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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    Nynäs AB.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Pavement performance follow-up and evaluation of polymer-modified test sections2018In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2003 and 2006, a test road consisting of several conventional and polymer-modified structures was built on a motorway. Different combinations of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer-modified binders were used. The test structures have been in service since then and have been monitored for over 9 years. The resistance of the different types of asphalt concrete mixes to rutting and cracking was measured and predicted. The impact of ageing on the mixes was also evaluated. Although all the sections are in good condition after 9 years of traffic, the predicted differences between the test sections based on the PEDRO (Permanent Deformation of asphalt concrete layers for Roads) approach and laboratory evaluations are noticeable. Lateral wander and transverse profile measurements indicated that studded winter tyre wear contributed to most of the rutting compared to permanent deformation due to heavy traffic. The unmodified mixes exhibited considerable ageing and the SBS-modified mixes were least affected by ageing. Furthermore, the SBS-modified base mix produced significantly better fatigue resistance than the conventional base mix. However, further investigations of the relationships between bitumen and mix properties and further follow-ups of the test sections are recommended to validate the findings.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Externt och internt buller samt vibrationer vid körning på sinusräfflor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien omfattar en jämförelse av ljudnivåer och vibrationer i fordon vid körning på två typer av räffelutformning, en konventionellt fräst räffla och en sinusformad räffla.

    Mätningar av interna och externa ljudnivåer samt vibrationer i chassi och säte har skett vid körning på fyra sträckor; en sträcka med vanlig fräst räffla (konventionell), vid denna har dels en äldre räffla ingått, dels en nyfräst räffla. Vidare har tre sträckor med sinusformade räfflor ingått.

  • 3.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bladlund, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Ekonomisk och energieffektiv användning av motorvärmare: utvärdering av effekten på bränsleförbrukning vid värmning av smörjolja jämfört med värmning av kylvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Test results show that the cold-start effect with increased fuel consumption is reduced most by heating the cooling water, compared to heating the lubricating oil. Starting an engine when it is cold gives rise to higher fuel consumption and emissions as a cold engine means that a larger friction needs to be overcome and that the combustion is not optimal. To warm the engine in beforehand leads to lesser cold start effect. Traditionally, engine heating has been made by heating the cooling water, which in turn heats the engine block. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it would be more energy efficient to heat the lubricating oil instead of the cooling water. The hypothesis was that a warmer lubricating oil leads to less friction in the engine, which in itself would mean that less fuel to overcome the frictional resistance is needed. Likely, there may be differences in the usefulness of engine heater between cars with gearbox integrated with motor and without such integration. The results of the tests show that the cold-start effect with increased fuel consumption is reduced most by heating the cooling water. The warmer the cooling water is at engine start, the less fuel consumption by the engine start. When the total energy needs for cold starts is calculated, i.e. fuel consumption plus electric use due to engine heating, the results are not as clear regarding which option is the most energy efficient. The reduced fuel consumption as result of pre-heating is overcome by the electricity consumption needed for the actual motor heating. One advantage is that the local emissions will decrease. Since the Swedish electricity production to a large extent is based on emission free production technology, it is most likely that the total emissions are reduced.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Funktionsbaserad optimering av vägöverbyggnad: uppföljning av provsträckor på E4 Skånes Fagerhult2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project is to explore a concept based on performance optimization of road pavement structures with various fractions of subgrade layer and asphalt pavement thickness.

    The project has a total of 14 test sections located in K1 and K2 in the northbound direction on road E4 between Skånes Fagerhult and Markaryd. These were observed with measurements 2004 to 2010. The follow-up was effected by cross profile measurements and falling weight measurements.

    The follow-up was carried out on 8 test sections á 100 m and 6 test sections á 40 m. The asphalt pavement in the right (slow) lane consists of 40 mm wearing course, 45 mm bitumen base course and 95 mm bitumen roadbase with 80 mm gravel roadbase beneath. The asphalt pavement in the left (fast) lane has the same wearing and bitumen base course but not any bitumen roadbase. The subbase vary between the sections from 60 cm crushed rock 0-300 mm to 42 cm crushed rock 0-150 mm or crushed rock 0-90 mm. All the test sections are situated on embankment of varied height.

    The road was opened for traffic in 2004, but was then trafficked on the bitumen base course. The wearing course was constructed late in summer 2005 after about one year of traffic. The road served 4 years until the summer of 2009 when the wearing course of the right lane was maintained with a remixing. In the left lane no maintenance was done.

    The first measurement at the test sections with the new wearing course was conducted in the spring of 2006 after it had been in service approximately 1 year. In spring 2009 a profile measurement was done before the maintenance operation. The latest profile measurement was carried out in autumn 2010. The rut depth has been calculated according the thread principle.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Profilmätning på sträckor med gummimodifierat bitumen på E4 Uppsala och E6 Mölndal: uppföljning efter tre års trafik2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration, VTI has performed transverse profile measurements and wear measurements on test sections with rubber modified asphalt pavements on E4 Uppsala, Rv77 Knivsta and E6 Mölndal. The purpose of the surveys is to evaluate the different types of wearing course regarding rutting and wear of studded tires and durability / stripping (loss of surface aggregate). The conclusions of the results of the measurements so far do not show any beneficial effects of the modification with rubber in bituminous wearing course, instead these sections have performed worse than the reference section with standard bitumen during the first almost three years. The measured profiles from E4 Uppsala and E6 Mölndal showed an obvious rutting from wear on the surface during all three winter periods. The wear is less clear on the sections on Rv77 Knivsta because of the broader cross road surface and lower traffic intensity. On most test sections, it is a relatively small spread in the propagation of wear between the measured profiles within each test section. Within a few sections, however, the spread is slightly larger and it looks mostly like to apply sections of GAP on E4 Uppsala.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Profilmätning på sträckor med polymermodifierat bitumen på riksväg 47 Falköping: uppföljning efter tre års trafik2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration VTI has performed transverse profile measurements and wear measurements on test sections with polymer modified asphalt pavements on road 47 at Falköping. The purpose of the surveys is to evaluate the different types of wearing course regarding rutting and wear of studded tires and durability / stripping (loss of surface aggregate). Within the rehabilitation project for the road 2011 test sections with various types of surface course where constructed where six test section of 200 meter long was selected for further evaluation. The monitoring of these test sections include, in addition to test sections with polymer modified bitumen type Nypol and Inormix also connecting reference sections with conventional asphalt paving with standard bitumen (std) B70/100. The amount of traffic, AADT, on the test sections is about 4 500–5 000 vehicles. Profile measurements have been conducted annually from 2011 until the spring of 2014. On each test section was wearing of studded tires measured in 5 transverse profiles and profile measurement for rutting with equipment Primal in 10 transverse profiles and measurement of durability / stripping of 1 m2 over the left wheel track and the edge of the track.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Provväg riksväg 26 Skultorp: uppföljning av provsträckor med aktiv design2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has performed falling weight measurements and analysis of surface profile measurements on road 26 at Skultorp south of Skövde. Within the road project it was built three test sections (incl. reference section) with different subbase material and an additional section with thinner asphalt pavement for analysis of active design and 1 + 2 sections for monitoring the reference structure constructed of three different contractors. The measurements intended to assess the different construction types and performance by analyzing the differences and changes in stiffness and rutting under 9 years of traffic, for traffic from 2005 to 2014.

    Generally the results of falling weight measurements show a road with very high bearing capacity. There is a big difference in the measurement results and stiffness between the survey before opening for traffic in 2005 and the second measurement 2014, where there was a significantly lower stiffness 2005 than in 2014. At the measurement 2014 it was full asphalt thickness and at the same time the road has consolidated and become compact over many years of service. Therefore, the measurement 2014 best represent the road condition over the years it has been in use.

  • 8.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Testplatser för 74 ton tunga fordon: två instrumenterade tunna vägkonstruktioner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI note describes briefly the construction and instrumentation of two new test road structures that have been built during the autumn 2017 on Lv373 and Lv515 respectively in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. One structure is placed on Lv373 east of the village Långträsk while the other structure is on Lv515 south if the intersection with Lv373. The distance between the two locations is about 10 km. Both structures are thin pavement structures. The main objective of the two new test sites is to estimate the impact that the new 74 tonnes vehicles have on the Swedish road network. This will be done through direct measurements of the pavement response from the road sensors. The sensors consist of horizontal strain sensors in both longitudinal and transversal direction at the bottom of the asphalt layer as well as vertical strain sensors over every layer down to 1.2 m depth. Soil pressure cells are further installed at two depths. The local ambient climate is monitored as well. A frost and a moisture rod were therefore installed. Further are temperature sensors installed in the asphalt concrete. Two weather stations are located within 20 km distances from the test structures. The first response measurements are planned in the late summer or early autumn 2018.

  • 9.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    The Svappavaara road test sections: instrumentation2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes four new instrumented test road sections that have been built on E45 close to the Svappavaara in Norrbotten County in Northern Sweden. The structures are located about 100 km north of the Arctic Circle in a climate that is characterized by long cold winters and short mild summers. Norrbotten County is a sparsely populated area where the pavement structures consist of thin pavements with relatively low traffic volume. A new ore deposit, the Kaunisvaara project, was opened in 2012, meaning that the ore will be transported along the existing road network about 160 kilometers to where it will be transferred to a railway. The ore operator has received a permit to use 90 ton vehicles instead of the permissible 60 tons, consisting of a single wheel steering axle and triple dual wheel tridem axles to transport the iron ore. When the ore processing will be in full operation around 66.000 journeys per year will pass over the network, or on average about 7–8 passes per hour with about seven and a half minutes between the passes. Due to this new ore transport it will be necessary to strengthen the local road network. As part of the process to evaluate the performance of a suitable pavement structure these four instrumented test road structures have been selected and built. The structures are instrumented with road performance and climate sensors. The structures will be monitored over the years to come, though the details of the monitoring programme have not yet been decided. Each test section is around 200 metres long, consisting of a 100 metres long inner part that constitutes the intrinsic test section. The structures were built and instrumented in the summer of 2012 except for the wearing course that was placed in the summer of 2013 along with the temperature sensors that are placed in the asphalt layers. The instrumentation in each section consists of Emu coils for vertical strain measurement devices, soil pressure cells for vertical stress measurements and tensile strain gauges located at the bottom of the bound road base layer. In addition there are moisture rods located in three of the structures and a temperature (frost) rod located in structure 3. A weather station (2527 Svappavaara) operated by the Transport Administration is located 3.2 kilometre south-east of the test site.

  • 10.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Intermittenta, heldragna och profilerade vägmarkeringars funktion över tid2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paved public roads usually have longitudinal road markings, which can be of different types. Two-lane roads should have a 10 or 15 cm wide broken edge line, but a continuous edge line can be used in order to enhance visibility. If the annual average daily traffic (AADT) is ≥ 2000 the edge lines must be wet-night visible, which is attained by creating a so-called profiled marking.

    The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a difference in durability between a broken and a continuous edge line, and to investigate whether there is a difference in performance and durability between different types of profiled markings. In the first part of the project, broken and continuous edge lines were applied on a public two-lane road. The performance of the markings was followed up by annual measurements of retroreflectivity RL and luminance coefficient Qd for four years. In the second part of the project, a test field with six different types of markings - one without and five with profile – were applied on a public road.

    Follow-up measurements of retroreflectivity RL on dry as well as on wet markings, and luminance coefficient Qd in dry conditions were carried out after one and two years. No difference in durability between broken and continuous edge lines was shown. Regarding profiled markings, a road marking with an embossed pattern had the best performance with respect to all three performance parameters. Profiled markings with diagonal squares (“stairs”) had better performance than markings with transversal lines.

  • 11.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringar i Norden: en jämförelse mellan vägmarkeringars funktion i Norge, Sverige och Finland2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to compile and compare road marking performance in Norway, Sweden and Finland, in order to disseminate knowledge. More specifically, the study aimed at investigating whether there are any differences in road marking performance between the countries, and whether there are any differences in road marking performance depending on traffic volume and road width. The results showed that road marking performance tended to be somewhat better in Norway and Sweden than in Finland. The average of the retroreflexion for dry edge markings were in Norway 179, in Sweden 177 and in Finland 142. Corresponding results for centre lines were in Norway 137 (yellow markings), in Sweden 164 (white marking) and in Finland 102 (white marking) and 107 (yellow marking), respectively. For wet edge markings, the retroreflexion was 45 in Norway and 31 in Sweden. In Finland, no data on wet markings was available. Furthermore, the results showed that the retroreflexion of the edge markings was independent of average annual daily traffic (AADT) and roadway width. Centre markings on roads with AADT<2000 had lower retroreflexion than centre markings on roads with larger traffic volume. A sample of 98–167 objects were selected from each country, where each object consisted of a 2–10 kilometre long stretch of road. All objects were two-lane roads, which were divided into five classes based on AADT and roadway width. For each object, the retroreflexion of both edge lines and the centre line was measured.

  • 12. Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Björketun, Urban
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Hastighet – vägyta: problemet, kunskapsläget, fördjupad analys och förslag till fortsatt forskning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation between speed and road surface condition is of interest for the planning of pavement maintenance on the road network. The costs and the target variables that are affected by this correlation are, in addition to travel time, fuel consumption (vehicle costs), energy and environment.According to previous studies of the road surface influence on the vehicle speed increased rut depth (RUT) and increasing longitudinal road unevenness (IRI) causes decreased vehicle speed. In the description of the road surface macro texture (MPD) is normally also included. There has, however, been a lack of knowledge about the importance of MPD on vehicle speed. The main purpose of the present study was to supplement existing knowledge about the vehicle speed with the importance of MPD.Mean values of ADC, RF, RUT, IRI and MPD, has been calculated for pre-sections of different lengths between 100 metre and 1 000 metre. These averages can sometimes change significantly with changes in section length while the speed data is the same. The sometimes systematic variation is in part a consequence of the positions of the measurement sites (TMS) not being randomly selected.

  • 13.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Coastdown measurement with 60-tonne truck and trailer: estimation of transmission, rolling and air resistance2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of coastdown measurements, driving resistance parameters have been estimated for a truck with trailer (60t) and a box vehicle body. At a vehicle speed of 20 m/s, average meteorological wind conditions and a load factor of 50% the following distribution of the driving resistance components has been obtained:

    • transmission resistance (churning losses), 5%
    • rolling resistance (test route surface conditions), 41%
    • air resistance, 54%.

    There are also measurements for the truck without a trailer. Rolling resistance is dependent on road surface conditions, in particular roughness (iri) and macro texture (mpd). The total rolling resistance consists of three parts: a basic, an iri and a mpd part. The road surface effect amounts to approximately 40% of the total rolling resistance. The iri effect seems to be the dominating part of the surface effects on the contrary to light vehicles.

    Driving resistance parameters have been estimated by means of regression analysis. A major problem is how to avoid high correlations between explanatory variables. One objective of the experiment design has been to minimize such dependencies. This study might also be of interest for methodological reasons and in particular for including:

    • the introduction of high accuracy road gradients as well as other road surface properties
    • the estimation of vehicle mass from coastdown to coastdown
    • the equipment (based on Doppler technique) used in order to measure the coastdown driving pattern
    • the method used in order to separate parts of the driving resistance
  • 14.
    Karlsson, Rune
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Road surface influence on rolling resistance: coastdown measurements for a car and an HGV2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of road surface properties, such as macrotexture and unevenness, on rolling resistance and fuel consumption is an important factor to consider when deter¬mining the coating of a road surface. Results of a VTI study show that the effect of unevenness is in general significantly smaller than that of macrotexture.

    The relative smallness of this influence makes measurements of it a challenging task. In literature a wide range of results can be found and there is still much confusion and uncertainty about how large the influence actually is. In this study, an attempt is made to obtain more reliable estimates of how macrotexture and unevenness affect rolling resistance. The primary method used here is the coastdown method. It has been applied to a private car and to a heavy goods vehicle (HGV). Concerning the effect of unevenness on rolling resistance, only the coastdown method provides any information. Results show that the effect of unevenness is in general significantly smaller than that of macrotexture.

    The coastdown method provides, besides information about rolling resistance, other useful data for the vehicle, such as air resistance coefficients, temperature coefficients and transmission resistance.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in Southern Sweden since 1983. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are 97–98 per cent, a slight increase from the previous year. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent.

    According to the latest observations, approximately 89 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt, which is so far the highest rate and significantly higher than the level 2014. In the back seat, children have always had a much higher belt use than the adults, which also applies to 2015, when 97 per cent of children in the back seat were belted. This is an increase compared with 2014 and seat belt use among children in the back seat is on par with the car occupant in the front seat. A sub-study among drivers of passenger cars shows that women consistently have higher seat belt use than men. In addition, seat belt usage increases with age, especially among male drivers.

  • 16.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    et al.
    Nynäs AB.
    Said, Safwat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Soenen, Hilde
    Nynas NV.
    Heyrman, Serge
    Nynas NV.
    Redelius, Per
    Nynäs AB.
    Performance Evaluation of Polymer Modified Bitumens on a Heavily Trafficked Test Road2014In: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, ISSN 1997-1400, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In asphalt paving, polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) have more potential for use and can clearly demonstrate the value of their initial higher cost. To further assess the sustainable benefits of using PMBs, a test road was constructed on a highway in Sweden. In this paper, the asphalt binders used were investigated extensively using rheological and chemical methods, and asphalt field cores characterized with respect to permanent deformation and fatigue. It was found that the modified binders, particularly with SBS polymers, retain better rheological properties in comparison with conventional ones, even after several years in the field; these include higher strain recovery and lower non-recoverable compliance at high temperatures, and lower stiffness at low temperatures. The SBS modified binders also demonstrate good aging resistance, shown by both laboratory aging tests and field aging. the high resistance to aging for the SBS modified binders was also evident in the stiffness measurement made on asphalt field cores. Moreover, the modified binders with SBS polymers significantly enhance fatigue behaviour.

  • 17.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    et al.
    Nynas AB.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Soenen, Hilde
    Nynas NV.
    Heyrman, Serge
    Nynas NV.
    Redelius, Per
    Nynas AB.
    Evaluation of test sections with Polymer Modified Bitumens2014In: Asphalt Pavements: Proceedings of the International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, ISAP 2014, 2014, p. 287-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recognized that Polymer Modified Bitumens (PMB) have more potential for use in asphalt paving and can clearly demonstrate the value of their initial higher cost. To further assess sustainable benefits on heavy trafficked roads, test sections using various PMBs were built on highway E6 in Sweden during 2003-2006. The main objective of this paper is to study the aging and rheological properties of the binders used. A large number of cores were drilled and characterized with respect to stiffness, fatigue and permanent deformation. The binders (original, lab aged and recovered) were investigated extensively with rheological and chemical methods. It was found that PMBs, particularly SBS modified, demonstrate better rheological properties as compared to unmodified bitumens, even after several years in the field. These include higher strain recovery and lower non-recoverable compliance at high temperatures, and lower stiffness at low temperatures. For the SBS modified binders, good aging resistance was observed. The high resistance to aging for the SBS modified binders was also evident in the stiffness measurement made on asphalt field cores. Although significant differences have not yet been seen between the test sections (all the sections are in good condition after six years of traffic), the observed improvements for the modified binders are expected to be confirmed by a longer follow-up of the test road.

  • 18.
    Saevarsdottir, Thorbjorg
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Heavy Vehicle Simulator tests at VTI2014In: Asphalt Pavements - Proceedings of the International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, ISAP 2014, 2014, p. 823-833Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible test road structures have been built and tested in Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) at VTI in Sweden for 15 years. The objectives have been to investigate pavement responses and pavement performance behaviour which can be used to validate mechanistic performance schemes. The pavement structures have been instrumented to measure their responses and performance and the surface profile was estimated.

    The accuracy of the measurements was estimated and a performance prediction was carried out. The registrations of the measurements were rather smooth with good repeatability and acceptable accuracy. The response, performance and accumulation of permanent deformation were modelled and generally good agreement was established between the measurements and calculations. From the analysis a performance prediction can be carried out as a function of time to evaluate the performance of new road concepts and maintenance strategies. The performance prediction provides the option of performing a life cycle cost analysis which can decrease both costs and environmental impacts.

  • 19.
    Saevarsdottir, Thorbjorg
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Instrumentation and performance modelling of heavy vehicle simulator tests2016In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 148-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible test road structures have been built and tested in accelerated pavement tests using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) at VTI in Sweden for 15 years. The objectives have been to investigate pavement responses and pavement performance behaviour, which can be used to validate mechanistic performance schemes.

    Here, the instrumentation is described, its accuracy is estimated, the response and performance are modelled and a performance prediction is carried out. The registrations of the measurements were rather smooth with acceptable variation. In general, good agreement was established between the measurements and calculations. The HVS machine can be used to evaluate new road concepts and maintenance strategies and provides the option of performing a life cycle cost analysis, which can decrease both costs and environmental impacts.

  • 20.
    Said, Safwat F
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Hakim, Hassan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Förstärkning av vägkonstruktion med stålnätsarmering: 12 års uppföljning av väg E6 Ljungskile2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A motorway road section of 800 metre long of the road E6 south of Ljungskile in the Southwest of Sweden was seriously damaged due to low bearing capacity. Longitudinal and transversal cracks were frequently observed after about five year’s traffic. The road section was rehabilitated by milling away 80 millimetre and paving with new bituminous layers. Three full-scale, 100-metre test sections were built. Two test sections were reinforced with steel fabrics and one section without reinforcement as a reference section. These sections are instrumented with strain gauges. The section’s performance have been tested by deflection, strain and rut measurements and manual distress surveys. Degradation behavior of the test sections were numerically analyzed. This report presents pavement performance of the test sections after 12 years in-service. The reference section has shown extensive longitudinal cracks in the wheel paths. However, almost no cracks in the reinforced sections. It is concluded that the reinforcement had a significant influence (10–15%) in increasing the resistance of the test sections against fatigue cracking and in limitation of the rutting in pavement surface related to repeated-loading of the heavy vehicles.

  • 21.
    Said, Safwat Fadil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Viman, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Nordgren, Torsten
    Trafikverket.
    Provsträckor med gummiasfalt: Ragn-Sells infart vid granulatanläggningen, Heljestorp2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mer än 150 000 ton gummiasfalt har tillverkats mellan åren 2007–2013 i Sverige för asfaltering av totalt mer än 150 km vägsträckor fördelade på mer än 20 vägobjekt. I det här arbetet redovisas uppbyggnaden och tillståndsutvärderingen av fyra beläggningsytor byggda under hösten 2011 på infarten till Ragn-Sells granulat-anläggning i Vänersborg. Beläggningsytorna är utförda med olika konstruktioner och asfaltbeläggningslager. Syftet är att värdera nyttan med gummiasfalt i olika lager i vägkroppen, främst med avseende på teknisk livslängd. Provytorna har instrumenterats med töjningsgivare i underkant av beläggning. Det konstateras att vägöverbyggnader bestående av gummimodifierat bitumen kan ha betydande positiv inverkan på motstånd mot sprickor baserad på töjningsmätningarna under det första året efter byggandet av provvägen.

  • 22.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utländska lastbilar i Sverige: revidering av indata till avgasmodellen HBEFA avseende trafikarbetets fördelning inom segment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    HBEFA (The Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport) is a model for estimation of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Distribution of the total annual vehicle mileage on weight classes and vehicle types, such as heavy lorries with and without trailers, has a large effect on estimated emissions in HBEFA. However, there is no reliable data to divide the foreign lorry annual vehicle on Swedish roads into different vehicle types and weight classes (segments). So far, it has been assumed that the foreign annual vehicle mileage is distributed in the same way as the Swedish vehicle mileage regarding different weight classes, and if the lorry is running with or without a trailer. One possible source to get more reliable data, is Eurostat’s transport data register, but these data are not available at vehicle level due to confidentiality. Instead, VTI has conducted a field study aiming to get a better view of the heavy lorry combinations rolling on Swedish roads. In total, 1 944 heavy trucks, of which 1 688 foreign trucks, were observed at a number of ports and border crossings during the autumn of 2015. Based on the existing distribution of the Swedish vehicle mileage to which the revised allocation of foreign lorry vehicle mileage was added, a new distribution of the total vehicle mileage on weight classes for all lorries according to HBEFA’s definitions was obtained.

1 - 22 of 22
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