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  • 51.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hellman, FredrikSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.Haraldsson, MattiasSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 20192019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI arrangerade Transportforum 9–10 januari 2019 i Linköping Konsert & Kongress. En konferens, som är störst i sitt slag i Norden och som 2019 innehöll 90 sessioner med en stor variation mellan ämnen. Temat för 2019 års inledande session var elektrifiering – möjligheter och utmaningar att nå klimatmålen.

  • 52.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category and several spatial dimensions.

    All the analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but just barely regressive if the absolutely highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the variation within income groups is substantial; the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups.

    The two most important geographical distinctions are between rural and urban areas (including even small towns), and between central cities and satellites/suburbs; these spatial dimensions matter much more for distributional effects than for example whether an area is remote or sparsely populated.

  • 53.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases2018In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 15, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category, and spatial dimensions. The analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups. We also study revenue recycling schemes; when these are included, the combined effect of tax and recycling is progressive. Considering geographical differences; rural areas carry a larger burden of fuel and vehicle taxes than urban areas, and satellites/suburbs carry a larger burden than central cities. However, rural areas are affected remarkably similar regardless of where in the country they are located.

  • 54.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Lingegard, Sofia
    KTH.
    Borg, Lena
    KTH.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Procurement of Railway Infrastructure Projects: A European Benchmarking Study2017In: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2476-3055, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This benchmarking study compares how railway investments are procured in five European countries: Sweden, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. In total, 19 procurement managers and project managers were interviewed. This study compares the national rail clients' procurement strategies regarding: delivery system, reward system, contractor selection, and collaboration model. Historically, these clients have used in-house production. The first step towards a gradually increased usage of the market was to outsource the construction activities while keeping the design and development competence in-house. All five countries have mainly used Design-Bid-Build contracts in their initial outsourcing. However, the last few years there is a discernible trend in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands and the UK towards allocating more design and development responsibilities to contractors (i.e. Design-Build contracts) and increasing the strategic focus on cooperation. The UK and the Netherlands are forerunners in this trend that can be viewed as a third step in the transition towards a market oriented railway sector. Norway and Sweden is in the middle of this transition, whereas Germany has not initiated this change. The transition towards a gradually increased usage of the market has two main dimensions; degree of cooperation and degree of contractor freedom, which differs among the countries. The UK and Sweden focus on increasing both these dimensions, while The Netherlands and Norway mostly focus on increasing the degree of contractor freedom. Germany still limits both dimensions by performing design and development in-house and letting contractors compete for construction work in Design-Bid-Build contracts. Due to historical and cultural reasons, Deutsche Bahn in Germany is very hesitant to engage in collaboration with external suppliers; focusing on competition is considered more appropriate and less controversial.

  • 55.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vart är vi på väg?: Systemfel i transportpolitiken2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yarmuchamedov, Sherzod
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Hur väl fungerar försäkringsbranschen?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 7p. 40-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk teori visar hur försäkringssystem kan bidra till ökad välfärd. Men den visar också att det finns gränser för hur mycket trygghet vi kan eller bör skaffa oss genom försäkringar. Med unika mikrodata undersöker vi i denna artikel ett antal frågeställningar om försäkringsmarknadens effektivitet. Resultaten har betydelse för förståelsen av hur informationsasymmetrier hanteras av försäkringsbranschen, samt underlag för vissa policyrekommendationer när det gäller trafiksäkerhet och fordonsförsäkringar.

  • 57.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i regelgivningsarbetet: Avrapportering av inledande delprojekt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportstyrelsen genomför konsekvensutredningar bland annat avseende förslag till förändringar i föreskrifter, framställan till regelförändringar och som en del i regeringsuppdrag. Myndigheten har under senare år identifierat ett behov av att vidga innehållet i konsekvensutredningarna för att kunna bedöma om nya och förändrade regleringar bidrar till en transport-försörjning som är samhällsekonomiskt effektiv. Ett utvecklingsarbete har pågått sedan myndigheten bildades 2009.

    Inom ramen för ett pågående forskningsprojekt genomfört av Centrum för Transportstudier (CTS) – Samhällsekonomisk analys av regleringar – studeras effekterna av de förändringar som genomförts. Syftet är att analysera de problem som uppkommer i det praktiska arbetet med genomförandet av konsekvensanalyser av samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och att, baserat på resultaten, utveckla en mer generell metodik för hur arbetet ska genomföras och vad som bör ingå i den samhällsekonomiska analysen.

  • 58.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • 59.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH.
    Weibull, Jörgen
    KTH.
    A note on the invariance of the distribution of the maximum2018In: Journal of Mathematical Economics, ISSN 0304-4068, E-ISSN 1873-1538, Vol. 74, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many models in economics involve discrete choices where a decision-maker selects the best alternative from a finite set. Viewing the array of values of the alternatives as a random vector, the decision-maker draws a realization and chooses the alternative with the highest value. The analyst is then interested in the choice probabilities and in the value of the best alternative. The random vector has the invariance property if the distribution of the value of a specific alternative, conditional on that alternative being chosen, is the same, regardless of which alternative is considered. This note shows that the invariance property holds if and only if the marginal distributions of the random components are positive powers of each other, even when allowing for quite general statistical dependence among the random components. We illustrate the analytical power of the invariance property by way of examples.

  • 60.
    Gospic, Katarina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Sundberg, Marcus
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Maeder, Johanna
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Altruism costs-the cheap signal from amygdala2014In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1325-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people state their willingness to pay for something, the amount usually differs from the behavior in a real purchase situation. The discrepancy between a hypothetical answer and the real act is called hypothetical bias. We investigated neural processes of hypothetical bias regarding monetary donations to public goods using fMRI with the hypothesis that amygdala codes for real costs. Real decisions activated amygdala more than hypothetical decisions. This was observed for both accepted and rejected proposals. The more the subjects accepted real donation proposals the greater was the activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex-a region known to control amygdala but also neural processing of the cost-benefit difference. The presentation of a charitable donation goal evoked an insula activity that predicted the later decision to donate. In conclusion, we have identified the neural mechanisms underlying real donation behavior, compatible with theories on hypothetical bias. Our findings imply that the emotional system has an important role in real decision making as it signals what kind of immediate cost and reward an outcome is associated with.

  • 61.
    Grahn-Voorneveld, Sofia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The inefficiency of marginal cost pricing on roads2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic principle of road pricing is that a road toll should equal the marginal cost imposed by an additional user, since this will lead to efficient use of the transport facility. However, when the road is used by traffic both from the road providing region as well as by traffic from another region, the supplied road standard is likely to be too low, since the consumer surplus of the users from outside the region is not taken into account. This can be solved by letting an authority level higher than the road supplier use taxes and earmarked transactions to raise the road standard. (In Europe we see this done in the Trans European Network). To do this the higher authority needs very detailed information about the road and the users on local level. Further raising taxes and transactions also involve costs that can be substantial. Another problem is that transactions of this type it is hard to separate from other political interference. This paper analyzes how a limited toll on top of the marginal cost can serve the purpose of solving this problem locally, without involving a higher authority.

  • 62.
    Gustafsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Den svenska marknaden för godstransporter på järnväg: En analys av dominerande ställning2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish rail freight market was deregulated in 1996. This granted private and public firms access to the tracks and enabled competition with the former state-owned monopoly Statens Järnvägar (SJ). SJ separated the freight business in 2001, to the separate but still state-owned company Green Cargo. Competition on the rail freight market has been strengthened gradually and Green Cargo has gone from a monopoly position to an average market share of 55 percent. The company's market shares vary in the different sub-markets. Green Cargo is dominant in some sub-markets, but not all. Dominant companies in a market can be problematic and are regulated in the Swedish Competition Act “konkurrenslagen” (SFS 2008: 579). Importantly, it is not illegal to be dominant, but it is the abuse of a dominant position that is regulated. Assessment of possible abuse of a dominant position, consists of three chronological steps. Initially (1) the relevant market is defined, in order to then (2) calculate the company’s market share and whether it sustains a dominant position and (3) assess whether the dominant operator has abused its dominant position. This report aims to implement the first two steps concerning the freight transport market. The overall question is whether rail freight should be regarded as a common market. The analysis is carried out in two parts. The first is a traditional competition analysis driven by competition law (SFS 2008: 579), while the other is limited to rail transport alone, which is justified on the basis of the EU directive SERA (Single European Railway Area) and the Railway Act “järnvägslagen” (SFS 2004: 519). The traditional competition analysis begins with defining relevant markets according to the Competition Act, and the existence of dominant players in these markets is examined. The second analysis is based on the Railway Act and includes only rail freight transport. The dominance issue is assessed in this second part, by calculating market shares for the given market: block trains, single wagon load trains, combined trains and ore trains on the Malmbanan in Northern Sweden. In the second part of the study, which is based on the Swedish Railway Act, the markets are given as block trains, single wagon load trains, combined trains and ore trains on the Malmbanan. Given these markets, the market shares for Green Cargo are calculated using available data on tonkm and assumptions. Green Cargo is found to be dominant on single wagon load trains where they are alone, but also on block trains where they are estimated to have a market share above 50 percent. There are several companies with a significant market share in combined trains, and none of them is dominant. At the Malmbanan, Luossavaara–Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) manages its own transport and is dominant. The study shows that the Swedish rail freight market should not be seen as a uniform market. In the traditional competition analysis, three relevant markets are defined. Green Cargo is found to be dominant in the market for heavy freight transport in large volumes to or from industries in the Swedish inland where competition from other modes of transport is missing. In the market for medium-heavy goods transport within Sweden, Green Cargo is not dominant, as there is competition from other types of traffic. Defining the markets to include only rail transport, Green Cargo is dominated by two of four markets; system trains and cargo transports. However, a dominant position does not per se mean there is imperfect competition.

  • 63.
    Hansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Regulatory measurements in policy coordinated practices: The case of promoting renewable energy and cleaner transport in Sweden2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International organisations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), are seeking to implement a cohesive Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) system in order to achieve better regulation and increased unity and transparency. Central to these evaluations is the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and related tools. A comprehensive analysis of the use of impact assessment in the EU shows that many assessments lack important economic components. This paper draws on an extensive document study of the Swedish policy making process related to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The aim of the paper is to examine how CBA is presented, negotiated and accounted for by central actors within a policy setting influenced by negotiation and policy coordination. The paper departs from a theoretical perspective on policy coordination and shows how this factor must be considered when explaining the low use of CBA. It concludes that the Swedish policy tradition, wherein the national government relies on consensus-based coordination between agencies, might counteract a more explicit assessment of different policy options. The paper also proposes a model that can be used for further studies on CBA and policy coordination.

  • 64.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Prognosmodell för framtida resurs- och kompetensbehov inom järnvägsbranschen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the 2018–2029 National Plan for the Transport System, SEK 125 billion are to be set aside for the operation, maintenance and reinvestments of state railways during that period. This is an increase of about 40 percent compared with the corresponding plan for 2014–2025. Increased funding implies a greater volume of activities and indications have been received from players in the railway industry that all the resources and competences required to carry out planned railway, underground and tramway projects are not available. The Swedish Transport Administration therefore initiated a work process to produce a practical and useful forecast model that would predict the future resource and competence needs of the entire railway industry. Considering the complex structure of the railway industry, the wide variety of areas of activity and all the data (which was gathered manually for this project) needed for a forecast model, it transpired that the work task could not be completed within the framework of the project.

    The purpose of the project and this report has therefore been limited to suggesting a structure for the forecast model and, by using examples of four types of project - replacement of switches, replacement of tracks, building of passing loops, and the extension of double tracks - showing how the demand for resources and competences can be forecast. No analysis has been made of the supply side, that is, the current availability of manpower, retirements and study programmes. The reason for this is because there are no statistics that can be readily used to specify these parameters specifically for all the occupational groups and areas of activity of the railway industry. Because of this, the drafted version of the forecast model cannot be linked to the supply side and therefore it cannot show which occupational groups are expected to have a surplus or deficit of resources and competences.

  • 65.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Ecologize AB.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Hållbara turistresor: en fallstudie av destinationerna Kiruna, Åre, Sälen och Vimmerby2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with development of destinations and transport systems, tourist demands and requirements are essential in determining measures and changes that may lead to more sustainable travel. Different options for travel to and from destinations are of great importance, but also the geographical accessibility to various visit points within destinations. Good accessibility within a destination without a private car may also influence the modal choice for the trip to and from the destination.

    This study analysed the requirements of different categories of tourists for transport, their travel patterns and their preferences regarding travel to, from and within four Swedish destinations: Kiruna, Åre, Sälen and Vimmerby. The aim was to develop knowledge about factors that may affect the sustainability of tourist travel. The empirical material for the analysis was collected through questionnaires distributed to visitors on-site in the destinations.

  • 66.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Prediktioner av andelen personer som går respektive cyklar till jobbet: resvaneundersökningar i kombination med geografiskt högupplösta registerdata2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has recently developed a tool (“GC-kalk”) for assessing investments in the infrastructure for walking and bicycling. These assessments are inter alia based on the number of individuals that walk or bicycle before the investment. This report uses the Swedish national travel survey combined with register based (administrative) data with high geographic resolution to generate predictions of the number of people walking or cycling to work in a small geographic area. The basic problem is that the register based material that includes the entire Swedish population and all work places does not include information about mode of transport for the journey to work. Therefore the travel survey is used to fill in this information. A main question of this report concerns the quality of predictions on mode choice that you get from a model estimated on a national travel survey. Therefore a set of models are evaluated by cross validation based on the so-called “bootstrap” method. This method also implies that the uncertainty in mode choice predictions that depend on the sample variation in the travel survey easily can be simulated for all individuals in the register based data. The results suggest that the quality of predictions derived from the model that gives the best predictions at the national level vary across different counties. The chosen model is also used to illustrate how predictions of the shares of individuals walking or bicycling to work in a small area can be generated. In addition, the report discusses how the uncertainty in individual predictions can be used to consider other available information when the number of persons walking or bicycling shall be assessed in a specific situation and in a specific origin-destination pair.

  • 67.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Liss, Viktoria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Externa marginalkostnader för olyckor i vägtrafik: uppdaterade beräkningar för det statliga vägnätet i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents new estimates of the external marginal cost of accidents in the national road network in Sweden 2012. The researchers used a dataset where the accident database (Strada) is linked to the national road database for the years 2004–2012. The results are presented from a number of statistical models in which the researchers estimate the external marginal cost of accidents. The purpose of using several models is to test whether results from standard models are robust. In general, it seems that the results pertaining to light vehicles are quite robust across different models suggesting that the external marginal cost of traffic accidents is around 0 SEK per kilometre. The results for heavy vehicles appear less robust and while the main models suggest that the external marginal cost is around 0.25 SEK per kilometre, other models suggest that it may well be substantially lower.

  • 68.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    KJ Samhällsekonomi.
    Lang, Harald
    KTH.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Halldin, Chris
    ÅF.
    Bör kollektivtrafik subventioneras?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines motives for subsidisation of local and regional public transport, based on economic theory and numerical calculations, with the main conclusion that it is economically efficient to subsidise public transport and to increase service frequency where demand is high.

    Local and regional public transport in most industrialised countries is subsidised in the range of 40–60 per cent. In Sweden today regional authorities in charge of public transport are subsidising, between 44 and 80 per cent of the costs.

    What we regard as the main economic motive for subsidisation is that public transport is characterised by a positive external effect, which commercial operators ignore (is external) due to their need of a financial surplus. This positive external effect, often called the Mohring-effect, is that the passengers waiting times decrease when frequencies are increased which requires the operations to be subsidised. With the optimal level of price and frequency the variable operating costs cannot be covered with ticket revenue, requiring some external form of supplementary financing.

    The numerical calculations seek welfare optima for price, service frequency and subsidy with regard to invehicle congestion and waiting times. In order to find the optima a combination of a simulation model and an optimisation model has been applied, where the optimisation model was developed within this project.

    Price, frequency and subsidy have been optimised for seven lines with different characteristics in the county of Stockholm, from a bus route low demanded in a rural area to routes with high capacity use: bus line 4 in Stockholm inner city as well as one underground line and one commuter rail line. The methods used are generally useful. They can, however, be expected to yield different results depending on local demand levels, time values and operating costs.

    Compared with the initial situation today the welfare optima suggest lower prices for all seven lines, and higher frequency for most, except for bus lines in areas with less population density and low demand.

    Sensitivity analyses show that assumptions on waiting time valuations and cost of public funds have large effects on optimal subsidy, price and frequency and for welfare change. With lower valuations of wait time and/or with a higher cost of public funds optimal subsidy is lower, optimal price is higher and optimal frequency is lower.

  • 69.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    K2.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.
    Variationer i beläggning i tid och rum för tre tåglinjer norr om Mälaren2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att redovisa beläggningsvariationer i tid och rum för att bedöma om det finns potential för att omfördela vardagsresor från de högst belagda tiderna och delsträckorna till mindre belagda, utan respektive med förändrad prissättning. Därför har särskild vikt lagts på att identifiera beläggningsmönster under vardagar.

    Vi har fått data från SJ om antal resenärer på delsträckor och utbud i form av antal sittplatser, för tre månader under 2015 och 2016. Data beskriver antal resande per avgång i båda riktningar under alla dagar, för tåglinjerna Hallsberg - Stockholm C och Västerås - Stockholm C, samt för linjen Göteborg - Stockholm C, via Hallsberg. Såvitt vi vet har en så här detaljerad redovisning av beläggningsvariationer i tågtrafik inte tidigare gjorts för Sverige.

    Medelbeläggningar för alla avgångstider på varje delsträcka redovisas i form av tabeller och diagram.

    Resultaten är att beläggningarna varierar starkt mellan avgångar under vardagar och måttligt mellan dagar. Resandet är dessutom större i riktning från Västerås mot Stockholm på morgonen än i motsatt riktning och omvänt på eftermiddagen. Detta stämmer väl med statistik över pendling i Mälardalen enligt Mälardalsrådet och ÅF 2016.

    De betydande och regelbundet återkommande beläggnings- och efterfrågevariationerna torde kunna användas för att bedöma om det redan med dagens prisstruktur, utan prisförändringar, finns förbättringspotential genom förändringar av avgångstider och utbud per avgång. En sådan differentiering skulle kunna innebära kapacitetsbesparingar och förbättrad företags- och samhällsekonomiskt resultat, inklusive hänsyn till resenärernas upplevelse av resans standard. Resultaten torde också kunna användas för att analysera det samhällsekonomiska värdet, för resenärernas standard och för finansiellt utfall av ökad prisdifferentiering, för olika tider och för olika delsträckor. Då bör variation av beläggningsgrad och av antal resor över dagen beaktas simultant. Skälet är att kapaciteten för en avgång ofta behöver dimensioneras med tanke på sammanhängande omlopp. I en prissättningsstudie måste såväl utbud per avgång, som variation av beläggningsgrad och av antal resor över dagen beaktas simultant.

    Dessa resultat kan ha stor betydelse i beräkningar av vilken kapacitet som är optimal och vilken prissättning som bör tillämpas på olika avgångar.

     

  • 70.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    KJ Samhällsekonomi.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Halldin, Chris
    ÅF.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av förändrad frekvens och taxa för regionaltågstrafik i Mälardalen2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, both the supply of and the travel by regional trains increased significantly in Sweden. The impact of these increases has so far only to a limited extent been analysed with cost-benefit analysis. The purpose of this study is to use demand simulations to analyse the consequences of hypothetical changes in the frequencies and the tariffs, downwards and upwards, for two regional lines in Mälardalen: Västerås to Stockholm and Hallsberg to Stockholm. The impacts are described in terms of projected changes in demand, travelers 'benefit, income and costs of various modes of public transport, externalities, operators' finances (net revenue), government finance (government revenues minus costs) and the social net. The calculations show that it is financially worthwhile to reduce frequencies, but that an increase would lead to financial losses (of net revenue), and that both higher and lower tariffs would mean financial loss. The cost-benefit calculations show that, as for finances, it is beneficial to reduce frequencies but negative to increase them. Tariff increases lead to losses both financially and socially. The only policy for which the direction of the financial and cost-benefit outcomes are different is a tariff reduction. A tariff reduction is assessed to financially unprofitable, but is calculated to be socially beneficial.

  • 71.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Interaction delay and marginal cost in Swedish bicycle traffic2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the method presented by Johansson (2018) to estimate a volume delay function and marginal cost for bicycle traffic on cycling paths separated from motorized traffic based on point measurements of speed and lateral positions from seven sites in Sweden. The results indicate that a quadratic volume – delay function fits the data well in the observed range of volumes, and that there are significant delays already at volumes far below the capacity due to the heterogeneity of the desired speed over the population. The total marginal cost of delay per unit flow is estimated to €9×10-5 h/km.

  • 72.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Luftfartens klimatpåverkande utsläpp  – differentierade marginalkostnader: En delrapport inom Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel has increased sharply over the past 30 years, and forecasts indicate that the rate of growth may last for decades to come. Estimates of how air traffic affects the climate and methods used to calculate marginal costs are therefore of importance. The methods should also allow for the study of different parts of the airline market since results may vary extensively depending on aircraft and engine type used.

    In this report, data from the Swedish Transport Agency comprising all air traffic movements to/from Swedish airports 2016 have been used to provide estimates of social costs for carbon dioxide emissions and costs related to non-CO2 emissions at high altitude. A method has been developed that makes it possible to calculate results for passenger traffic, freight flights and postal flights separately and to study differences between, for example, regular traffic, chartered flights and air taxi. The report incorporates results for domestic flights and flights from Sweden to airports within or outside the EU emissions trading system. Results for different Swedish airports and for a couple of routes are presented. Climate effects from flight movements with empty planes are also considered.

    The report presents results related to the vehicles, i.e. emissions per vehicle kilometre and per flight, and results related to passengers and cargo, i.e. per passenger- and tonne-kilometres and per passenger and loaded weight. The latter has not been analysed at same level of detail earlier.  

  • 73.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Internalisering av godstrafikens externa effekter – konsekvensanalyser med Samgodsmodellen: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned to review the current knowledge of social marginal costs for using the country’s national infrastructure, Government Decision N2017/01023/TS. As a part of this commission VTI is asked to assess the effects of a full internalisation of external costs within the transport sector.

    In this report the effects on freight transports of gods being traded within and to/from Sweden is assessed using the Swedish national freight flow model Samgods. The analysis includes calculating the appropriate levels of tax and/or fees needed for decisionmakers in the freight transport market to fully take in to account the external effects of traffic with different types of vehicles. In a second step the freight flow model is used to estimate effects on ton-kilometers transported on road, rail and sea respectively.

    Results show that the resulting change in relative costs for transporting with different modes of transport will increase ton-kilometers transported by sea. A full internalization of external cost will decrease ton-kilometer transported by rail and on road. The largest decrease being calculated for rail. To fully take account for external effects track fees in Sweden will have to be four times higher. In total we estimate a small but positive effect on the climate.

  • 74.
    Johnsen, Annika
    et al.
    IfeS.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kraetsch, Clemens
    IfeS.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Eriksson, Gabriella (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindgren, Hanna (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Možina, Katarina (Contributor)
    AMZS.
    Rey, Alba (Contributor)
    ACASA.
    Literature review on the acceptance and road safety, ethical, legal, social and economic implications of automated vehicles2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable summarizes the findings of an extensive literature review on the acceptance, behavioural intentions, road safety, as well as ethical, legal, social (ELSI) and economic considerations in the scope of vehicle automation.

    The theoretical fundaments and relevant findings of recent public opinion research regarding user acceptance of automation are presented. Also the view of organised stakeholders is taken into account.

    Regarding road safety there is a potential for increased road safety but drivers tend to pick up non-related driving tasks instead. These problems are due to several traditional HMI concerns. In the future autonomous cars must make decisions that touch on ethical issues that have not yet been sufficiently and transparently discussed. Although in many countries legislation is now reacting to the new technology, many aspects – like liability and privacy / data protection – are not yet regulated by law. Automated vehicles promise to have several clear benefits that might change the entire transport system. The positive externalities that come from the technological advantages of automated vehicles might be outweighed by the negative externalities coming from the potential increases in travelling by private vehicles.

  • 75.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    WSP.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal cost estimation for level crossing accidents: evidence from the Swedish railways 2000-20122015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between train traffic and the accident risk for road users at level crossings. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk can be used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. Based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2012 on level crossing accidents, train volume and crossing characteristics, the marginal cost per train passage is estimated at SEK 1.28 (EUR 0.13) on average in 2012. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of protection device, road type and the traffic volume of the trains.

  • 76.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    A biofuel mandate and a low carbon fuel standard with ‘double counting’2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     European Union’s (EU) energy legislation from 2009 is still being implemented in the Member States. We study analytically the Renewable Energy Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive’s provisions for the transport sector. The former Directive imposes a biofuel mandate and allows double counting of some biofuels. The latter Directive imposes a Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). We show that either the biofuel mandate or the LCFS is redundant. Double counting makes the biofuel mandate easier to fulfil but also depresses the price of biofuels. Production of the doubly counted biofuels increases nevertheless and production of the single-counted biofuels falls. Given the type of technical change studied, double counting spurs technical development of the doubly counted biofuels. The LCFS directs support towards those biofuels with lowest life-cycle carbon emissions. The redundant policy instrument, the biofuel mandate or the LCFS, only creates costs but no benefits and should be abolished. Double counting makes the biofuel mandate non-cost-efficient and should be reconsidered.

  • 77.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Political economics or Keynesian demand-side policies: What determines transport infrastructure investment in Swedish municipalities?2015In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 51, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines investment in transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities according to the three National Transport Infrastructure Plans of 2004, 2010 and 2014. The plans cover 12 years each. The test of a swing voter model, combined with variables relevant to the Keynesian model of demand side policies, supports the proposition that there is less investment in municipalities with highly partisan electorates. The model seems to work better for road than for rail investments. Municipalities with a high density of voters at the ideological cut-point (middle of the ideological distribution) got more investment in the 2010 plan but not in the other plans. The impact of the elasticity of output on public service provision raised investment in road projects in sub-plan period 1 compared to later sub-plan periods. The tax elasticity of output may influence the volume of investment downward. The Plan for 2010–2021 seems to be the most politically determined of the plans considered here.

  • 78.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Styrmedel för självkörande fordon2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tekniken för självkörande fordon utvecklas snabbt, även om drömmen om helt självkörande fordon fortfarande är relativt osäker. I detta PM görs översikter över flera olika litteraturer. En är en översikt över de effekter som självkörande fordon kan förväntas ha på trängsel, restid, markanvändning och parkering, påverkan på urban sprawl, miljöeffekter och påverkan på energianvändning, trafiksäkerhet samt hälsoeffekter. Självkörande fordon kommer dessutom ha en stor påverkan på självkörande taxi och kollektivtrafiksystem, där flera bedömare anser att det sistnämnda bara kommer kunna existera i sin nuvarande form i tätbebyggda områden. Självkörande fordon kan vidare bidra med ökad och förbättrad mobilitet för grupper så som funktionshindrade, äldre och barn, de påverkar infrastrukturplaneringen, och avslutningsvis har de potential att revolutionera godstransportsystemet. Utifrån en förståelse för hur självkörande fordon påverkar transportsystemet och det omgivande samhället görs sedan en översikt över den litteratur som studerar möjliga styrmedel för att internalisera de externa effekter som självkörande fordon orsakar. Litteraturen omfattar även styrmedel som ska stödja introduktionen av självkörande fordon, även om det inte är klart varför ett sådant stöd skulle behövas, samt vissa styrmedel, framförallt olika typer av vägavgifter, som skulle kunna användas för att internalisera effekter av ökad trängsel. Avslutningsvis relateras både de effekter som självkörande fordon har, och de styrmedel som undersökts till Trafikverkets mål och slutsatser dras gällande behov av framtida forskning.

  • 79.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Styrmedelsinventering: delstudie inom SAMKOST2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report takes stock and describes policy instruments that affect the extent of the various externalities arising from transport; noise, impact on infrastructure (both planning new infrastructure and consumption phase), climate, air pollution, traffic safety, congestion and impact on water. The analysis of policy instruments covers all four transport modes: road, rail, maritime and air transport. The description begins with a review of related international agreements and EU regulations. It then discusses domestic policy measures. The point of departure in this discussion is whether a policy instrument affects the marginal cost of an activity or not.

    It is difficult to link a specific policy instruments to specific external effects, even though there is such a link in the instrument's design. The reason for this is that all policy instruments that affect the volume of traffic also by definition  influence all the externalities that arise. The report is nevertheless arranged so that every policy instrument is coupled to the external effect that it primarily aims at.

    The report also contains an overview of policy instruments in five neighboring countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, the UK and Germany. The international overview does not include an examination of the links between external effects and policy instruments but lists and describes the policy instruments on the basis of the transport mode they affect.

  • 80.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Local government co-financing of the central government's transport infrastructure investment2019In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study two districts’ voluntary co-financing of a centrally provided public good, e.g., transport infrastructure. Outcomes are compared to a surplus-maximizing level of public good provision. We show that both co-financing and lobbying raise the amount of public good provided. Co-financing and lobbying are substitutes. Co-financing (or co-financing combined with lobbying) raises the provision of the public good to a higher level than lobbying alone. Co-financing can thus reduce rent-seeking. Finally, we show that under uncertainty about district type (high or low benefit), co-financing combined with lobbying can be used to find and retain a separating equilibrium.

  • 81.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Congdon Fors, Heather
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The influence of individual characteristics and institutional norms on bureaucrats’ use of CBA in environmental policy: a model and a choice experiment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists regularly criticize the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which has led to much focus being placed on investigating the possible biases related to its results. Recent research shows that CBA is not routinely done prior to environmental, energy, and climate policymaking in Sweden, and in countries where a CBA is made, the results have little influence on political decisions. This paper investigates obstacles to using CBA information with a focus on bureaucrats. We use empirical data from Sweden, where the ministries are small by international standards and hence government agencies have a sizeable influence on policymaking. We construct a theoretical model and then test the theoretical predictions with empirical data collected from five Swedish government agencies. The empirical results lend support both for the assertion that risk aversion concerning the environmental outcome, the bureaucrats’ environmental attitudes, and the cost of taking CBA information into account have a considerable impact on the probability of using information from a CBA. Hence risk averse and bureaucrats with strong environmental preferences are less likely and bureaucrats with low cost of doing a CBA more likely than other bureaucrats to use CBA information. Finally, a binding governmental budget constraint may positively influence a bureaucrat’s choice of undertaking a CBA. A tentative conclusion is therefore that it may be possible to increase the use of CBA by making the budgetary consequences of policies much clearer and demanding due consideration of costs.

  • 82.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: welfare maximization, political economy or both?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of transport infrastructure projects to include in the National Transport Infrastructure Plans in Sweden is often said to be motivated by the weighing of cost against social benefits. Examining the projects that are included in the Plans, it is clear, however, that not all projects have positive net present values, and are therefore more costly to build than the benefits they create. This paper studies alternative models that might explain the choice of projects. Two political economy models, the district demand and the swing voter with lobbying, are tested, and a model that accounts for the spatial distribution of the projects, as well as the possibility that priorities are based on welfare concerns, is estimated. No support is found for the political economy models. What explains investment volume is the existence of CBA results for a project, which may indicate that welfare benefits have an impact, as do the spatial spillovers from a project’s benefits and lobbying, especially by the municipalities concerned.

  • 83.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    The impact of education on environmental policy decision-making2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil servants in governmental agencies regularly both propose environmental policies for the elected politicians and make own decisions. In making these decisions they may be influenced by legal norms, agency policy and culture, professional norms acquired through education as well as personal political preferences. This study tests how students in late stages of professional training in economics, biology and social sciences handle information in order to make a stylized choice of a national nutrient limit for lake water, or choose a program at a municipal level to lower the nutrient level in a local lake. The purpose is to test whether professional norms acquired during academic education and/or the presence of an international standard influences decision-making. We examine three hypotheses. Firstly, students’ political attitudes affect their choice of major, i.e. biology, economics or social sciences, and thereby indirectly their decisions. We find that the distribution of the political values among disciplines is compatible with the hypothesis, which therefore is not rejected. Secondly, a student’s major influences the kind of information they use and consequently the policy choice they will recommend. In plain words we expected biology students to go for environmentally more ambitious (lower) nutrient limits and economics students to prefer economically efficient (higher) levels. The central result is that while economics majors are more likely than biology or social science majors to choose a cost-efficient nutrient limit, the mean and median values of the nutrient levels chosen by the three groups do not differ from one another in a statistically significant way. Economists thus have a higher standard deviation in their answers than the other majors. The third hypothesis is that the presence of an internationally approved standard level for the nutrient content will significantly influence the choice of national nutrient limit. We find that biology students are influenced to set a lower nutrient limit when presented with the standard than otherwise, thereby rejecting the null hypothesis for this group. For students in economics and social sciences, no significant effect is found. Our results have implications for the feasibility of micromanagement in government agencies as recruiting economists to environmental agencies may not be sufficient to ensure economically efficient decisions. The findings also should sound a warning about the skills learned by economics majors at the two largest universities in Sweden: while some students seem familiar with the concepts of optimality and cost efficiency and able to use them, this applies to far from all of them.

  • 84.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 20112016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the impact of increased public transport supply on private car use using micro data on individuals from 17 mid-sized cities in Sweden. The data is obtained from Swedish administrative registers (tax and odometer), which exists for all Swedish adults and cars, and information of public transport supply, namely bus kilometres supplied.

    In a description of the data we see that that the increase of private Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT) per inhabitant stagnate in the sample cities towards the end of the period 1997-2011. Our hypothesis is that changes in the supply of public transport is the main cause for this stagnation. The probability of owning a car and the demand functions for VKT are estimated. The principal finding is that private car use is reduced by increased supply of bus kilometres with an average elasticity ranging from -0.01 to -0.04. This effect is larger in peripheral areas and in larger cities. In small cities the effect is almost nil. We conclude that public transport has an effect on the private VKT of inhabitants but that the impact is relatively small and cannot be the main cause for the stagnating increase of private VKT per inhabitant in the sample cities.

  • 85.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dickinson, Joanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Viklund, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Dahlberg, Staffan
    Stockholm.
    Rebound effects of energy efficiency measures in the transport sector in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebound effects represent the difference between anticipated or projected energy savings and the real energy saving in relation to, for example, implemented policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. Rebound effects in the transport sector may counteract policy measures so that goals related to energy or emissions are not achieved, or achievement is greatly delayed. This comprehensive report examines the presence of rebound effects within the transport sector and while the aim was to provide a full review of the issue, for some transport areas it was not possible to find any studies on rebound effects. Those areas are identified as having knowledge gaps. We summarize the literature for rebound effects for passenger vehicles, technological developments, freight transports, public lighting, aviation, waterborne transports and for indirect, economy-wide effects, and also discuss rebound effects in aspects of environmental awareness and in the transport and community planning. The existing literature suggests that rebound effects exist to varying degrees and that there is a high risk of energy efficiency measures transferring transport energy savings into other transport modes, sectors or energy services. Consequently, rebound effects should be included when calculating whether Sweden will reach its climate and energy goals.

  • 86.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The cost of aircraft noise – Does it differ from road noise?: A meta-analysis2016In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 57, p. 138-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at studying the difference in cost between aircraft noise and road noise using meta-analysis. 90 NDI estimates have been gathered from the literature (a total of 53 studies), out of which 44 are estimates for aircraft noise and 46 are for road noise. The results of the meta-regression suggest that aircraft noise costs somewhere in the range of 0.40 and 0.60 percent more per increased dB than road noise. Knowing the associations between these costs of noise pollution can be a convenient tool for planners and policy makers, offering an opportunity to make predictions of aircraft noise when only estimates of road noise are available, and vice versa.

  • 87.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The Swedish Congestion Charges: Lessons Learnt2018In: Road Pricing: Technologies, economics and acceptability / [ed] John Walker, IET , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The charging systems in Sweden show that congestion charges can be an efficient (socio-economically beneficial) and effective policy measure for combating urban congestion. Furthermore, the technology of the Swedish charging systems has proven to work well, with high accuracy of correctly identified vehicles using the video technique with ANPR. The case of Gothenburg demonstrates this measure is not only less efficient if initial congestion levels are low, but also less efficient in the long run: the effects are declining in the long run. In Stockholm, the effects have increased over the years. The difference between the cities in this respect could be a result of the lower density city structure and high car dependence in Gothenburg. From this perspective, congestion charges are likely most successful in cities where congestion levels are high and where there exist good alternatives to driving.

  • 88.
    Landergren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Berglund, Moa
    WSP.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Persson, Christer
    WSP.
    Waidringer, Jonas
    Logistic Landscapers.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP.
    Flodén, Jonas
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet.
    VTTV – Value of Transport Time Variability: Method development and synthesis. Value transfer, measurements, and decomposition of VTTV2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transporttidsvinster (TTS) och minskad transporttidsvariation (TTV) för gods-och passagerartrafik är viktiga nyttoposter i de samhällsekonomiska kalkylerna inom transportsektorn. Ett av antagandena som behöver göras är den monetära värderingen av TTS och TTV – VTTS och VTTV. Resenärers värderingar av dessa mått baseras oftastpå SP-studier (Stated Preference). VTTS för godstrafik baseras på kostnaden för kapitalbindningen i, och därmed värdet av, godset. I nuläget antas VTTV vara lika med det dubbla VTTS. Transportörers nyttor av minskad transporttid och transporttidsvariation beräknas som en del av transportkostnaderna (i andra poster i kalkylen). Detta projekt fokuserar på VTTV för godstransporter.

    Den här rapporten består av två delar. Kapitel 2, som är skrivet av WSP, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet och Logistics Landscapers, beskriver WP 4 som handlar om vilket mått som ska användas för transporttidens variation, vilka delar VTTV består av samt härleder en matematisk modell för att beräkna VTTV.

    Syftet med WP 4 var ursprungligen att kartlägga och utvärdera olika mått för transporttidsvariationen (TTV). Med mått menas enheten som används för att kvantifiera variationen, som exempelvis standardavvikelsen eller den genomsnittliga förseningen. En litteraturstudie har genomförts där använda mått i 22 tidigare samhällsekonomiska studier i Sverige ochutomlands listas. En slutsats av litteraturstudien är att många olika mått använts, vilka kan kategoriseras under

    • Standardavvikelse
    • Spridning (ofta i form av skillnad mellan percentiler)
    • Andel av sändningar som är försenade
    • Genomsnittlig försening (om försenad)

    Fördelar och nackdelar med de olika måtten diskuteras. En annan slutsats är att valet av mått sällan diskuteras i de genomgångna studierna, utan man verkar ha valt ett mått som passar undersökningsmetoden. Vidare har det undersökts om det används mått inom logistikbranschen som skulle kunna passa TTV inom samhällsekonomin. Slutsatsen är att dessa mått (eller indikatorer) är framtagna med andra syften och för användning på mikronivå (företag eller enskilda transportkedjor) vilket gör det svårt att tillämpa dem på makronivå. Dock finns ett behov av mått på en mesonivå som gör det möjligt att analysera förändringar i transportsystemet ur båda perspektiv – samhällets och enskilda aktörers.

  • 89.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Smith, Tony E
    University of Pennsylvania,.
    A note on a recent paper by Dagsvik on IIA and random utilities2016In: Theory and Decision, ISSN 0040-5833, E-ISSN 1573-7187, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 305-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper in this journal, Dagsvik derives the class of independent random utility representations that are “equivalent” to the independence-from-irrelevant-alternatives (IIA) assumption by Luce (Individual choice behavior: a theoretical analysis. Wiley, New York, 1959). In this short note, we clarify the relations between this paper by Dagsvik, and a paper in Lindberg’s 2012 thesis.

  • 90.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Parkeringsavgifter: en översikt av parkeringsavgifter i sex europeiska städer2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study contains a compilation of parking fees and norms in Stockholm and five other European cities: Helsinki, Oslo, Copenhagen, Amsterdam and Frankfurt am Main.

    Most cities have clear zones or tariff areas where the price depends on the area’s distance to the city centre. Oslo has the highest fee (NOK 56 per hour), followed by Stockholm, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Helsinki and finally Frankfurt am Main. Oslo is the only city with dynamic tariffs which increases with the parking time.

    Oslo also stands out as the city with the lowest fees for residential parking. Stockholm has the highest with SEK 13 200 per year. Oslo, Copenhagen and Helsinki have uniform fees for residential parking within the cities. Stockholm and Oslo do not allow for residential parking in the most central areas (Sentrum in Oslo and tariff area 1 in Stockholm).

    Frankfurt am Main is characterised by their focus on parking in car parks owned by a publicly owned company. Compared with the other cities, information on parking policies is more scarce in Frankfurt am Main.

  • 91.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lösningar för kollektivtrafik på landsbygd: det pågående arbetet i Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. This part-study aims to identify good practises. A further aim is to study the regional public transport authorities’ work to identify solutions that are both attractive to travellers and economically effective. Three empirical sources are used: a survey directed to regional public transport authorities, interviews with officials at regional public transport authorities, and a study of projects and solutions in Sweden. In the interview study, three questions will be answered:

    1. What challenges and preconditions do the regional public transport authorities have concerning public transport in rural areas? What sources do they have to solve eventual problems?

    2. Do the regional public transport authorities have any strategies to conduct public transport in rural areas? If so, what are the strategies?

    3. How does the organisational and economic coordination of different forms of transport work?

    The results show that urban areas are often underprioritized in public transport planning. Scarce economical resources result in prioritizing urban transport and high costs and low funding are reasons why projects must end. There is still much to be done regarding demand-responsive transport, for example, digital solutions are so far used to a very little extent. It has also been shown that the interest in car-sharing has been weak. To increase accessibility in rural areas, a combination of services needs to be introduced such as shopping, postal services and healthcare as well as mobility services.

  • 92.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vad styr valet av trafikslag för godstransporter?: en kunskapsöversikt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to compile and assess the research and knowledge base with regards to what determines the choice of mode from a business perspective. The literature review is based on grey research and scientific articles within transport economics and logistics.

    The literature identifies a range of factors that can potentially affect the decision-makers in their choice of transport mode. The factors that are reviewed in this survey are those that commonly occur within the literature and often deemed the most relevant.

    First, the influence of shipment attributes (value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, weight, density and volume) and transport distance are discussed. Surveys and behavioural studies show how the competitiveness of the transport modes depend on shipment attributes and transport distance. For certain shipments, the distance class and commodity type are such that it is only realistic to use a specific mode. Other factors that usually matter for the choice of mode will have little impact on the choice. The exact size of the contestable market is hard to measure, but it is likely that for a significant part of the goods flows on the freight transport market it is only realistic to use one specific transport mode.

    Second, the review analyses how the choice of mode is influenced by modal characteristics (transport cost, transport time, reliability, shipment frequency and damage risk). The importance of these characteristics vary across decision-makers, partly according to transport distance and commodity class, but is generally relatively low. In other words, the propensity to switch transport mode as modal characteristics change is relatively low. This may be due to the effects only measuring the impact in the short and medium term, that they are based on changes in a single factor holding other determinants constant or that the analysis miss how decision-makers actually weigh in modal characteristics in their choice of transport mode.

    Third, the review discusses how the firms’ choice of distribution and production strategies entails possibilities and limits for its choice of transport mode. This analysis identifies multiple factors that tend to facilitate the choice of multimodal transport chains and direct rail or sea transports. These factors mitigate the effect of multimodal transports’ disadvantages or facilitate the utilization of its advantages. Generally, this entails promoting shipments of larger volumes and economies of scale that can be utilized by rail and sea transports.

    Fourth, the transport contract and the relationship between buyers and sellers of transport services are investigated. The contract can facilitate or limit the choice of transport mode by distributing risk and limit the way the firms can perform their operations. A close cooperation between transport buyers and transport companies can make the parties more aware of this possibilities and problems that the transport solution entails.

  • 93.
    Lindé, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    An evaluation of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden 1998–20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to present and analyze the development of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden and the impacts of the system. A system differentiated for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was introduced in 1998. The implementation of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) stricter SOx requirements in the Baltic and North Sea areas in 2015 made the SOx differentiation obsolete. In 2018 the system was replaced by a new fee system with different differentiation.

    The Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) is responsible for determining and collecting the fairway dues and is also dependent on this income as an important source of funding for its activities. The amounts to be paid and the emission levels that are necessary to be eligible for a certificate that entitles discounts are stated in the SMA’s regulations on fairway dues. These regulations have changed over the years and to give an overview of these changes a presentation of regulations and found amendments is provided.

    Except for some early studies evaluating the first few years of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues, little has been done to evaluate the impact of the policy instrument that was in place for 20 years. The information found in previous studies, annual reports and available data provided by the SMA is compiled and analyzed to present the impacts of the fairway dues from 1998 to 2017.

    The numbers and characteristics of vessels with SOx and NOx reduction certificates are compiled from several sources. Abatement techniques and costs are discussed. Available estimates of reduced emissions from certified vessels are presented and analyzed. As far as possible, the costs and benefits for society of reduced emissions are compared and the contribution to fulfillment of environmental objectives is discussed. More emphasis is placed on the NOx differentiation since problems with high levels of NOx emissions remain whereas SOx emissions have declined substantially in the Baltic Sea, especially since the implementation of stricter IMO requirements.

  • 94.
    Lindé, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Evaluating the effects of Sweden's environmentally differentiated fairway dues2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 70, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • Evaluation of a globally unique system of environmentally differentiated fairway dues.
    • The evolution of the system and its effects are analyzed.
    • Emissions reductions achieved and associated abatement costs are estimated.
    • Costs and benefits for society are compared.
    • Abatement costs for both SOx and NOx substantially lower than value to society.
  • 95.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Daly, Andrew
    ITS Leeds.
    Public transport: One mode or several?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a methodology for testing and implementing differences in preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes, in state-of-practice large-scale travel demand models. Results of a case study for commuters in the Stockholm public transport system suggest that there are preference differences among public transport modes. We found that the value of time for train is lower than for bus and metro, and that it is higher for auxiliary modes than for the main mode. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differences proportional to the in-vehicle time between bus and metro, suggesting that characteristics of in-vehicle time in these two modes are valued equally by the travellers. Nevertheless, unobserved preference for metro is higher than the preference for bus. Regarding the existence of a rail factor, we find evidence to support the hypothesis that rail-based modes have in fact a smaller time parameter (train) or higher alternative specific constant (metro), indicating that rail modes are preferable to bus, ceteris paribus.

  • 96.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Quantity Choice in Unit Price Contract Procurements2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 483-497Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: sammanfattande rapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. We address these questions from several different angles. For example, we discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, we discuss how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road. We show that the consequences of such a shift depend on the energy- and climate policy context. The major part of the report focuses on how the freight transport sector might respond to economic climate policy instruments. Freight market exhibits a number of specific characteristics that could imply that it reacts differently than other types of markets do.

  • 98.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Proost, Stef
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Why truck distance taxes are contagious and drive fuel taxes to the bottom2016In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 93, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the way in which countries with international and local truck traffic decide to switch from a simple fuel tax system to a dual system of fuel and distance charge taxes. We show what drives a country to switch and how this affects the level of fuel taxes as well as incentives for other countries to also adopt the dual system. The model is partially able to explain the gradual extension of kilometer charging for trucks in Europe. The model also shows that, in the absence of diesel cars, the gradual introduction of kilometer charges will make fuel taxation for trucks virtually disappear and will lead to a system where truck use is (1) taxed mainly based on distance, (2) is taxed too heavily, and (3) where highest distance taxes are expected in transit countries with a strong market position. When the fuel tax must in addition serve as an externality tax for diesel cars, the introduction of distance charges for trucks will give rise to diesel taxes that are lower than the external cost of diesel cars. For trucks, this leads to a sum of diesel taxes and distance charges that are higher than the external cost of trucks.

  • 99.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Ecologize AB.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Hållbara turistresor i samhällsekonomisk analys2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics show that tourism in Sweden is increasing, thus increasing its importance for the overall economy, exports and employment. However, tourism is also associated with environmental and other effects, for example from tourist travel. This study investigated the possibility of using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in planning to achieve more sustainable tourist travel. This was done by studying whether and how impacts related to tourism and tourist travel can be analysed using the methods routinely used in infrastructure investment planning, i.e. regulatory impact assessment (RIA) (samlad effektbedömning) including CBA. Opportunities and obstacles were evaluated, with particular attention to the environmental aspect of sustainability

    The study was conducted as a theoretical analysis of how tourism and sustainability perspectives can be included in RIA. In addition, four different scenarios were analysed: relocation of the railway station in Kiruna, development of a new airport in Sälen, an extended county bus service in Åre and increased train traffic and an electric car pool in Vimmerby.

  • 100.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Financial infrastructure and house prices2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that banks operating in a local market possess better information about the local housing market than do non-local banks. Possessing this information may influence their willingness to grant loans to house buyers and the specifics of the loan terms, which in turn may affect house prices because credit facilitation makes the housing market more efficient.

    Using a panel data set covering a period from 1993 to 2007 and involving 274 municipalities in Sweden, we establish a positive causal influence of local bank presence on local house prices. There are significant spatial and spillover effects – that is, banks in a municipality affect the housing markets in neighboring municipalities, although to a lesser extent than in their own municipality. Similar results are obtained through a gravity model. The results are robust over time and municipality size.

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