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  • 51.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2002: sammanställning av konferensföredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 9-10 januari 20022002Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2003: rapportsammanställning av föredrag i Linköping 8-9 januari 20032003Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från nedanstående sessioner finns redovisning i konferensrapporten:  

    Session 3 Godstransporter och samhälle  Session 4 Sjöfart. Fartyg  Session 5 Planering för hög produktivitet  Session 6 En flygmarknad i förändring  Session 8 Behovsdriven FoU - grunden för svensk bilindustris världsledande  ställning på säkerhetsområdet  Session 9 Samhällsplanera - med fokus på kollektivtrafiken  Session 10 Marginalkostnadsprissättning. Långsiktig planering  Session 11 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 12 Jämställt transportsystem  Session 13 Kunders värderingar.  Transportlösningar  Session 14 På väg mot bättre vägar och gator?  Vinterväghållning  Session 15 Återvinning eller deponering av tjärhaltiga beläggningsmaterial?  Session 16 Hot, visioner och styrmedel.  Tyst och vackert  Session 17 Utvärdering av ITS  Session 18 STRADA - Nationellt informationssystem om olyckor och skadade inom  vägtransportsystemet  Session 19 Förarutbildning  Del 1: Den grundläggande förarutbildningen och trafiksäkerhetsmålen  Del 2: Pedagogiska strategier och metoder i förarutbildningen  Session 20 Personlig integritet i trafiken  Session 21 Förorenad mark i infrastrukturen - risker, problem och lösningar  Session 22 Mobility Management  Session 23 Trafikverken i förändring  Session 24 Transportpolitik. Regionförstoring  Session 25 Järnväg.  I avregleringens spår  Session 26 Logistiksystem  Den kundorienterade järnvägen  Intermodalitet  Session 27 Sjöfarten och den mänskliga faktorn  Miljö och säkerhet inom sjöfarten  Session 28 Trafik för en attraktiv stad - TRAST  Session 29 Teknik och miljö  Flyget och miljön  Session 30 Parkering, mobilitet, ekonomi och miljö - ett område i behov av  samordnad kunskapsgenerering  Session 31 Försök med automatisk hastighetsövervakning (AH)  Session 32 Kostnadseffektiva åtgärdskombinationer och  åtgärdssekvenser  Session 33 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 34 Trafiksimulering  Session 35 Snålare motorer och fordon  Session 36 Planering  Kollektivtrafik  Session 37 Banunderhåll och grusväghållning  Komfort, sårbarhet och upphandling  Underhållets inverkan på trafik och trafikanter  Session 38 Vägteknik  Session 39 Erfarenheter från region-MaTs (Miljöanpassat transportsystem)  Emissionsdata & Modeller  Utan egen bil?  Session 40 Möjligheter med väginformatik  Dynamiska trafikmodeller för trafikledning - Nu färdiga för implementering i  verksamheten  Session 41 Ledarskap för överlevnad!  Session 42 Trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i tätort  Session 43 Den moderna spårvägens egenskaper och potential  Session 45 På jakt efter den tid som kommer - utmaningar för  vägtransportsystemet år 2025  Session 46 Fotgängaren - bortglömd som trafikant och social aktör?

  • 53.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 5. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1999-01-13--14 beträffande: transportpolitik och samhällsekonomi - kollektivtrafik och samhällsbetalda resor1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Örebro University School of Business.
    Avoiding path dependence of distributional weights: Lessons from climate change economic assessment2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In some cost benefit analysis (CBA) applications, such as those used for the valuation of climate change damage, distributional weights are used to account for diminishing utility of marginal income. This is usually done by means of intra-temporal distributional weights, which are combined with discounting to account for inter-temporal equity and efficiency. Here, I show that this approach might introduce some inconsistencies in terms of path dependence. In short, this inconsistency means that regional economic growth is double counted. This is because income weighting is performed both through the discount rate and through the distributional weights such that growth shows up twice in the weighting process. Using the PAGE2002 model, it is found that the inconsistency problem in the original model erases the influence of distributional weights on the social cost of carbon dioxide (SCCO2) compared to a standard CBA approach. The alternative approaches proposed here yield about 20 %–40 % higher values of SCCO2 than the old approach. While this has been briefly commented on in previous work, it has not yet been more thoroughly analyzed nor communicated to the broader community of climate policy and economic analysts who are not deeply interested in the specifications of the climate impact assessment models.

  • 55.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis of climate policy and long term public investments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation dissertation consists of four essays with the common theme of welfare analysis of long-term public investments. The first two essays focus on analysis of climate change mitigation, i.e., the social cost of carbon dioxide. The third essay focuses on cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of transport investment projects, while the last essay takes a broader perspective on welfare analysis.

    List of papers
    1. Avoiding path dependence of distributional weights: Lessons from climate change economic assessment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoiding path dependence of distributional weights: Lessons from climate change economic assessment
    2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In some cost benefit analysis (CBA) applications, such as those used for the valuation of climate change damage, distributional weights are used to account for diminishing utility of marginal income. This is usually done by means of intra-temporal distributional weights, which are combined with discounting to account for inter-temporal equity and efficiency. Here, I show that this approach might introduce some inconsistencies in terms of path dependence. In short, this inconsistency means that regional economic growth is double counted. This is because income weighting is performed both through the discount rate and through the distributional weights such that growth shows up twice in the weighting process. Using the PAGE2002 model, it is found that the inconsistency problem in the original model erases the influence of distributional weights on the social cost of carbon dioxide (SCCO2) compared to a standard CBA approach. The alternative approaches proposed here yield about 20 %–40 % higher values of SCCO2 than the old approach. While this has been briefly commented on in previous work, it has not yet been more thoroughly analyzed nor communicated to the broader community of climate policy and economic analysts who are not deeply interested in the specifications of the climate impact assessment models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: , 2012. p. 20
    Series
    CTS Working Paper
    Keywords
    Economics, Climate change, Cost benefit analysis, Distribution (gen)
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qb Managerial economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10840 (URN)
    Note

    Revised 2016

    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Temporal Aspects of the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal Aspects of the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases
    2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal aspects of the social cost of greenhouse gases (GHGs). I am particularly interested in the interaction between time of emissions, discounting, and type of GHG (where different GHGs have different atmospheric lifetimes). I show graphically how the social costs of GHGs depend on different parameter values and how the global damage potential for methane and sulfur hexafluoride evolves over time. I find that that the calculation period ultimately should be modeled to be consistent with the discount rate and that the “global-warming potential” concept is unsuitable for calculating of the social cost of GHGs other than carbon dioxide.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: , 2012. p. 14
    Series
    CTS Working Paper ; 2012:3
    Keywords
    Greenhouse gas, Cost benefit analysis, Emission, Cost, Time, Calculation
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10839 (URN)
    Note

    Revised 2016

    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?
    2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Reducing uncertainty can still be worthwhile, however, because of the huge amounts of money at stake: a 10% reduction in general uncertainty can increase the realized benefits of a national infrastructure investment plan by nearly 100 million euro (assuming that decisions are based on the CBAs). We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: , 2016. p. 18
    Keywords
    Cost benefit analysis, Transport infrastructure, Investment, Decision process
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10841 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Household production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption
    2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chetty (2006) developed a new method of estimating the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption (EMUC) from observed work time responses to wage changes and derived an upper bound of 2 for this parameter. Here I show that the omission of household production in Chetty’s model may lead to bias, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis of Chetty’s results in this respect. I develop a new model that includes household production from which I derive new, unbiased EMUC formulas. I offer empirical estimates based on current evidence of the included parameters, suggesting a lower bound for EMUC of about 0.9.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: , 2016. p. 38
    Series
    CTS Working Paper ; 2016:10
    Keywords
    Economics, Household, Production, Mathematical model
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10842 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
  • 56.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Discounting transport infrastructure investments2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study is to advice the Swedish national guidelines on cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of transport infrastructure investments, ASEK about the appropriate set of discount-rates (currently 3.5% for all investments). To this end, first a literature review with a theoretical focus along with some new perspectives are provided. Second the conclusions are applied to Swedish infrastructure transport CBA, using the current proposition of a new HSR line as a case. Based on empirical research concerning parameter values new discount rates are estimated, and sensitivity analysis performed. The best estimate of the social discount rate in the present study, for land transport infrastructure investment in Sweden, is about 5.1%.

  • 57.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Reducing uncertainty can still be worthwhile, however, because of the huge amounts of money at stake: a 10% reduction in general uncertainty can increase the realized benefits of a national infrastructure investment plan by nearly 100 million euro (assuming that decisions are based on the CBAs). We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 58.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Household production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chetty (2006) developed a new method of estimating the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption (EMUC) from observed work time responses to wage changes and derived an upper bound of 2 for this parameter. Here I show that the omission of household production in Chetty’s model may lead to bias, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis of Chetty’s results in this respect. I develop a new model that includes household production from which I derive new, unbiased EMUC formulas. I offer empirical estimates based on current evidence of the included parameters, suggesting a lower bound for EMUC of about 0.9.

  • 59.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Örebro Universitet.
    Household Production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption2017In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 17, no 4, article id 20160265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The popular approach to estimating the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption (EMUC) (Chetty 2006, "A New Method of Estimating Risk Aversion." American Economic Review 96 (5):1821-1834. doi:10.1257/aer.96.5.1821. http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.96.5.1821) is here extended by including household production. It is shown that this generalization of the model is important as omission of household production may lead to bias, as demonstrated in a numerical sensitivity analysis. An extended model with household production is used to derive new EMUC formulas. Empirical estimates based on current evidence of the included parameters suggest a lower bound for EMUC of about 0.9.

  • 60.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Örebro University School of Business .
    Temporal Aspects of the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal aspects of the social cost of greenhouse gases (GHGs). I am particularly interested in the interaction between time of emissions, discounting, and type of GHG (where different GHGs have different atmospheric lifetimes). I show graphically how the social costs of GHGs depend on different parameter values and how the global damage potential for methane and sulfur hexafluoride evolves over time. I find that that the calculation period ultimately should be modeled to be consistent with the discount rate and that the “global-warming potential” concept is unsuitable for calculating of the social cost of GHGs other than carbon dioxide.

  • 61.
    Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Örebro Universitet.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty.

    Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 62.
    Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.
    A new model for analyzing differentiated fares and frequencies for urban bus services in small cities: Case study for the city of Uppsala2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for welfare evaluation of fare and frequency policies for bus services in smaller or medium-sized cities handling both congestion and crowding in public transport. The model with data for the city of Uppsala. Two scenarios with marginal increases in frequencies and fares are evaluated. Then four main optimal policies are evaluated: fares with unchanged base line frequencies, frequencies with unchanged base line fares, simultaneous optimization of fares and frequencies and finally a scenario called the Pareto scenario where frequencies and fares are optimized subject to the condition that no consumer group (defined by zone, time period, origin-destination pair) should be worse of in terms of generalized cost of trip.

    The results indicate that there are large, seemingly robust welfare gains from reducing public transport supply in Uppsala, especially in the outer zone of the city where reductions compared to the current situation are rather drastic. In comparison, welfare gains from adjusting fares are smaller. As there are large distributional effects in the welfare optimum, introduction of such a policy it is likely to be controversial. However, in an additionally examined scenario, almost all of the potential social welfare gains from the welfare optimal scenario is achieved while no consumer in any zone or time period is worse off compared to present policy. In this scenario, the total number of public transport passengers are increased and emissions are reduced compared to the current situation.

  • 63.
    Bak, Monika
    et al.
    University of Gdansk.
    Borkowski, Przemyslaw
    University of Gdansk.
    Pawlowska, Barbara
    University of Gdansk.
    Data availability for research on cost allocation practices in the new member states2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    CATRIN is a research project to support the European Transport Policy, specifically to assist in the implementation of transport pricing. CATRIN will increase the probability that new progressive pricing principles can be implemented which facilitate a move towards sustainable transport. CATRIN is both intermodal and interdisciplinary, emphasizes the needs of new member states, understands that different organizational forms require different recommendations, that recommendations need to be given in the short- and long-term perspective and that they have to be thoroughly discussed with infrastructure managers. This deliverable is dedicated to the area of the third work package of CATRIN covering new member states' policy and implementation problems as well as data availability. The objective of this deliverable is to review data sources and information available in new member states which can be used for cost allocation studies. It concerns both a survey of existing case studies and results of different research projects as well as review and presentation of data available in national and international statistical institutions. As a result of this study country sheets including current datasets have also been attached to this deliverable. Datasets correspond to the structure of modal chapters

  • 64.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Peak Car?: Drivers of  the recent decline in Swedish car use2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use.  This paper shows that the two variables GDP per capita and fuel price explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 65.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 66.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, no 88, p. 236-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 67.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: evidence and implications2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of reliability within the Swedish rail network by identifying passenger train delay distributions. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data provided by the Swedish Transport Administration, covering all train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009. The paper identifies vulnerabilities by size, space and time in the network.

    Our results show that the delay distribution seems to be plagued by low probability high impact events. A major share of all delay time is associated with the tail of the delay distribution, indicating that extreme delays cannot be neglected when prioritizing between measures improving rail infrastructure. Delays are not only concentrated in size, but also concentrated in space and time and seem to follow a precise power law with respect to days and an exponential distribution with regard to stations. Moreover, we also examine the link between capacity usage and expected delay over different time scales.

  • 68.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Värdering av restidsbesparingar vid gång- och cykelresor: tre sammanfattningar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report consists of three summaries of studies, conducted at VTI, concerning cyclists’ valuation of travel time savings on different types of bicycle paths and pedestrians’ valuation of travel time savings on footh paths. In the bicycle studies effects of health aspects have also been studied. All studies are questionnaire studies conducted with stated preference techniques. The results show that the valuation of travel time savings are lower when cycling on a bicycle path than when cycling on a road way in either mixed traffic or in a bicycle lane in the roadway. Cycling on a path next to the road was not considering worse than cycling on a path not in connection to the road, indicating that the respondents did not take traffic noise and air pollution into account in their decision to cycle. Respondents who included health aspects in their choice to cycle had lower value of travel time savings for cycling than respondents that stated that health aspects were of less importance, at least when cycling on a bicycle path. Valuations of travel time savings regarding cycling differed markedly depending on the respondents’ alternative travel mode, where persons with car as alternative travel mode had much higher values than those with public transport as alternative travel mode. The results showed that the largest shift to bicycle would happen if all cycling after the change takes place on a bicycle path far from the road. For pedestrians, it was shown that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. Another result that is worth to highlight is that the visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing were not nearly as important.

  • 69.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Värdering av restidsbesparingar vid cykelresor2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is that the Swedish Transport Administration wants to develop methods for benefit-cost analyses of infrastructure investments for bicycling. An important item in such appraisals is often the travel time value. The aim of this study is to estimate travel time values for bicycle travel that is geographically generalizable across the country. Further, an attempt is made to analyse the effects of bicyclists’

    health awareness on the travel time value and, if possible, propose a decomposition of the travel time value in two parts: health effects and time value/comfort value. The report presents a theoretical model and preliminary analyses based on the data material. The results show that there is a difference in the size of the travel time value depending on whether the respondents have car or public transport as alternative modes to bicycle.

    Another result is that the travel time value tended to decrease the less risky and uncomfortable the bike path was, mainly when moving from mixed traffic/bicycle field in the road way to bicycle lane (next to the road or not in connection with the road). The study also indicates that people who do not take health aspects into considerations in their choice of cycling have higher travel time values than people who believe that

    health aspects are important. Health aspects seem to have the greatest effect when riding on a bike lane. A striking aspect of the estimates is that the respondents (who all are bicyclists) reported answers that resulted in travel time values for bicycle that far exceeded the corresponding values for the alternative mode of transport. Although the values are high, they are in line with previous studies, at least when it comes to people with public transport as alternative mode to bicycle.

  • 70.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Fotgängares värderingar av gångvägar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is an inquiry by the Swedish Transport Administration to develop methods for benefit-cost analyses for pedestrians’ appraisals of their walking environment and how different improvements in the environment affect decisions to walk. The issues studied are: 1. What type of road do pedestrians prefer when they choose which route to walk? 2. What is the willingness to pay to get more attractive footpaths? 3. How many persons will start to walk if it is built more attractive footpaths? The third issue was unfortunately not possible to answer because of the low response rate in that part of the study. One result from the study is that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. The visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing was not nearly as important. Finally, it seems not impossible to investigate individuals' appraisals for various types of footpath attributes and choice of footpath using stated preference methodology. However, the interest in walking issues seems not to be high and many of the questions in the questionnaire seemed to be difficult to answer. To make it easier to clarify some of the ambiguities, future studies about pedestrian appraisals should involve some kind of interview methodology.

  • 71.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Estimating policy values for in-vehicle comfort and crowding reduction in local public transport2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 453-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates policy values for comfort, defined as getting a seat, and crowding reduction on board local public transport in Sweden. We use stated-preference (SP) data and present crowding as a mode-neutral crowding level among the standing travelers depicted in images presented to the respondents. We analyze whether there are differences in the willingness to pay (WTP) for comfort and crowding reduction among the three largest urban areas in Sweden. In general, we find no significantly different preferences for sitting and crowding reduction among the three urban areas. Still, the point estimates differ in some cases, indicating that there may be differences across the three urban areas, but the estimates have large confidence intervals that overlap each other. Also, these differences are likely to have resulted from mode-share differences and not from differences in preferences across the urban areas. Some significant differences are found among the modes, for example, a higher disutility of standing on a bus versus on a tram. These mode-specific estimates can be used as policy values for a given tram line or metro line. Nevertheless, we also pooled the data suggesting average WTP estimates for sitting and crowding reductions that can be used for national cost–benefit analysis policy in all large urban areas in Sweden where crowding on local public transport occurs. Importantly, analysis of heterogeneity and SP-design differences shows that the results are in line with empirical knowledge of the value of travel time savings.

  • 72.
    Bohm, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet.
    Carlén, Björn
    Stockholm universitet.
    Emission Quota Trade among the Few: Laboratory Evidence of Joint Implementation among Committed Countries1999In: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 43-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The laboratory tests reported here were conducted in preparation for a unique experiment using real-world relevant decision makers. The purpose was to identify a well-functioning design, tailored for carbon emission reduction trade among four countries committed to binding carbon emission limits, a form of so-called joint implementation. As explained in the paper, the design was required to promote high trade efficiency and limited scope for arbitrage. All of the designs tested reached high levels of efficiency (87-99%), which is noteworthy given the small number of traders. Attempts to adjust the design to reduce or eliminate arbitrage were successful in the final test rounds.

  • 73.
    Bratt-Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Jättestor nytta, men ännu större kostnad2016In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 74.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    A Communication Choice Model2003In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Joint RP-SP data in a mixed logit analysis of trip timing decisions2008In: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1025-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper, a departure time choice model including travel time variability is estimated, combining stated preference and revealed preference data. We account for response scale differences between RP and SP data and, applying the mixed logit model, test for correlation of scheduling sensitivity across RP and SP choices within individuals. The analysis implies systematic differences in the RP and SP data. With support of the evaluation from the Stockholm trial, this indicates that SP is less trustworthy for trip timing analysis and forecasting, presumably because there are temporal differences in RP and SP choice situations.

  • 76.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Ministern har fel om infrastrukturen: Debattartikel2016In: Land, ISSN 0023-7531Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Statliga pengar till infrastruktur slösas bort: Debattartikel2016In: Land, ISSN 0023-7531, no 23 februari 2016Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 78.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    The national value of time study 2007/08 (Vinnova/ Swedish Road Administration/Swedish Rail Administration2010Report (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är upplagd på följande sätt. I kapitel 2 beskrivs vad som ingår i en samhällsekonomisk kalkyl och hur den tas fram. Kapitel 3 redovisar våra slutsatser om hur samhällsekonomiska kalkyler påverkar beslut om infrastrukturinvesteringar. I kapitel 4 diskuteras vanliga invändningar mot kalkyler, till exempel att inte alla effekter finns med eller att den är att resultatet påverkas starkt av antagande om förutsättningar, till exempel framtida bränslepriser etc. Kapitel 5 diskuterar mer utförligt vad det svaga sambandet mellan samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och beslut kan bero på, vilka problem det kan leda till och vad man skulle kunna göra åt det för att få en effektivare resursanvändning i transportsektorn.

  • 80.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Nolltaxa är orealistiskt, oekonomiskt och orättvist: DN Debatt2015In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2015-05-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 82.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Stockholm City Transportation Administration.
    Should values of time be differentiated?2018In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the issue of differentiating the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) in transport cost-benefit analysis, summarising and discussing theories forming the basis for arguments for and against VTTS differentiation. We stress some important implications, insights and consequences of different assumptions relating to these theories, many of which we feel have been underappreciated in much of the CBA literature and practice. We derive a welfare rule including a social cost for monetary redistributions and show the implications for how the VTTS can be defined in different choice situations. Crucially, the applicable VTTS definition depends on whether travel costs (fares) are under public control and to whom benefits accrue in the long run. In some choice situations, the VTTS should be controlled for differences in income, but it is important to always take into account differences in marginal utilities of time (e.g. across travel time components, modes and trip purposes). Using Swedish data, we show that controlling the VTTS for income differences changes the VTTS only slightly; the variation in VTTS across modes, trip lengths, trip purposes apparently stems primarily from differences in marginal utilities of time rather than income.

  • 83.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH.
    Valuations of travel time variability in scheduling versus mean-variance models2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard method of estimating the value of travel time variability for use in policy appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is included. A problem with this approach is that the obtained valuation will in general depend on the standardized travel time distribution, and hence cannot be transferred from one context to another. A recently suggested remedy of this problem has been to estimate a scheduling model, which in theory is transferrable, and use the implied reduced-form to derive valuations for use in appraisal. In this paper we estimate both a scheduling model and the implied reduced-form model, using stated choice data. The valuation of travel time variability implied by the scheduling model turns out to be substantially smaller than what is obtained from a reduced-form model estimated on the same sample. The results suggest that the scheduling model does not capture all of the disutility arising from travel time variability. Hence, although it can be shown that scheduling and reduced-form models are “theoretically equivalent”, that hypothesized equivalence is not reflected in the empirical evidence. We speculate that the derivation of reduced-form models from an underlying scheduling model omits two essential features: first, the notion of an exogenously fixed “preferred arrival time” neglects the fact that most activities can be rescheduled given full information about the travel times in advance, and second, disutility may be derived from uncertainty as such, in the form of anxiety, decisions costs or costs for having contingency plans. We also report our estimates of the valuation of travel time variability for public transit trips, for use in applied appraisal.

  • 84.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & strategy.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – five years on: effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 85.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Tågens höghastighetsbanor en dålig affär för samhället: DN debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 87.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kågesson, Per
    KTH.
    Ett gigantiskt projekt med oklart syfte2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-04Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 88.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Odeck, James
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Welde, Morten
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 15-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

  • 89.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH.
    Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment2015In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, E-ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 14, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain-loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways by respondents. This may be of particular relevance for choice experiments in the transportation field, where the travel time attribute is central.

  • 90.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Harry, Flam
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. KTH.
    Infrastrukturbeslut måste grundas på samhällsekonomiska kalkyler2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-02-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Harry, Flam
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. KTH.
    Nästan alla stora byggen av järnvägar är olönsamma2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no Jan 28, 2016Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Trafikverket.
    Andersson, Mats
    WSP Analys.
    Anderstig, Christer
    WSP Analys.
    Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements2019In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore how transport improvements impact agglomeration defined as accessibility and thereby productivity in mid-Sweden including Stockholm 1995–2006. We apply an accessibility index derived from a multi-modal transport model. This is a more accurate measure of agglomeration than those previously used and also necessary for understanding how governments can impact agglomeration, and thereby productivity, by transport investments. We regress temporal changes in wages on temporal changes in agglomeration by applying a FE estimator. We deal with the potential endogeneity using a novel instrumental variable. Our best estimates of the agglomeration elasticity on productivity lie within the interval 0.028–0.035.

  • 93.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Estimating welfare effects of congestion charges in real world settings2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogeneous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and the possibility for drivers to reschedule. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic scheduling model with heterogeneous users estimated and calibrated for Stockholm, we find that drivers as a group benefit from the charging scheme in Stockholm without recycling of revenues. This paper further investigates the importance of the three mentioned factors. We find that all three factors add significantly to the benefit of the charges and that the most important is heterogeneity in the value of travel time savings. This paper also provides an update on the consumer benefits of the Stockholm charges.

  • 94.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The Gothenburg congestion charge: Effects, design and politics2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 75, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 95.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Trafikverkets modeller ger bra underlag2016In: Dagens IndustriArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 96.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. KTH.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet.
    Stoppa Ostlänken nu!2016In: Dagens Industri, no 3 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 97.
    Carlén, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hernández, Aday
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
    Indexing European carbon taxes to the EU ETS Permit Price: a good idea?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study an environmental policy that (i) tax some emitters while others are covered by a cap-and-trade system and (ii) index the tax level to the permit price. Such a policy could be attractive in a world where abatement costs are uncertain and the regulator has information about the correlation between the cost shocks to the two groups. We show that this index policy yields lower expected social cost than the policy mix studied in Mandell (2008). The value of indexing is higher the stronger the correlation is, the steeper the marginal abatement benefit curve is, and the more uncertain we are about the taxed sector’s abatement costs. The index policy may also outperform the uniform policy alternatives emission tax and cap-and-trade system. The conditions for this are more restrictive, though. Given parameter values plausible for the European climate change policy context, expected net-gains are small or negative.

  • 98. Carlén, Björn
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Liu, Xing
    Örebro universitet.
    Lunander, Anders
    Örebro universitet.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Mellin, Anna
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Sorkina, Edith
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: underlagsrapporter 1-102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. They address these questions from several different angles. For example, they discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, there is a discussion on how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road.

  • 99.
    de Jong, Gerard
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Tavasszy, Lori
    Delft University of Technology.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    MIT.
    Recent developments in national and international freight transport models within Europe2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 347-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decade has seen many new freight transport models for use in transport planning by public authorities. Some of these models have developed new concepts, such as logistics modules, inclusion of transshipments, storage and sourcing and the determination of shipment size.

    This paper provides a review of the European literature on freight transport models that operate at the national or international level and have been developed since 2004. The introduction of elements of logistics thinking is identified as a common theme in recently developed models, and further worked out. Furthermore, ideas on what might be the next key developments in freight transport modelling are presented.

  • 100.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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