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  • 8301.
    Öberg, Gudrun (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Statliga belagda vägar: tillståndet på vägytan och i vägkroppen, effekter och kostnader2001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av de statliga belagda vägarnas tillstånd är inte

    entydig visar

    denna rapport. I en del avseenden och med hittills använda mått kan vi

    se förbättringar, i andra finns inte tillräckligt underlag för att ange om

    läget

    generellt försämras. Ändå finns det indikationer på att försämringar sker i

    andra avseenden än vad vägytemätningarna visar.

    Det system som Vägverket har byggt upp för styrning av

    beläggningsunderhåll är i stor utsträckning baserad på de tillstånd vad gäller

    spårdjup

    och IRI som vägytemätningarna med RST beskriver. Eftersom vägarnas tillstånd i

    dessa avseenden blivit bättre visar det att systemet fungerar.

    Nya regler för dubbdäck och bättre beläggningar har minskat slitaget på

    vägytan i mycket stor omfattning.

    Vägarna bryts ned kontinuerligt till följd av särskilt den tunga trafikens

    omfattning och materialets åldrande. Sprickbildningar uppträder redan efter

    mindre än halva tiden på vägar som är dimensionerade för 20 års trafik. Den

    tunga trafiken (trafikarbetet) har under 1990-talet ökat med i genomsnitt

    nästan 4 procent årligen. Till följd av det minskade slitaget av vägytan

    läggs

    ny beläggning allt mer sällan och de nylagda ytskikten tenderar dessutom att

    bli tunnare. Därmed får vägarna inte samma bärighetsförstärkning som

    tidigare och sprickbildningar och slaghål uppträder snabbare.

    Det svenska vägnätet kräver omfattande underhållsinsatser för att

    vägstandarden generellt ska bibehållas och förbättras. Bedömningen av

    de

    exakta underhållsinsatserna är ett svåravvägt problem som VTI inte tar

    ställning till i denna rapport. Den annorlunda problembilden jämfört

    med

    tidigare motiverar på sikt en förändring och strategisk omläggning av

    underhållsstrategin.

    För att resurserna ska användas rätt måste nya mått för framför allt

    bärighetsförändringar tas fram. En kartläggning av det svenska

    vägnätet

    måste också göras och nya beslutsmodeller utvecklas för att de rätta

    avvägningarna ska kunna göras.

  • 8302.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Salusjärvi, Markku
    Carlsen, G V
    Skarra, Nils
    Hastighetsbegränsningar och energiförbrukning: del 1 1982 : litteraturundersökning1984Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic Governmental Committee for Transport Questions (NÄT) proposed in spring 1981 that a project titled "Speed limits and energy consumption" should be started. In the description of the project it was stated by NÄT that so far "The effects of speed limits have concentrated mainly on measurements of average speed. However, such studies should also include speed profiles of the vehicles in question since the fuel economy does not only depend upon the average speed but also on the number of speed changes and their size."

    Later on it was decided that the project should first of all deal with changes in speed limits on rural roads.

    The project began in 1982 with a literature study, the result of which is shown in this report.

  • 8303.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Velin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekt av vinterdäcklagen på däckanvändning och olyckor2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to arrive at a preliminary indication of how the use of tyres and traffic safety were changed when the Law on winter tyres was in force; this Law directs that cars, light lorries and buses, of a total weight not exceeding 3.5 tonnes, shall during the period 1 December-31 March, when travelling on a road, be fitted with winter tyres or similar equipment when winter road conditions prevail. This Law came into force on 1 December 1999.

    The use of tyres was investigated at parking sites in Östergötland. Apart from the type of tyre (summer tyres/winter tyres without studs/winter tyres with studs), the year of manufacture, tread depth and stud protrusion were also noted.

    The traffic safety effect of the use of different tyres cannot be investigated directly since information concerning tyres is not included in accident data. The effect was therefore investigated by comparing two winters before the introduction of the Law with two winters when the requirement concerning winter tyres was in force. In order to reduce the influence of other changes, control areas were used. In the north of Sweden, practically all cars had winter tyres before the Law. There should therefore be only a small change in tyre use. Northern Sweden can therefore be used as a control area. In order that there should also be a control area in the south, a request was made to Denmark, where there had also been no change in tyre use, if it would be possible to utilise data from there. In order that the effect of the Tyre Law should be further elucidated, the roads in Sweden where a special winter speed limit was in force during the period concerned were also excluded. Southern Sweden up to a line to the north of the counties of Bohuslän and Uppland was therefore used as test areas.  

  • 8304.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Winter tyres: Traffic safety2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    During the winter 1993/94, the Swedish National Road Administration received considerable criticism for its winter maintenance and in particular for the high consumption if road salt. This led to discussions on changing the rules for winter maintenance. Some ice or snow was temporary allowed on the roads with high winter maintenance standard. More roads were degraded to lower winter maintenance standard where ice or snow were permanently permitted. In addition, certain changes intended to influence driver behaviour and vehicle equipment for example mandating the use of winter tyres were to be studied. The purpose of the first investigation described in this paper was to calculate the socio-economic consequences that may be expected from a requirement on winter tyres in various circumstances. In the second investigation in this paper the traffic safety effect of the requirement is studied. A requirement of using winter tyres when it is slippery was selected based on facts from the first investigation.

  • 8305.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Granskning av Vägverkets och Banverkets förslag till drift- och underhållsstrategier2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Government has assigned the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute the task of analysing the content of the proposals for operation and maintenance strategies that the Swedish National Road Administration and Banverket (the Swedish National Rail Administration) have submitted for comment. This memorandum constitutes a report of this assignment.

    Common to both the traffic administrations is the extensive knowledge in the form of descriptions of the road and rail networks’ standard that are available when planning. Important parts of this material have also been supplemented with studies and surveys, and by having the regions themselves work on special issues.

    According to the directives of the Ministry of Industry, Employment and Communications, the two administrations are to devise their own proposals for measures to minimise the cost to the public economy of keeping the infrastructure accessible for traffic. The criteria for when measures are to be applied – which the National Road Administration calls target levels – should therefore be chosen on this basis. The problem here is that it is difficult, and in many cases impossible, on the basis of the available documentation, to determine how the target levels have been chosen, whether this has been done according to public economy principles, or if other considerations have been the guiding principles when determining these limits. For these reasons, it has not been possible in our analysis to ascertain whether a reasonable balance has been achieved between different aspects of the measures proposed with regard to operation.  

  • 8306.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wretling, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Plogvallar framför fastighetsinfarter: Villaägarens syn på detta, problem och kostnader vid borttagning1992Report (Other academic)
  • 8307.
    Öberg, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology.
    How to create a transport corridor management: a literature review2013In: Transportforum 2013: granskade artiklar / [ed] Blomqvist, Göran, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013, p. 108-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has adopted a proposal to develop the trans-European network for freight and passenger transports (TEN-T). A multimodal core transport network for Europe has been proposed, as part of the TEN-T (including all modes of transport; roads, railways, airports and canals). As parts of the core network, ten core network corridors have been appointed. They will be used as instruments for implementing the entire core network. European Coordinators will facilitate the implementation of the core network corridors, in cooperation with corridor platforms to be established by member states concerned. There is no overall solution to how this core network with partly appointed network corridors would be managed, and how the corridor platforms will be synthesized and inter-organized to accomplish seamless transnational transport solutions. This literature review pinpoints three areas of specific importance for future work in creating transport corridor management structures. First, broad stakeholders inclusion, where formalized partnerships in agreements are suggested. Second, several ways of communication between stakeholders to ensure common progress, and third, to complement the dominant causation processes with effectuation processes to capture the stakeholders own driving forces towards common goals.

  • 8308. Öblad, Carin
    Cars, music and traffic safety1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8309. Öblad, Carin
    et al.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Musikens inverkan på bilkörningen: har favoritlåten någon betydelse?2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this field study was to alter an individual’s driving behaviour with specially selected music. A further aim was to find out whether tests could reveal the driver’s personality and thus predict his/her attitudes to, for example, risk-taking.

    Five individuals of various ages and sex took part in the study. The music being played had been mentioned by the participants as something they liked and disliked. In this interdisciplinary experiment both quantitative and qualitative methods were used.

    The experiment was performed in two days on a motor track, equipped with various obstacles in varying configurations. A specially equipped car, made it possible to register the drivers’ behaviour and their comments when driving.

    It was possible to distinguish a pattern among the participants regarding their personality, attitudes to music and risk-taking and this pattern corresponds to a certain extent with theories on sensation seeking. This very combination of statements, comments and tests must be interpreted as a first, albeit tentative attempt possibly worthy of further development. The conclusion to be drawn is that it is possible to measure changes in driving behaviour.

    Since musical experiences are of an individual kind, it may be impossible to generalize about how different sorts of music affect the individual, both in the car driving environment as in other kinds of situation. It is, however, possible to start from the assumption that driving behaviour is affected by the following: music that provides a positive surprise, a favourite tune and tunes giving rise to stress or irritation. It seems to be an advantage to be familiar with the music, but not to like it too much.  

  • 8310. Öblad, Karin
    Bilen som konsertlokal. Ett sätt att leva med bila och musik.1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8311.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Externt buller från mitträfflor2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Milled centerline rumble strips are used as a safety measure by alerting the driver via sound and vibration inside the vehicle. A secondary effect is that exterior noise is generated and that is a potential cause of annoyance and sleep disturbance for inhabitants living close to the road. This report describes a series of measurements and calculations with the aim of determining how many rumble strip hits that can be expected and what sound levels can be generated. The number of hits was determined using a total of ten days of measurements from four different locations and the results show that 0.2 to –1.0 per cent of all vehicle passages hit the rumble strip. The percentage of vehicles that hit the strip increases during night. The noise levels that are generated during a hit were determined by controlled pass-by measurements at different speeds with three different vehicles, a car with normal tires, a car with low profile tires and a truck (towing engine of semi-trailer). These measurements where then used to predict the outdoor and indoor noise levels. The calculations show that the Swedish guideline values may be exceeded at short distances, but it may be questioned if the road traffic noise guidelines are valid for rumble strip hits, since the noise is both impulsive and tonal in character.

  • 8312.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Noise emission from railway traffic2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    European authorities hope to be able to increase the volume of freight and passengers that are transported on railway systems compared to those transported on roads. If that policy is successful the problem of noise from railway traffic will increase. It is know from previous research that measures against the noise are more efficient if applied directly at the source itself rather than using indirect measures such as noise barriers and increased window insulation. This report is a literature survey on how the railway noise is generated, and to what extend different measures at the source can reduce the noise emission. The report also briefly describes what limits and recommendations on noise exposure are enforced now and in the near future. Furthermore the noise propagation methods used for calculating the noise level at different receiver positions (noise exposure) from the noise emission are discussed.

  • 8313.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, T
    WPS Environment.
    Öhrström, E
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf Gunnarsson, A
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Difference between using 2 and 4 meter receiver height in railway noise prediction2010In: / [ed] Tatsuo Maeda, Springer, 2010, , p. 6p. 541-546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries a receiver height of 2 m has often been used when calculating noise levels over large areas for socioacoustic surveys, but within the EU 4 m is used. Here results are presented for railway noise calculations at both heights in 1459 points across several areas in Sweden. The average difference in equivalent level is 2.5 dB higher at 4 m height than at 2 m, which in turn leads to 10 % – 40 % less predicted annoyance if the exposure is calculated at 4 m.

  • 8314.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP Akustik, Göteborg.
    Indata till bullerberäkningsmetoder för motorvagn X602010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report contains measurements on noise emission from the Swedish multiple unit denoted X60. The meaurements have been analyzed and used to prepare input data for the Nordic noise calculation methods for railway traffic noise NMT96 and Nord2000. The result shows that in a typical case the A-weighted noise emission per meter train is approximately 6 dB lower for X60 compared to the high speed train X2. Measurements were also carried out for the multiple unit X40, but unfortunately the spread was too large and the number of data points to small to create valid input data for the methods. More extensive research is needed, and until better data is available it is recommended to use X2 input data as an approximation of X40 noise emission.

  • 8315.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP akustik.
    Mätning och beräkning av buller och vibrationer från tågtrafik inom TVANE-projektet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The project "Effects of noise and vibrations from train and road traffic - train bonus, differences and combination effects between train and road traffic" (TVANE) started 2006 and will be finished during the beginning of 2011. The basic research method is a questionnaire survey in residential areas exposed to noise and vibrations from railway traffic and noise from road traffic. Well controlled laboratory studies were also performed. This report documents the measurements and calculations of noise and vibration were performed within the TVANE project. These data have then been used together with the questionnaire survey data to evaluate the responses such as annoyance and sleep disturbance.

    In total more than 30 vibration and noise measurements were performed, and the noise level was calculated in approximately 1 800 receiver points. The most important finding apart from describing the calculations and measurement methods used, is that it is not possible to predict the vibrations based only on railway and ground parameters, since the details of the construction of the exposed building will have a strong influence.

    Other TVANE reports and articles from conference proceedings can be downloaded from the project website: http://www.tvane.se and from the webbpage of the department of Occupational and Environmetal Medicine at the University of Gothenburg: http://www.amm.se

  • 8316.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginalkostnad av tågbuller2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del i projektet Jäsmage är att bestämma marginalkostnaden för buller från olika typer av järnvägsfordon. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar; att bestämma hur stor samhällskostnad en förändring i bullernivå innebär och att utgående från denna värdering beräkna vad kostnaden blir för en extra marginell fordonspassage vid olika sträckor. Denna rapport behandlar den andra delen. Arbetet inleddes under 2009 och kommer dels att rapporteras i december 2010, dels resultera i en artikel som är klar för vetenskaplig granskning under början på 2011.

  • 8317.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

  • 8318.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Effects of railway noise and vibrations on sleep: experimental studies within the Swedish research program TVANE2009In: 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009): Proceedings, Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , p. 8p. 1214-1221Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a laboratory sleep study with an exposure situation corresponding to a dwelling close to a railway. Both noise and bed vibrations were generated for passing trains, and the sleep quality of the test subjects was evaluated using questionnaires before and after sleep. A total of 21 test subjects slept five nights in the laboratory, and three different exposure situations were presented in a randomized order after two nights for habituation. The three exposures were combined from two noise levels and two vibration amplitudes; one with high noise levels and strong vibrations, one with lower noise levels and strong vibrations and one with high noise levels and weaker vibrations. The results indicate that the perceived sleep disturbance from noise increased with increasing vibration amplitude. There was no such interaction effect for perceived sleep disturbance due to vibrations, i.e. sleep disturbance due to vibrations was the same irrespective of noise level. These results suggest that it will not be sufficient to reduce the noise levels to protect from sleep disturbances, e.g. by sound insulating windows and noise barriers, if vibration levels are high. The vibration levels must also be addressed.

  • 8319.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental.
    A system for railway noise sleep disturbance trials2007In: Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems, 2007, , p. 6p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden a new research project aimed at studying noise and vibration from railway traffic has been started. An important part of the project is controlled laboratory experiments where subjects are exposed to noise and vibration when sleeping. The first set of experiments (using only noise) have already started, and the vibration excitation is under construction. Here the focus is on the construction of the laboratory and the design of the experiments, but some preliminary results are also presented. The sound system consists of roof mounted speakers for low frequencies, and two speaker cabinets for the high frequency part. Train passages recorded in the field on the façade of a building are filtered to account for façade insulation and presented to the subjects. This enables many scenarios to be studied with the same setup by selecting the individual sounds and changing the parameters of the filter. The vibration excitation system under construction will be based on electro-dynamical shakers which will interact with the bed to force it to vibrate.

  • 8320.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental.
    Noise and vibration generation for laboratory studies on sleep disturbance2008In: Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN) 2008, 2008, , p. 8p. 1-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research project TVANE is aimed at studying the effects of noise and building vibrations from railway traffic, and is sponsored by the Swedish railway infrastructure manager Banverket. The project includes many studies performed both in the field with questionnaires and noise and vibration measurements, and in the laboratory. This paper describes the design of a low cost vibrating bed used in laboratory sleeping experiments, and also the sound and vibration signals that the subjects were exposed to.

  • 8321. Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jerston, T
    Comparative field studies on the effects of railway and road traffic noise2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, p. 1660-1668Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide additional knowledge on the long term effects of railway and road traffic noise socio-acoustic surveys were performed in two residential areas exposed to road traffic noise (highway and major roads) and two areas exposed to railway noise (124 trains per day). Results were obtained for 974 individuals exposed to comparative sound levels ranging from LAeq,24h 45 to 65 dB. Road traffic caused significantly more noise annoyance than railway traffic, however, the difference decreased somewhat at higher sound levels above LAeq,24h 60 dB. For Lden the difference in annoyance between the two noise sources was larger and the difference increased at higher sound levels. At all sound levels, road traffic noise caused more disturbances of rest/relaxation (LAeq,24h) and sleep quality (Lnight) but less disturbance of conversation than railway noise. It was concluded that noise from railway traffic overall causes less adverse health effects than road traffic noise, in cases with a relatively moderate number of trains per day.

  • 8322.
    Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP Environment.
    Effects of railway noise and vibration in combination: field and laboratory studies2009In: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009), Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , p. 10p. 1204-1213Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8323.
    Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin vid Göteborgs universitetet.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska Akademin vid Göteborgs universitetet.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental akustik.
    Resultat och slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet TVANE: effekter av buller och vibrationer från tåg- och vägtrafik, tågbonus, skillnader och samverkan mellan tåg- och vägtrafik: slutrapport2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprogrammet har fokuserat på att studera hur buller och vibrationer från tågtrafik upplevs av människor i deras boendemiljö med avseende på allmän störning, påverkan på olika dagliga aktiviteter inomhus och utanför bostaden samt hur de störs av buller och vibrationer under sin sömn. Jämförande studier har belyst skillnader i upplevelse av vägtrafikbuller och tågbuller och hur antalet tåg per dygn inverkar på olika upplevda effekter. Det förekommer ofta att bostäder är utsatta för buller både från stora trafikleder och från järnvägslinjer med hög trafikering. TVANE-programmet har studerat hur människor upplever trafikbuller i sådana situationer.

    Som ett komplement till fältepidemiologiska studier har experimentella studier under väl kontrollerade exponeringsförhållanden och hemlika miljöer genomförts i Ljudmiljölaboratoriet vid Arbets- och miljömedicin. I ett experiment har effekter på sömnen av vibrationer och buller från tågtrafik studerats och ett annat sömnexperiment har belyst effekter av vägtrafikbuller och tågbuller.

    För att kunna bestämma exponeringen för buller och vibrationer på de platser där undersökningarna genomförts har ett stort antal mätningar och beräkningar utförts inom projektet. Beräkningarna är utförda enligt de standardiserade nordiska metoderna för buller från tåg- och vägtrafik. Mätningarna genomfördes dels som korta stickprov av buller och vibrationer, dels som mer omfattande vibrationsmätningar under ett dygn för att kartlägga vibrationsexponeringen i de områden som var känsliga för markvibrationer.

  • 8324. Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Experimental studies on sleep disturbances due to railway and road traffic noise2008In: Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN) 2008, 2008, , p. 8p. 1-8Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8325.
    Ölander, Jan
    Vägverket.
    Winter index by using RWIS and MESAN2002In: PIARC 2002 XIth International Winter Road Congress 28-31 January 2002 - Sapporo (Japan): Reprints from proceedings of oral presentations, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2002, p. 6-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8326.
    Ölmen, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bituminösa bindemedel: kvalitetsuppföljning vid VTI med laboratorieanalys enligt VÄG 94 - 1996 års prov1997Report (Other academic)
  • 8327.
    Ölmen, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bituminösa bindemedel: kvalitetsuppföljning vid VTI med laboratorieanalys enligt VÄG 94 - 1997 års prov1998Report (Other academic)
  • 8328.
    Ölmen, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bituminösa bindemedel: kvalitetsuppföljning vid VTI med laboratorieanalys enligt VÄG 94 - 1998 års prov1999Report (Other academic)
  • 8329.
    Ölmen, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studiebesök vid Otto-Graf-Institut. April 19971998Report (Other academic)
  • 8330.
    Örbom, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bemessung und Prufung von Strassenoberbauen in Schweden1975Report (Other academic)
  • 8331.
    Örbom, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Förstärkning av grusvägar genom cementinblandning i ytskiktet eller genom påläggning av cementstabiliserat, verkblandat material: Utvärdering betr utförande, teknik och förstärkningseffekt av Vägverkets arbeten 1974-771981Report (Other academic)
  • 8332.
    Örbom, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The effect of spring thaw subgrade conditions on the load-carrying capability of flexible airfield pavements in cold regions1975Report (Other academic)
  • 8333.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjalmarsson, S-O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fibermatta som förstärkning av transportväg på finkornig undergrund: Etapp II1979Report (Other academic)
  • 8334.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjalmarsson, S-O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Prov med cement- respektive slaggstabilisering vid Ö-vik 75: Slutrapport1981Report (Other academic)
  • 8335.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjalmarsson, S-O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Prov med verkblandad cementstabilisering på väg E79, Vännäs -75: Slutrapport1981Report (Other academic)
  • 8336.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindh, E
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Provväg med helt bituminös överbyggnad (HBÖ) vid Vendelsö 1974 (Test road with full depth bituminous pavement at Vendelsö 1974)1983Report (Other academic)
  • 8337.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiman, L
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vendelsö 74: Tjocka asfaltbeläggningars temperaturer och deras användning vid analytisk dimensionering1979Report (Other academic)
  • 8338.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ydrevik, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cementstabiliseringsprovvägen Vadstena 1969: Slutrapport1976Report (Other academic)
  • 8339.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ydrevik, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Stabiliseringsprovvägen Flen 74: Slutrapport1978Report (Other academic)
  • 8340.
    Örbom, B
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ydrevik, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Västerås 1970-provväg med verkblandade cementstabiliserade bärlager: 2. Slutrapport1977Report (Other academic)
  • 8341.
    Örbom, Björn
    Statens Väginstitut.
    Provvägen på Ekerö 19481952Report (Other academic)
  • 8342.
    Örbom, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Spänningsberäkningar för oarmerade betongbeläggningar och deras dimensionering för stora trafikbelastningar1988Report (Other academic)
  • 8343.
    Örbom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Nils
    Sättningar hos jordbankar anlagda under vintern1974Report (Other academic)
  • 8344. Östbring Carlsson, Malin
    Privat övningskörning nu och i framtiden: en attitydundersökning bland nyblivna körkortsinnehavare1999Report (Other academic)
  • 8345.
    Östergren, R
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Försök med elektroniska orienteringshjälpmedel vid snöröjning1977Report (Other academic)
  • 8346.
    Östergren, Roland
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Laser RDT: dynamisk bakaxellastmätning. Analys av mätningar i vägsimulator1998Report (Other academic)
  • 8347.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Luftfartens marginalkostnader: en delrapport inom Samkost 22016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While a large amount of studies has been focused on assessing the marginal costs of using roads or railroads, the corresponding knowledge about aviation has been lacking. Among other things, there has not been a coherent view in literature about central issues such as the definition of the concept of infrastructure and how to handle international flights.

    Another shortfall is due to the fact that previous studies have focused on calculating marginal costs for only one flight. These examples have then represented the whole variation of aircraft types and destinations that exists within Sweden. In this study, a first step has been taken towards a clearer picture by calculating the average marginal costs for climate change, negative health effects and negative noise effects of Swedish aviation. The results regarding climate show that the costs of domestic flights are small in comparison to European flights, which in turn are small compared to flights with destinations outside the EU. The variation between these categories shows that single examples can give a skewed picture of the actual marginal costs. It also shows that the difference between the above mentioned categories should be taken into account when evaluating policy measures.

    The calculations of the costs of emissions that affect human health are done in a less reliable way, and therefore the estimates in this part should be interpreted as rough approximations.

  • 8348.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Upphandling av vägkvalitet: en kartläggning av kvalitetsbegreppet i väginvesteringar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of road quality is multifaceted. This report concludes that the complexity of the concept can be managed by defining it on governments transport policy of economic efficiency and long-term sustainable transport system. Then the quality concept regarding roads can be approached in the following ways:

    • • A road gives social benefits in terms of accessibility – the ability for road users to move between different locations. Lack of accessibility may occur in the form of e.g. reduced speed or a closed road. Good quality is therefore an open road that fulfils the capacity, speed, safety and comfort for which it is designed.
    • Time is an important variable for quality. All roads are of good quality when they open for traffic, but will deteriorate over time.
    • Costs constitute a reference to which all quality measures must be related. In a relative measurement for quality, efficiency is upheld when that last SEK is spent where it gives most value. For this relative measure of quality, all costs during the life of the road are relevant, whether they concern the investment itself or the subsequent maintenance.

    Hence quality in roads is a complex concept, which contains all three of these aspects.

    The next question is how to measure them. Three different approaches for measuring quality will be presented. The first source is customer satisfaction and accident statistics. A problem with customer surveys is that the respondents tend to focus on comfort at the expense of security issues. This because the low risk of traffic accidents makes the respondents not fully able to take in the risk aspects. Accident statistics are uncertain since it is difficult to connect the accident directly to the road quality.

    A second source for quality data is the Swedish Transport Administration’s internal quality control for projects. The review of this process on a subproject in the large Förbifart Stockholm, indicates that the controls in many respects are extensive. However, the Swedish Transport Administration has implemented a reform to use more design-build contracts, that entails more self-reporting from the contractor. In a longer perspective, this risks Swedish Transport Administration’s ability for insight into the actual implementation of a road project and the measure of quality.

    The third source of information on road quality refers to road surface. There is extended research into this topic on how and what to measure. This type of information should therefore be used as a basis for monitoring road network quality. The report goes on suggesting two indexes to define quality from physical aspects of the road, one for the surface and one for structure. For the surface, an index is created by weigh track depth, IRI and texture. The structural index combines, track area, crosssectional variation, edge depth and deflection. Since physical aspects of quality only is relevant to measure a few years after the road is opened for traffic, other affecting variables need to be controlled for.

  • 8349.
    Österström, Johannes
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Effektiva kontraktsmodeller för vägunderhåll2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study in this report reviews international experiences of contracting of routine road maintenance. The study describes the contracting models used in Norway, Scotland and Ontario (Canada), as well as the results from the relevant research literature. Focus has been to map differences in efficiency between traditional and performance-based contracting, as well as the effects of incentives, risk sharing, competition and quality dimensions in contracting. The results show that Ontario and Norway have largely performance-based contracting models. Recently, some aspects of these contracts have been reconsidered because of problems mainly with respect to winter maintenance. In Ontario, quality is now considered as one component for identifying the winning bidder; Norway has a new reimbursement model that aim to balance the contractors’ incentives. Also, Norway is testing new contracting models in five areas. Scotland uses traditional contracts and is testing a new performance indicator to improve winter maintenance by using measurements of friction. In the literature, the view on performance-based contracting is often positive. But no study has been found that measures the efficiency of different contracting models that accounts for possible simultaneous changes in quality or long-term effects.

  • 8350.
    Östh, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Sato, Fusako
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations2017In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 51, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males.

    In this study, a finite element head and neck model of a 50th percentile female was validated in rear impacts. A previously validated ligamentous cervical spine model was complemented with a rigid body head, soft tissues and muscles. In both physiological flexion-extension motions and simulated rear impacts, the kinematic response at segment level was comparable to that of human subjects.

    Evaluation of ligament stress levels in simulations with varied initial cervical curvature revealed that if an individual assumes a more lordotic posture than the neutral, a higher risk of WAD might occur in rear impact. The female head and neck model, together with a kinematical whole body model which is under development, addresses a need for tools for assessment of automotive protection systems for the group which is at the highest risk to sustain WAD.

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