice2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In freight transportation, decisions regarding the choice of transport mode (or chains of modes) and shipment size are closely linked. Building on this basic insight, in this paper we estimate and review various joint econometric models using the Swedish National Commodity Flow surveys. Robust parameter estimates from this exercise will be used to update the current deterministic Swedish national freight model system (the SAMGODS model) to a stochastic one.

  • 7.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a discrete bidding model for both quantities and pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. The value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare the equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue of three auction formats. We find that, of the three auctionformats below with two players, the discriminatory auction always gives the largest revenue to the seller; both the uniform and the Vickrey auction have zero revenue equilibrium strategies that put them further down in the revenue ranking. In equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon not noted in either of the other auction formats.

  • 8.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Energimätning på tåg för rundvirkestransporter på sträckan Mora–Borlänge–Gävle2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The third sub-project of ELVIS demonstration project for longer and heavier freight trains aims to analyze and measure energy usage of heavier trains. With heavier refers to a higher overall weight by more wagons, both loaded and unloaded, than would normally run on the route. The assumption is that heavier trains are able to do (freight) transport more energy efficient. The goal is to primarily test the hypothesis: · That energy consumption per ton can be reduced by using heavier trains. The report also illustrates the difficulties of using existing data for the evaluation of energy consumption on trains. The data in these has not been quality assured for the purposes of this study, which has caused a lot of errors and the credibility of some results are lower than otherwise would be needed. Thus, a conclusion from the project is that it would take a review of the databases of the Swedish Transport Administration on energy use should be studied further, at least if equipment such as their energy meter should be used. Alternatively, mount external equipment on locomotives to thereby generate more useful data; the latter, however, was not possible due to the owner of the locomotive. Given all sources of error associated with the data, the report analyze how the energy of a freight train is due to the gross weight of the train, the number of stops the train makes and drivers' driving style. Findings were that driving style plays a major role, between drivers the different in net energy used is up to 20 percent. Furthermore, there is differences in energy consumption connected to gross weights on the train, but then it's a bit unclear how the results should be interpreted in conjunction with the lack of quality of the data, it takes more measurements to be able to say anything definite. The same applies to the number of stops affecting the use of energy. On the first leg the number of stops had no impact on energy consumption, which it had on the investigation route.

  • 9.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Intermodala transporter: definition, aktörer och omfattning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermodal and combined transport is often used synonymously today. The concept of combined transport has been around much longer and referred to as transportation where railway and a truck are being combined. Nowadays a combined transport often means that the goods either go by rail, inland waterways or sea and by road, or between two transport modes where trucks are not included. Intermodal and combined transport is often used synonymously today. The concept of combined transport has been around much longer and referred to as transportation where railway and a truck are being combined.

    Nowadays a combined transport often means that the goods either go by rail, inland waterways or sea and by road, or between two transport modes where trucks are not included. The EU’s so-called combi directive defines both in the same way and one of the EU Commission’s proposal to amend this directive is that EU should be considered to replace the concept of combined transport with intermodal transport. An intermodal transport precedes by a transportation decision, and this decision is often linked to a specific train path (tågläge in Swedish). If there is shortage of capacity on the track, the goods may have difficulties to be transported by train. This could potentially mean that some (rail) business / transports will not take place and the goods go by road instead.

  • 10.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Kostnader för störningar i infrastrukturen: metodik och fallstudier på väg och järnväg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the methodology that can be used in calculations of the cost to society when disruptions in the infrastructure occurs, specifically for traffic on road and rail. The principles and values that are recommended to be used in social cost-benefit analyses (CBA) in the Swedish transport sector are proposed by the ASEK-group (a working-group addressing issues on the application of CBA in the transport sector), and decided by the Swedish Transport Administration. They will be taken as given on the cost side of the CBA in this study, there will not be a benefit side since the interest for this study lies expressively on the cost side. This study is thus not a normative analysis, the aim is instead to study and apply methodologies for valuing (in monetary terms) the consequences of already occurred disturbances. The various ASEK-values require information about several aspect of the trips when calculating the value of travel time and transport time, as well as when calculating the delays and the value of travel time savings in congestion. Even though the ASEK-values are recommended by the Swedish Transport Administration, they are also questioned, especially for freight transport. This is also addressed in the report.

  • 11.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Luftfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: delstudie inom SAMKOST2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a literature review on the marginal social costs of aviation, and is a sub-project to VTI’s project about updating the knowledge of the external costs of traffic (SAMKOST). The report discusses which impacts of aviation are external, and which are already internalized. It is not entirely clear which impacts that should be considered as the relevant marginal costs for aviation. For example, both congestion and accidents are seen as internalized since they are already taken care of through the air traffic control service, a service that all aircraft must use in Swedish airspace by law. Similar arguments applies to the infrastructure. The large external effect is aviation’s environmental impact. It is separated into three different categories; the impact of noise, air quality and the impact on the climate.

  • 12.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a discrete common value environment with independent (one-dimensional) private signals, where the seller offers two identical units and the buyers have (flat) demand for both. Each session is conducted with2, 3 or 4 buyers. Three auction formats are used: the discriminatory, uniformand Vickrey auctions which are all subjected to a variation in the number of bidders and to repeating bid rounds on each subject. The main findings are that there are no significant differences between the uniform and the discriminatory auction in collecting revenue, while the Vickrey auction comes out as inferior. More bidders in the auction result in a greater revenue and level out the performance across the mechanisms. Demand reduction is visible in the experiment, but it is not as prominent as anticipated. Moreover, subjects come closer to equilibrium play over time. Finally, the winner’s curse is less severe than what is reported for inexperienced bidders in other studies.

  • 13.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question whether the dynamic or the static format should be used in multi-unit settings, in a uniform price auction. The present study conducts an economic experiment in a common value environment, where it is found that it is more a question of whether the auctioneer wants to facilitate price discovery, and thereby lessen the otherwise pervasive overbidding, or if only the revenue is important. The experiment in the present paper provides evidence that the static format gives a significantly greater revenue than the dynamic auction, in both small and large group sizes. But a higher revenue comes at a cost; half of the auctions in the static format yield negative profits to the bidders, the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in the static auction, and only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.

  • 14.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: theory and experiments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on auctions that involve more than one identical item for sale was,almost non-existing in the 90’s, but has since then been getting increasing attention. External incentives for this research have come from the US spectrum, sales, the European 3G mobile-phone auctions,  and Internet auctions. The policy relevance and the huge amount of money involved in many of them have helped the theory and experimental research advance. But in auctions where values are equal across bidders, common value auctions, that is, when the value depends on some outside parameter, equal to all bidders, the research is still embryonic.

    This thesis contributes to the topic with three studies. The first uses a Bayesian game to model a simple multi-unit common value auction, the task being to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue from three auction formats; the discriminatory, the uniform and the Vickrey auction. The second study conducts an economic laboratory experiment on basis of the first study. The third study comprises an experiment on the multi-unit common value uniform auction and compares the dynamic and the static environments of this format.

    The most salient result in both experiments is that subjects overbid. They are victims of the winner’s curse and bid above the expected value, thus earning a negative profit. There is some learning, but most bidders continue to earn a negative profit also in later rounds. The competitive effect when participating in an auction seems to be stronger than the rationality concerns. In the first experiment, subjects in the Vickrey auction do somewhat better in small groups than subjects in the other auction types and, in the second experiment, subjects in the dynamic auction format perform much better than subjects in the static auction format; but still, they overbid.

    Due to this overbidding, the theoretical (but not the behavioral) prediction that the dynamic auction should render more revenue than the static fails inthe second experiment. Nonetheless, the higher revenue of the static auction comes at a cost; half of the auctions yield negative profits to the bidders, and the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in this format. Besides, only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.The bottom line is that the choice between the open and sealed-bid formats may be more important than the choice of price mechanism, especially in common value settings.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a discrete bidding model for both quantities and pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. The value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare the equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue of three auction formats. We find that, of the three auctionformats below with two players, the discriminatory auction always gives the largest revenue to the seller; both the uniform and the Vickrey auction have zero revenue equilibrium strategies that put them further down in the revenue ranking. In equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon not noted in either of the other auction formats.

    Publisher
    p. 27
    Keywords
    Economics
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5313 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a discrete common value environment with independent (one-dimensional) private signals, where the seller offers two identical units and the buyers have (flat) demand for both. Each session is conducted with2, 3 or 4 buyers. Three auction formats are used: the discriminatory, uniformand Vickrey auctions which are all subjected to a variation in the number of bidders and to repeating bid rounds on each subject. The main findings are that there are no significant differences between the uniform and the discriminatory auction in collecting revenue, while the Vickrey auction comes out as inferior. More bidders in the auction result in a greater revenue and level out the performance across the mechanisms. Demand reduction is visible in the experiment, but it is not as prominent as anticipated. Moreover, subjects come closer to equilibrium play over time. Finally, the winner’s curse is less severe than what is reported for inexperienced bidders in other studies.

    Publisher
    p. 35
    Keywords
    Economics, Ekonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5314 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question whether the dynamic or the static format should be used in multi-unit settings, in a uniform price auction. The present study conducts an economic experiment in a common value environment, where it is found that it is more a question of whether the auctioneer wants to facilitate price discovery, and thereby lessen the otherwise pervasive overbidding, or if only the revenue is important. The experiment in the present paper provides evidence that the static format gives a significantly greater revenue than the dynamic auction, in both small and large group sizes. But a higher revenue comes at a cost; half of the auctions in the static format yield negative profits to the bidders, the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in the static auction, and only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.

    Publisher
    p. 35
    Keywords
    Economics, Ekonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5315 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal taxation of intermediate goods in the presence of externalities: A survey towards the transport sector2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The paper surveys the literature on optimal taxation with emphasis on intermediate goods, or, more specific, freight (road) transport. There are two models frequently used, first, the one emanated from Diamond & Mirrlees' (1971) paper, where the production efficiency lemma made it clear that intermediate goods was not to be taxed. And, second, the Ramsey-Boiteux model where a cost-of-service regulation imposes a budget constraint for the regulated firm. In the latter model, in contrast to the first, freight transports (intermediate goods) are to be taxed in the Ramsey tradition, and thus trades the production efficiency lemma against a budget restriction. The paper also discusses welfare effects due to environmental tax reforms, with emphasis to what has become to known as the double dividend hypothesis. Finally, administrative costs in the context of optimal taxation is touched upon, a subject that is to a large degree repressed in optimal tax theory.

  • 16.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal taxation of intermediate goods in the presence of externalities: A survey towards the transport sector2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper surveys the literature on optimal taxation with emphasis on intermediate goods, or, more specific, freight (road) transport. There are two models frequently used, first, the one emanated from Diamond & Mirrlees' (1971) paper, where the production efficiency lemma made it clear that intermediate goods was not to be taxed. And, second, the Ramsey-Boiteux model where a cost-of-service regulation imposes a budget constraint for the regulated firm. In the latter model, in contrast to the first, freight transports (intermediate goods) are to be taxed in the Ramsey tradition, and thus trades the production efficiency lemma against a budget restriction. The paper also discusses welfare effects due to environmental tax reforms, with emphasis to what has become to known as the double dividend hypothesis. Finally, administrative costs in the context of optimal taxation is touched upon, a subject that is to a large degree repressed in optimal tax theory.

  • 17.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Revenues in discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms2009In: Portuguese economic journal, ISSN 1617-9838, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 21p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose in this paper a discrete bidding model, both on quantities and in pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. Both the value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller's revenue between the three auction formats. We find that, among the three auction formats below with two players, the Vickrey auction always gives the most revenue to the seller, where the discriminatory auction becomes second and the uniform auction last. We also find that, in equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon we do not notice in either of the other two auction formats. There, different amount of demand reduction is encountered.

  • 18.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Ramböll .
    Ericson, Johan
    WSP.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Marginalkostnad för luftfartens infrastruktur2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal costs of aviation infrastructure. But since it not exist a uniform definition of what is the cost base of the aviation infrastructure, there is also a discussion of what costs should be included. An additional purpose of the study is to relate the estimated marginal costs to today's pricing and to investigate whether aviation pays its socio-economic costs.

    Estimates of the marginal cost of utilizing (relevant) airport infrastructure and for operating airline infrastructure is being analyzed using cost data from Stockholm Arlanda Airport and the Civil Aviation Authority. The empirical approach used to analyze cost items is a regression analysis, with adjustments for month-specific variations in travel patterns, when the airport section is investigated, and taking into account regional differences for airports when investigating air traffic control in the towers.

    There are some uncertainties in the study, but in the light of this, the results indicate that the average marginal cost of the infrastructure is around SEK 13 per passenger and SEK1,168 per aircraft started. Corresponding estimation for air traffic management is also uncertain, with results indicating a marginal cost of SEK 373 per flight. Furthermore, it appears that the revenue from marginal cost-based charges could not alone finance the state aviation infrastructure.

  • 19.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Etablering av konkurrerande snabbtågstrafik på Västra stambanan: översyn ur marknadens synvinkel2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As of October 2010 the railway market is liberalised. As a result, other operators than SJ could apply for track capacity also for long-distance passenger services, and the timetable for 2012 was the first timetable that was affected by the liberalisation. The Swedish railway network has, by definition, capacity restrains. The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) allocates capacity among those railway traffic operators that has applied for track capacity in the annual capacity allocation process. In the capacity allocation process for the 2014 timetable, four operators applied for capacity for long-distance high-speed train traffic between Gothenburg and Stockholm. In several cases the operators applied for the same train paths, which put Trafikverket’s applying of the process, the use of coordination and prioritization criteria, to the test for the first time since the liberalisation. VTI has interviewed the three largest of the above operators to receive information about how they experienced the capacity allocation process leading to the timetable for 2014 and to get their views on the possible obstacles that may exist for establishing a new operator on the railway market. The study was commissioned by the Swedish Transport Agency as a basis for their market surveillance in the area. The operators that are challenging SJ perceive that the capacity allocation process does not meet the requirement for competitive neutrality and non-discrimination. Both operators see the need for a more transparent process, with priority criteria that provide a more predictable outcome and which is carried out by the help of computerized tools so that the process can be implemented more efficiently and provide a more effective outcome. They argue that the construction of a timetable is so complex that it is difficult to, as now being done, manually make the most effective adjustments in the timetable necessary due to competing applications. The challenging operators therefore call for a review of the process to assess in which areas it can be improved.

  • 20.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ad hoc-processen: hur används ledig kapacitet i järnvägsnätet?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Swedish Transport Administration’s adoption of next year's timetable in mid-fall each year, starts the so-called ad hoc process, i.e. requests for train paths that can use spare capacity in the network. VTI received in September 2015 Transport Agency's mission to deepen the understanding of the ad hoc-process, This “notat” reports that assignment. In light of the description that was made, the intention was to also find the measure of the importance of this process in relation to the process leading to adopting a final schedule. It has been found that the Transport Administration’s various information management systems are not designed to enable such a description.

    Thanks to a recent statistical tool, it is possible to observe that nearly 97 percent of the passenger trains booked into the annual timetable process, also actually run. This refers to two thirds of the timetable year 2015. The aim of the Transport Agency/Traffic analysis is to, in the near future, also report similar information about freight train. Behind this figure conceals both an outflow and an inflow of traffic that will be conducted in accordance with the timetable set out in the autumn of each year. However, there is no knowledge of when these changes are implemented, which is of great importance for assessing the degree of flexibility in the ad hoc process. This situation may change as a result of the Transport Agency as of the timetable relating to 2016 for the charges to cancel the allocated capacity. The fee will be higher the closer to the scheduled departure of the train the application is withdrawn. This can help improve the flexibility in the use of the track capacity not reserved in the annual timetabling process. Another consequence may be that the information on the process will improve.

  • 21.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

  • 22.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 23.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 24.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

  • 25.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 26.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 27.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years.

    The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 28.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. 1-11, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 29.
    Alexandersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm school of economics.
    Hultén, Staffan
    Stockholm school of economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The liberalization of railway passenger transport in Sweden: outstanding regulatory challenges2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Sweden’s recent reforms to open the railway passenger markets to entry, and to addresses four critical issues for the success of the reforms; the allocation of infrastructure capacity, the provision of maintenance and terminal facilities, the access to rolling stock and the provision of information and ticketing to travelers. The analysis shows that the legislation and regulatory tools that are needed to handle these challenges to a large extent remain to be developed.

  • 30.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 31.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping Universitet.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping Universitet.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping Universitet.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994–2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 32.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Sweco.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH.
    Smartphone based travel diary collection: Experiences from a field trial in Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, Vol. 26, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great need for new methods to collect travel data. Traditional methods have considerable drawbacks and, at the same time, the models used to analyse the transport system require more and more detailed and high-quality data. Since most smartphones are equipped with various sensors that can be used to determine the location of the smartphone, and since smartphones are integrated in the daily life of most people, they provide an unprecedented opportunity for large-scale travel data collection. This method has a great potential to solve the problems related to the estimation of distance/travel time, geographic coding of departure/destination locations and forgotten trips and it will also provide a more detailed and extensive data set.

    In a recently completed research project the feasibility of replacing or complementing the traditional travel diary, with a suite of tools that make use of smartphone collected travel data has been evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional method and the proposed method were studied. For a fair comparison, both methods have been tested in the same city, at the same time, and with the same respondents. To achieve the objectives of the project, MEILI, a system that consists of a smartphone application for capturing the movement of users and a web application for allowing the users to annotate their movement, has been deployed. In total 2142 trips were collected and annotated by 171 users. 51 of the users annotated trips covering more than a week. The main findings of the paper are that smartphone based data collection is feasible, that the algorithms to save battery work well and that trips of the same respondent vary considerably depending on day of the week.

  • 33.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Trivector .
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Thorsson, Tobias
    WSP .
    Analys av modeller för beräkning av framkomlighet i korsningar2008Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Als, Per
    et al.
    A2 A/S .
    Nielsen, Otto Anker
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU).
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jespersen, Per Homann
    Roskilde Universitet (RUC).
    Hvordan får vi mere og bedre kollektiv trafik för pengene?: Bud på fremtidens organisering af den kollektive trafik i Greater Copenhagen2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Region Hovedstaden har i sin regionale vækst- og udviklingsstrategi (ReVUS) sat nogle strategiske rammer for en grøn og innovativ metropol med høj vækst og livskvalitet. Et af de strategiske pejlemærker handler om ’Effektiv og bæredygtig mobilitet’.

    Hovedstadsområdet har i dag store trafikale udfordringer med kø på vejene samt trængsel i busser og tog. Udfordringerne vil kun vokse i de kommende år, hvor indbyg-gertallet forventes at stige med over 200.000. Der er behov for en sammenhængende planlægning, som kan medvirke til at reducere trængslen og dermed understøtte den økonomiske vækst og udvikling.

    Region Hovedstaden har taget initiativ til et arbejde, der skal skabe større sammenhæng i den kollektive trafik i den danske del af Greater Copenhagen. Hvis den kollektive trafik skal løfte en større del af trængselsudfordringen,skal der arbejdes på at udbygge kapaciteten, forbedre servicen og sikre en større sammenhæng på tværs af transportformerne. Køer på motorveje og trængsel i den kollektive transport er dyrt for samfundet.

    Til at understøtte arbejdet har Region Hovedstaden nedsat en ekspertgruppe, der med faglige briller kommer med sit bud på, hvilke udfordringer den kollektive trafik skal kunne imødekomme. Oplægget tager udgangspunkt i paraplyorganisationen Din Offentlige Transport (DOT), og hensigten er:

    • at påpege styrker og svagheder i den nuværende organisation
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man inden for den nu-værende lovgivning kan imødegå nogle af den kollek-tive trafiks udfordringer
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man med en ændret lovgivning yderligere kan forbedre den kollektive trafiks sammenhæng og attraktivitet

    Gruppen har ikke gennemført en ny, selvstændig analyse. Arbejdet bygger på eksisterende analyser og på den viden og erfaring, som gruppens medlemmer besidder.

  • 35.
    Amato, Fulvio
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Cassee, Flemming R.
    Centre for Sustainability & Environmental Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Gehrig, Robert
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hafner, Wolfgang
    Department of Environmental Protection, Municipality of Klagenfurt on Lake Worthersee.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    University of Birmingham.
    Jozwicka, Magdalena
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    King's College London.
    Moreno, Teresa
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC.
    Prevot, Andre S. H.
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona.
    Querol, Xavier
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 275, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Perception of own death risk: a reassessment of road-traffic mortality risk2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines individuals' perception of their own road-mortality risk. Swedish data on respondents' subjective risk beliefs is used and compared with objective risk estimates. The objective risk is defined as the risk of the respondent's own age and gender group, and it is found that low and high risk groups over- and underassess their risk levels, respectively. This study replicates the analysis used by Andersson and Lundborg (2007) and the pattern of over- and underassessment found confirms their findings. As in their study, risk beliefs are updated in line with the Bayesian learning model, a relationship not statistically significant in this study, though. Regarding results of individual characteristics and risk beliefs in both studies, whereas, e.g., gender effects are robust, other results suggest a weak relationship between the perception of own road-mortality risk and individual characteristics.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Private and public WTP for safety: a validity test2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To elicit an affected population's preferences for, e.g., better health or environment stated preference (SP) methods are often used. SP methods are based on hypothetical market settings which necessitates validity tests of the results. This study describes a validity test on the basis of theoretical predictions and empirical findings for private and public safety measures. According to the test, public willingness to pay (WTP) should exceed private WTP.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hammitt, James
    Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard University, USA.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sundström, Kristian
    SLU.
    Willingness to pay for car safety: sensitivity to time framing2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stated preference (SP) surveys attempt to obtain monetary values for non-market goods that reflect individuals "true" preferences. Numerous empirical studies suggest that monetary values from SP studies are sensitive to survey design and so may not reflect respondents' true preferences. This study examines the effect of time framing on respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for car safety. We explore how WTP per unit risk reduction depends on the time period over which respondents pay and face reduced risk. Using data from a Swedish contingent valuation survey, we find that WTP is sensitive to time framing; estimates based on an annual scenario are about 30 to 70 percent higher than estimates from a monthly scenario.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Toulouse.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector2018In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2194-5888, E-ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 120-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden's national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners trim project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bullervärden för samhällsekonomisk analys: beräkningar för väg- och järnvägsbuller2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Noise is a significant social problem. For example, more than 20 per cent of the European Union's population is exposed to higher noise than what is considered acceptable. The transport sector is a major contributor to society's increasing noise problem, due to increased traffic volumes and urbanization exposing more people to noise. Road traffic is admittedly the largest individual noise source in the transport sector, but other transport modes such as aircraft and railways are also responsible for considerable noise emissions. Noise entails costs for the society. This fact, and that society has different needs, means that policies and projects to reduce noise levels need to be evaluated to secure an efficient resource allocation. Benefit cost analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate noise abatement, but it requires both benefits and costs to be measured in a common metric, i.e. in monetary values. Today's official monetary values for all modes are based on the impact of road-traffic noise on property prices. It is a well established fact that the disturbance which individuals experience differs between modes, and therefore there is a need to estimate monetary values based on the respective modes. This report focuses on road and rail noise, two noise sources with different characteristics. This study describes the need to revise the current official Swedish policy values for noise abatement. Current values for road-traffic noise show a progressive relationship between the social cost and the noise level that is too strong, and values for railway noise has been missing and instead based on results for road noise. Valuation of health effects should also be based on EKM since it is sanctioned within the EU, instead of the approach now proposed by ASEK based on estimated total social costs from noise exposure in relation to estimates from willingness to pay studies.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Property prices and exposure to multiple noise sources: hedonic regression with road and railway noise2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Property Prices and Exposure to Multiple Noise Sources: Hedonic Regression with Road and Railway Noise2010In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Benevolence and the value of road safety2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the contingent valuation method to elicit individuals' preferences for their own and others' safety in road-traffic. Whereas one group is asked about a private safety device for themselves, other groups are asked about safety devices for their children, household, relatives and the public. Support is found for the hypothesis that individuals are not purely selfish when it comes the safety of others.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University Centre for Health Eco, LUCHE.
    Perception of own death risk: An analysis of road-traffic and overall mortality risks2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' perception of their own road-traffic and overall mortality risks are examined in this paper. Perceived risk is compared with the objective risk of the respondents' peers, i.e. their own gender and age group, and the results suggest that individuals' risk perception of their own risk is biased. For road-traffic risk we obtain similar results to what have been found previously in the literature, overassessment and underassessment among low- and high-risk groups, respectively. For overall risk we find that all risk groups underestimate their risk. The results also indicate that men's risk bias is larger than women's.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad universitet.
    Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non near-proportionality of the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment where their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study where they were asked about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA Université Toulouse 1.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated. Data consists of characteristics of sold properties, property-specific noise calculation, and geographical variables.

    We use the hedonic approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for maximum noise abatement where we model the effect as the maximum noise level subtracted with the equivalent noise level. Furthermore, we control for the equivalent noise level in the estimations. The estimated results show that including the maximum noise level in the model has influence on the property prices, but only for rail and not for road. This means that for road we cannot reject the hypothesis that WTP for noise abatement is based on the equivalent noise level only. For rail, on the other hand, we estimate the marginal WTP for the maximum noise level and it turns out to be substantial. Also, the marginal WTP for the equivalent noise levels seems to be unaffected by the inclusion of the maximum noise level in the model. More research of this novel topic is requested though.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Treich, Nicolas
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    The value of a statistical life2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper on the value of a statistical life (VSL) has been prepared for the Handbook in Transport Economics, edited by André de Palma, Robin Lindsey, Emile Quinet and Roger Vickerman. The paper's first objective is to survey some classical theoretical and empirical findings in the VSL literature; but it also attempts to clarify some of these issues often raised by the application of the WTP approach to study of mortality risks.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bulleravgift för järnvägsoperatörer: prissättning enligt marginalkostnadsprinciper2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Parliament has decided that, in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure, operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure shall pay charges based on short-run marginal social costs. Internalization of the social cost from noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem which people perceive as more troublesome today than they did in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two problems: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-marketed good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. We are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. We show in this study that, based on already obtained knowledge, it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. Those values that already today are used to estimate the social cost from noise exposure (which in Sweden are based on noise from road-traffic) in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research is carried out in order to get more robust estimates and to get estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charges can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important that these charges are based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

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