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  • 451.
    Vigren, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Kostnader i upphandlade busskontrakt2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate how different factors affect costs for Swedish Public Transport Authorities (PTA). A theoretical framework is presented for the empirics, a cross sectional regression analysis with cost and supply data from 17 Swedish counties for the year 2012. The most important results are that a one percentage increase in output yield a lower than one percentage increase in cost. The usage of incentives scheme contract do not increase total costs. Lastly, contracts operated by publicly owned operators seem to give higher costs for the PTAs.

  • 452.
    Vigren, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The distance factor in Swedish bus contracts: How far are operators willing to go?2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the factors differentiating operators the most in bus services is, arguably, the respective distances from their workplaces to the area of a procured contract. More dead running kilometers implies higher costs, and the same should affect operators’ probability to participate in tenders. As previous studies have discussed, this is a relevant competitive factor, but the transport literature lacks studies aiming to assess the size of this distance factor. This paper examines what impact operators’ distance to tendered bus contracts has on their probability to participate in the tender, and how this probability differs across operator types.

    To address this, an econometric analysis was undertaken using probit regressions with data on tendered Swedish bus contracts over the period 2007–2015 along with operator workplace data. The results show that operators’ distance from a contract has a significantly negative effect on their probability of placing a bid for the contract. While being located near the contract gives, on average, an over 90 percent probability of participating, being 10 kilometers away results in a 30 percent probability. The rival’s distance to the contract also has an effect, but only to a limited extent. Large operators are found to be less affected by their distance to a contract, and they are also more inclined to bid if the procuring authority offers a depot to use.

  • 453.
    Vigren, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Trafikanalys.
    Public transport authorities’ use of cost-benefit analysis in practice2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport services in Sweden are in 2016 worth over 40,000 million SEK annually, and the planning is carried out mostly by the Public Transport Authorities (PTA). Given the national goals for transport and infrastructure, economic efficiency is essential also in public transport operations. In 2003, Ljungberg (2007) sought to answer to which extent PTAs use Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA), a methodology to assess economic efficiency, in their planning of operations and infrastructure. It was found that CBA is seldom used. This paper tries to answer the same question, but for the year 2016. The aim is, like Ljungberg (2007), to see to what extent PTAs are using CBA today, but also to investigate whether there have been any changes compared to the previous study.

    A survey was sent to all Swedish PTAs with questions regarding current, previous, and projected future use of CBA. Questions about knowledge of reference materials and why the organization use (or do not use) CBA was asked. The main results are that most PTAs are not using CBA as decision support. For those who does, the method is used mostly for investments in payment systems and major line or traffic changes. When comparing the usage of CBA across different investment categories, the only statistically significant change from the 2003-study is an increased usage when changing fare structure. The PTAs seem not regard a lack of economic resources a reason for not using CBA. Rather, lack of knowledge and more reliance on other types of decision support are the reasons.

  • 454.
    Voorneveld, Mark
    et al.
    Stockholm school of Economics.
    Tijs, Stef
    Tilburg University.
    Grahn, Sofia
    Uppsala University.
    Monotonic allocation schemes in clan games2003In: Mathematical Methods of Operations Research, ISSN 1432-2994, E-ISSN 1432-5217, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 439-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total clan games are characterized using monotonicity, veto power of the clan members, and a concavity condition reflecting the decreasing marginal contribution of non-clan members to growing coalitions. This decreasing marginal contribution is incorporated in the notion of a bi-monotonic allocation scheme, where the value of each coalition is divided over its members in such a way that the clan members receive a higher, and the non-clan members a lower share as the coalitions grow larger. Each core element of a total clan game can be extended to both a population monotonic and a bi-monotonic allocation scheme. In total clan games where the clan consists of a single member (the so-called big boss) the use of the nucleolus as an allocation mechanism gives rise to a bi-monotonic allocation scheme.

  • 455.
    VTI, .
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1995-01-10--111995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1995-01-10--11 beträffande:

    • Beslutsprocessen kring större projekt
    • vad händer i Europa
    • teori- och modellutveckling för resbeteende
    • road pricing for financing and traffic management
    • flyg
    • VTI:s vägtekniska forskning
    • asfaltbeläggningar
    • jordförstärkning i infrastrukturen
  • 456.
    VTI, .
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTIs och TFBs forskardagar del 1: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1992-01-08--09 beträffande: Bilismen och samhället-befinner sig bilismen i kris?-paneldiskussion - trafikteknik åtgärdseffekt-modeller och regler - vägarnas finansiering - bilismen och samhället - kollektivtrafik - framtidens kollektivtrafik - järnväg-europaperspektivet - järnväg - trafiksäkerhet1992Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 457.
    VTI, .
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTIs och TFBs forskardagar del 1: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1993-01-11--12 beträffande: Trafik och miljö - kollektivtrafiken i förändring - nya bansystem i tätorter - avreglering av järnvägstrafiken - järnvägstrafik-aktuell forskning och utveckling1993Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 458.
    VTI, .
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTIs och TFBs forskardagar del 2: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1992-01-08--09 beträffande: EG och infrastrukturen - TRÅD-92 - road and traffic informatics (RTI) - SOCRATES - trafikmiljö - ny nationell resvaneundersökning - cykeln som transportsystem - fordonsteknik - integrerade betalningssystem (IBS) - nordiskt informationssystem för planering och administration av transporter (NITA) - information/dokumentation - vägteknik/underhåll1992Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 459.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. KTH.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost–benefit analysis and distribution effects2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost–benefit and distribution analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013, based on observed effects and an ex-post evaluated transport model. Although Gothenburg is a small city with congestion limited to the highway junctions, the congestion charge scheme is socially beneficial, generating a net surplus of €20 million per year. From a financial perspective, the investment cost was repaid in slightly more than a year and, from a social surplus perspective, is repaid in < 4 years. Still, the sums that are redistributed in Gothenburg are substantially larger than the net benefit. In the distribution analysis we develop an alternative welfare rule, where the utility is translated to money by dividing the utility by the average marginal utility of money, thereby avoiding putting a higher weight on high-income people. The alternative welfare rule shows larger re-distribution effects, because paying charges is more painful for low-income classes due to the higher marginal utility of money. Low-income citizens pay a larger share of their income because all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg and workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars for private trips. No correlation was found between voting pattern and gains, losses or net gain.

  • 460.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    de Jong, Gerard
    Leeds University.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Trafikanalys.
    Baserunning - analyzing the sensitivity and economies of scale of the Swedish national freight model system using stochastic production-consumption-matrices2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze how sensitive the Swedish national freight model system Samgods is to uncertainties in its production-consumption matrices (PC-matrices). This is done by studying how sensitive outputs from one of its key component, the logistics model, are to changes in the PC-matrices. This paper is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to analyze the sensitivity and economies of scale of a national freight transport model using Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that the logistics model is able to find new logistics solutions when larger demand volumes are assumed. Freight volumes are calculated to shift to sea transport. If the transport volume increases with one percent, the logistics cost per tonne is on average reduced by about 0.5 percent. Part of the cost reduction comes from increased consolidation of shipments due to larger transport volumes. There is also a positive correlation between total transport demand and the load factor for heavier lorries, trains and larger ships. Without empirical data and further analysis it is difficult to assess the estimated strength of the effect. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that it might be possible to reduce runtimes by removing small transport flows from the PC-matrices without affecting aggregate results too much.

  • 461.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Can high speed rail offset its embedded emissions?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the climate benefit of investments in high speed rail-way lines given uncertainty in future transport demand, technology and power production. To capture the uncertainty of estimated parameters, distributions for the annual traffic emissions reduction required to compensate for the embedded emissions from the construction of infrastructure are calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. In order to balance the annualized emissions from the railway construction, traffic volumes of more than 10 million annual one-way trips are usually required. Most of the traffic diverted from other modes must come from aviation and the project cannot involve the extensive use of tunnels. In sparsely populated regions it may be, from a climate point of view, better to upgrade existing lines and to try to make people substitute air travel by modern telecommunications, rather than investing large amounts of resources in enabling people to travel faster and more often.

  • 462.
    Wieweg, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Är risken för tågförseningar en prisrelevant marginalkostnad?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to answer the question of whether train delays are a price-relevant marginal cost. The question has been raised by the Swedish infrastructure manager (Trafikverket) which is responsible for setting track access charges. The charging of track access fees is regulated in the Railway Act and consists mainly of marginal cost pricing and fees for cost recovery above marginal cost.

    The main reason for charging track fees according to the marginal cost principle is to give economic incentive in order to influence the market agents to take these externalities into account in their decision-making. When an externality is correctly priced this externality is no longer "external" on behalf of the market agents and, in this way, economic efficiency is achieved through a decentralized decision-making.

    In order for a certain cost to be price-relevant, with respect to the marginal cost pricing principle, it is required that there are some externalities involved and also that there is a relationship between cost and traffic volume.

    Rail services are conducted according to a detailed timetable where each train is regulated geographically with minute precision. Delays primarily occur through an incident, such as infrastructure failure or breakdown of vehicles, leading one or more trains to deviate from the time table. Subsequently this initial delay is spread in the system through the interaction between trains that is built into the timetable.

    In the short run the capacity of the infrastructure is fixed. Train delays can therefore be influenced by the number of faults occurred and by the construction of the timetable (which is crucial for the spread of the initial disturbances to other trains).

    Recently a new track fee, called "quality fee", has been introduced which is aimed at influencing the number of faults occurring, both on behalf of train operating companies and the infrastructure manager. The fee is initially set at a rather low level and may be raised in the future if it will be considered necessary.

  • 463.
    Wijnen, Wim
    W2Economics / Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, the Netherlands.
    Social Costs of Road Crashes: an International Analysis2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. It answers the question to what extent the total social costs of road crashes differ between countries and what the explanations for these differences are. The analysis is based on national reports about costs of road crashes of 16 countries, of which nine high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). The analysis shows that the share of social costs of road crashes in HICs ranges from 1.0 to 4.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) with an average of 2.6%. The main explanations for differences between these countries are differences in methodologies regarding valuation of human costs and correction for underreporting. Excluding countries that do not use a ‘willingness to pay’ method (that is internationally recommended) for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in an average share of the costs of 3.7% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.2 to 3.0%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a willingness to pay study into the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The share of fatalities in the costs is 20% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are a number of methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be reached by updating and improving international guidelines and applying them in future cost studies. The information regarding some cost components, particularly human costs and property damage, is poor and more research into these cost components is recommended.

  • 464.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Differentierade marginalkostnader inom järnvägen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, pricing within the rail sector should mainly depart from the principles of marginal pricing. The pricing mechanism should be designed so that the negative external effects are compensatedthrough taxes and charges. Today, the track charges are to some extent differentiated, but it is possible to further differentiate the track charges to achieve a better use of the capacity of the railway and to reach a higher level of efficiency in the sector. In this report, the results from three VTI studies on marginal costs within the railway sector are analysed. These studies focus on the cost categories maintenance, renewals and operation. The aim of this report is to break down the results from these studies into smaller groups in order to get an idea of how the track charges could be further differentiated. The analysis will focus on the marginal costs of track sections and segments.The results shows that it could be problematic to differentiate the estimates intothe smallest fraction track section, as well as some of the minor segments. Some of the smaller track sections and segments have negative marginal costs, since the modelseem to fit poorly where traffic volumes are low. It is also clear that there is a need for a more concentrated focus on the marginal costs analyses, since the three studies analysed here are based on somewhat differing data. For example, it would be interesting to include station data in all three studies

  • 465.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av projektet Nationell samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken enligt Skelleftemodellen: samhällsekonomisk bedömning2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The benefit being studied in this socio-economic evaluation pertains to the decrease achieved in the number of traffic accidents involving drunk drivers. Roughly 2% of those who are charged with drunk driving will be involved in a traffic accident while drunk within 10 years after being found guilty of drunk driving. This figure could be reduced were it possible to successfully reduce drug and alcohol use by these perpetrators after they have been found guilty. Acceptance of the offer made under the Skellefte Model is presumed to have such an effect. The effect of the Skellefte Model differs from individual to individual. It is assumed that the Skellefte Model will influence an individual charged with drunk driving to refrain for longer periods from driving while drunk. This would in turn decrease the likelihood of the individual being involved in an accident while drunk from 2% to some lower level, which would be determined by how much longer such periods last, which would in turn entail fewer drug- or alcohol-related accidents. Two scenarios have been studied; one in which the median increase in the length of time without a recurrence of drunk driving equals one week, and another where the median period is one month. A decrease in accidents represents a social benefit. This benefit must be weighed against the costs in the form of person-hours expended in extending the offer to suspected drunk drivers and arranging an interview. These costs have been estimated based on the questionnaire responses. The calculations indicate that if the effect is that the median increase in time without driving drunk equals one week, then each interviewed suspected drunk driver represents a socio-economic loss of roughly SEK 6, while a median time of one month yields a gain of nearly SEK 82. If the median increase in time without drunk driving is one month, a socio-economic gain is achieved, although no fixed costs have been factored into the analysis. The magnitude of the fixed costs ultimately associated with the Skellefte Model is unclear. Two scenarios have been studied, one corresponding to one full-time worker (taking into account earnings for one year and all overheads), another corresponding to two such workers. To cover these costs, a given number of suspected drunk drivers must be questioned annually in accordance with the Skellefte Model. Two scenarios have been studied, with the offer made to 12,000 people and 24,000 people, respectively. Socio-economic calculations have been performed for each combination of scenarios. We find that the socio-economic benefit is positive both when the median increase in time without a recurrence of drunk driving equals at least one month and for the alternatives in which 24,000 suspected drunk drivers are questioned annually or the fixed costs correspond to one full-time worker.

  • 466.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Financial Infrastructure and House Prices in Sweden 1993-20072011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 467. Wråke, Markus
    et al.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Myers, Erica
    Holt, Charles
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Pricing strategies under emissions trading: an experimental analysis2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures both to decrease the amount of transportation and/or to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. The present paper addresses the latter by providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model highlights the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  • 468.
    Wråke, Markus
    et al.
    IVL.
    Myers, Erica
    Resources for the Future.
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Resources for the Future.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Holt, Charles
    University of Virginia.
    Opportunity cost for Free Allocations of Emissions Permits: An Experimental Analysis2010In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 331-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important feature of emissions trading is how emissions permits are allocated. The choice between an auction and free allocation should not influence firms' production choices nor consumer prices according to economic theory. However, many parties expect the method of allocation to affect product prices. This paper describes an experimental investigation into price determination under a cap-and-trade program with different allocation methods. Participants initially display diverse pricing strategies. However, given a simple economic setting in which earnings depend on behavior, we find that subjects learn to consider the opportunity cost of permits and overall behavior moves toward the economic prediction.

  • 469.
    Wråke, Markus
    et al.
    IVL.
    Myers, Erica
    Resources for the future.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Holt, Charles
    University of Virginia, Department of Economics.
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Resources for the future.
    Pricing Strategies under Emissions Trading: an experimental analysis2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 470.
    Yarmuchamedov, Sherzod
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    How risky are uninsured drivers?2018In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, ISSN 1943-9962, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obtaining insurance is expected to have disincentive effects on driver behavior, and as such on accident probabilities due to the adverse selection and/or moral hazard effects, though empirical studies provide mixed evidence. The risks of an accident incurred by uninsured drivers are, however, indeterminate as well, because of the unavailability of individual level data on uninsured drivers. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to empirically analyze whether insured or uninsured drivers pose greater accident risks. It uses unique individual level data on privately owned insured and uninsured passenger vehicles in Sweden for the period 2006 to 2010. The results show that the accident probability of uninsured drivers is 34 percentage points higher than for insured drivers, with uninsured drivers age 25 to 34 years posing the highest risk of an accident. This implies that uninsured drivers are a high-risk group and a significant threat to traffic safety. Possible solutions and policy implications are discussed at the end of the article.

  • 471.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The marginal cost of reinvestments in Sweden’s railway network2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides new estimates of the marginal cost of railway reinvestments using Swedish data on reinvestment costs, traffic, and other railway network characteristics for the period 1999–2014.

     The empirical analysis is based on a two-part model approach, where several factors can explain the reinvestment decision in the first part of the model and the size of the reinvestment in the second part.

    We find a marginal cost estimate of SEK 0.03 per gross ton-kilometers for reinvestments, which is significantly higher than previous estimates. There are two main reasons for this difference. First, the present analysis is based on a more comprehensive reinvestment cost definition that now also includes signalling, electricity installations, etc. Secondly, it has now also become feasible to add information about station sections.

     Moreover, we test whether it is appropriate to add new explanatory variables or replace existing variables to better understand what drives decisions to undertake track renewals and the costs for doing so. The results appear to be sensitive in terms of reported errors and cumulative tonnage density, which means that inclusion of these variables better explains the variation in reinvestment decision and the size of the reinvestment. However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the shorter period of observation and the limited number of track sections that are observed.

  • 472.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal cost of road maintenance and operation: Swedish estimates based on data from 2004 to 20142016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimated the marginal costs of road operation and maintenance by using the cost function approach with Swedish road network data from 2004 to 2014. The results of this study suggest a marginal cost of 0.07 SEK per vehicle kilometre for maintenance and operation of gravel roads, but none for paved roads. The data consist of traffic volume, costs, and road attributes for the Swedish national road network. The observational unit is the road maintenance delivery unit (MDU), and there were 109 such MDUs in Sweden in 2014. We estimated models separately for paved road operation and maintenance, gravel road operation and maintenance, and winter road operations. In paved road maintenance, reinvestment is excluded.

    The data are given in panel format and the models are estimated with random effects. A logarithmic functional form has been used, and this means that the estimated parameter can be interpreted as an elasticity. This elasticity together with the average cost yields the marginal cost. The results of this study suggest a marginal cost of 0.07 SEK per vehicle kilometre for maintenance and operation of gravel roads. The estimated marginal cost for winter road operation is less than 0.01 SEK per vehicle kilometre, and this marginal cost estimate is statistically significant. We do not find a statistically significant marginal cost for maintenance and operation of paved roads.

    Our estimates of marginal costs for road maintenance and operation are generally lower compared to previous Swedish estimates. An important reason for this is that the definition of an MDU has changed over time, but we used the current classification for each year of data in this report. The lack of a significant marginal cost for paved roads is most likely explained by the fact that reinvestment costs were not included in our analysis. We have tested other model specifications to check the robustness of our results. The estimates are robust with respect to different time periods, the choice of measure of traffic volume, and new explanatory variables, except in the case of the gravel roads.

  • 473.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Skadade fotgängare: kostnad för fotgängarskador jämfört med vinterväghållningskostnader2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project’s aim was to analyse the importance of the authority or the association responsible for winter maintenance. Did it make a difference in the number of injury cases if it was the road authority or a property association who managed the winter maintenance? What was the pedestrian injury cost in relation to the cost of winter maintenance?

    Injured pedestrian data from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) healthcare client, from the period 2003/07/01 to 2010/06/30, provided a basis for the analysis. Often, it was only the Kalmar, Skåne, Värmland, Västmanland, Västernorrland and Jämtland regions that were included in the analysis. This was because hospitals from these regions had registered injured pedestrian data in STRADA during the whole analysis period. All injured persons do not necessarily seek hospital treatment. Treatment may have been obtained from other health care providers. The greater the distance to the hospital, the more likely it is to seek other health care treatment. This means that there will be an underestimate of the number of injured.

    Winter maintenance costs were obtained for the years 2005 and 2007. The costs related to road the authorities’ total winter maintenance costs. Property associations’ maintenance costs for footway surfaces are not included in road authority costs so the costs are for road maintenance. Where the road authority is also responsible for footway surfaces, the cost of maintaining these surfaces is included in the total cost. This means that road authority costs are overestimated. Pedestrian injury costs are much higher than winter maintenance costs.

  • 474.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginalkostnad av tågbuller2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del i projektet Jäsmage är att bestämma marginalkostnaden för buller från olika typer av järnvägsfordon. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar; att bestämma hur stor samhällskostnad en förändring i bullernivå innebär och att utgående från denna värdering beräkna vad kostnaden blir för en extra marginell fordonspassage vid olika sträckor. Denna rapport behandlar den andra delen. Arbetet inleddes under 2009 och kommer dels att rapporteras i december 2010, dels resultera i en artikel som är klar för vetenskaplig granskning under början på 2011.

  • 475.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

  • 476.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Luftfartens marginalkostnader: en delrapport inom Samkost 22016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While a large amount of studies has been focused on assessing the marginal costs of using roads or railroads, the corresponding knowledge about aviation has been lacking. Among other things, there has not been a coherent view in literature about central issues such as the definition of the concept of infrastructure and how to handle international flights.

    Another shortfall is due to the fact that previous studies have focused on calculating marginal costs for only one flight. These examples have then represented the whole variation of aircraft types and destinations that exists within Sweden. In this study, a first step has been taken towards a clearer picture by calculating the average marginal costs for climate change, negative health effects and negative noise effects of Swedish aviation. The results regarding climate show that the costs of domestic flights are small in comparison to European flights, which in turn are small compared to flights with destinations outside the EU. The variation between these categories shows that single examples can give a skewed picture of the actual marginal costs. It also shows that the difference between the above mentioned categories should be taken into account when evaluating policy measures.

    The calculations of the costs of emissions that affect human health are done in a less reliable way, and therefore the estimates in this part should be interpreted as rough approximations.

  • 477.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Upphandling av vägkvalitet: en kartläggning av kvalitetsbegreppet i väginvesteringar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of road quality is multifaceted. This report concludes that the complexity of the concept can be managed by defining it on governments transport policy of economic efficiency and long-term sustainable transport system. Then the quality concept regarding roads can be approached in the following ways:

    • • A road gives social benefits in terms of accessibility – the ability for road users to move between different locations. Lack of accessibility may occur in the form of e.g. reduced speed or a closed road. Good quality is therefore an open road that fulfils the capacity, speed, safety and comfort for which it is designed.
    • Time is an important variable for quality. All roads are of good quality when they open for traffic, but will deteriorate over time.
    • Costs constitute a reference to which all quality measures must be related. In a relative measurement for quality, efficiency is upheld when that last SEK is spent where it gives most value. For this relative measure of quality, all costs during the life of the road are relevant, whether they concern the investment itself or the subsequent maintenance.

    Hence quality in roads is a complex concept, which contains all three of these aspects.

    The next question is how to measure them. Three different approaches for measuring quality will be presented. The first source is customer satisfaction and accident statistics. A problem with customer surveys is that the respondents tend to focus on comfort at the expense of security issues. This because the low risk of traffic accidents makes the respondents not fully able to take in the risk aspects. Accident statistics are uncertain since it is difficult to connect the accident directly to the road quality.

    A second source for quality data is the Swedish Transport Administration’s internal quality control for projects. The review of this process on a subproject in the large Förbifart Stockholm, indicates that the controls in many respects are extensive. However, the Swedish Transport Administration has implemented a reform to use more design-build contracts, that entails more self-reporting from the contractor. In a longer perspective, this risks Swedish Transport Administration’s ability for insight into the actual implementation of a road project and the measure of quality.

    The third source of information on road quality refers to road surface. There is extended research into this topic on how and what to measure. This type of information should therefore be used as a basis for monitoring road network quality. The report goes on suggesting two indexes to define quality from physical aspects of the road, one for the surface and one for structure. For the surface, an index is created by weigh track depth, IRI and texture. The structural index combines, track area, crosssectional variation, edge depth and deflection. Since physical aspects of quality only is relevant to measure a few years after the road is opened for traffic, other affecting variables need to be controlled for.

  • 478.
    Österström, Johannes
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Effektiva kontraktsmodeller för vägunderhåll2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study in this report reviews international experiences of contracting of routine road maintenance. The study describes the contracting models used in Norway, Scotland and Ontario (Canada), as well as the results from the relevant research literature. Focus has been to map differences in efficiency between traditional and performance-based contracting, as well as the effects of incentives, risk sharing, competition and quality dimensions in contracting. The results show that Ontario and Norway have largely performance-based contracting models. Recently, some aspects of these contracts have been reconsidered because of problems mainly with respect to winter maintenance. In Ontario, quality is now considered as one component for identifying the winning bidder; Norway has a new reimbursement model that aim to balance the contractors’ incentives. Also, Norway is testing new contracting models in five areas. Scotland uses traditional contracts and is testing a new performance indicator to improve winter maintenance by using measurements of friction. In the literature, the view on performance-based contracting is often positive. But no study has been found that measures the efficiency of different contracting models that accounts for possible simultaneous changes in quality or long-term effects.

  • 479.
    Asp, Kenneth (Editor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur skall kollektivtrafiken klara sin ekonomi i framtiden?: Rapport från ett seminarium i Linköping 1984-11-21, arrangerat av VTI och TFB1985Report (Other academic)
  • 480.
    VTI, . (Editor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Konkurrens om SPÅRET - kvalitet eller kaos?: Dokumentation från ett seminarium i World Trade Center, Stockholm 15 februari 19931993Report (Other academic)
  • 481.
    Blomqvist, Göran (Editor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Transportforum 2013: granskade artiklar2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At Transportforum 2013 the participants had the opportunity to send in a manuscript for peer review. The papers have been reviewed by the members of the subject committees. Out of 40 notifications of interest, nine papers were published. Three of the papers are written in English: - Torbjörn Stenbeck, Riksrevisionen: Comparing productivity means to measure design-build pay-off. - Björn Hasselgren, KTH: Pricing principles, efficiency concepts and incetive models in Swedish transport infrastructure policy. - Maria Öberg, LTU: How to create a transport corridor management – a literature review.

  • 482.
    Asp, Kenneth (Editor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTIs och TFBs forskardagar del 1: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1987-01-08--09 beträffande - trafikpolitisk debatt - utformning av trafiknät - transportekonomi - fordon - järnväg - trafiksäkerhet1987Report (Other academic)
  • 483.
    VTI, . (Editor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTIs och TFBs forskardagar del 2: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1989-01-10--11 beträffande: Godstransporter och MA - vägunderhåll-för väghållaren eller trafikanten? - transportpolitiken och samhällsekonomin - storstadens trafikproblem-workshop - parkeringsproblemet - praktisk vägforskning i full skala - EG:s inre transportmarknad och Norden - planerings- och prognosmetoder/modeller - historiska och organisatoriska aspekter på transportsystemet1989Report (Other academic)
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