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  • 301.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jolkin, Alexei
    Elastohydrodynamic aspects on the tyre-pavement contact at aquaplaning2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The objective of the work presented in this report has been to develop a

    numerical method for the investigation of water-lubricated soft

    elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conjunctions as it relates to the problem of car

    tyre aquaplaning. Whereas the problem of aquaplaning on very thick water

    films is very well-studied, the aspects of a tyre sliding on thin water layer

    is much less investigated. Considering fluid flow in very thin layers, one

    can find that the relative importance of viscosity of the fluid increases

    over the mass inertia effects. Therefore it is suggested in the present

    investigation to distinct between two different regimes of aquaplaning and

    refer them as dynamic aquaplaning and viscous aquaplaning. The subject of the

    present investigation is viscous aquaplaning on thin fluid layer. Considering

    flow in a thin fluid layer allows a number assumptions to be made, which

    brings this problem close to the problem of fluid lubrication of machine

    elements. This makes it possible to apply advanced numerical methods

    originally developed for the lubrication theory to the aquaplaning of a

    pneumatic car tyre on a thin layer of water. Numerical results were produced

    for 20, 40, 60, 120, and 200 km/h. No fluid films were detected separating

    the surfaces in this range of velocities.

  • 302.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jolkin, Alexei
    Åström, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Elastohydrodynamiska aspekter på vattenplaning: projektavstämning 20012002Report (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    An explanation to the VTI FILTER documents2001Report (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Velin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Laser RDT: brustest hösten 19971999Report (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Velin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Laser RDT: passbitskalibrering och kalibrering mot vätskeyta1999Report (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åström, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Elastohydrodynamiska aspekter på vattenplaning: en litteraturstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattenplaning är ett allmänt känt begrepp och en fruktad situation för

    bilföraren. Att det finns likheter mellan smörjsituationen i ett kullager och

    vattenplaning är däremot kanske förvånande. Denna litteraturstudie lyfter

    fram några resultat och fenomen som kan förklara likheter och skillnader.

    Syftet är att belysa dels vattenplaning som ett elastohydrodynamiskt fenomen

    och dels ge tankar om hur den kunskap som finns inom smörjning av kullager,

    kuggväxlar och tätningar kanske kan användas vid studier av vattenplaning

    eller våtfriktionsproblem. Inledningsvis presenteras begreppen

    elastohydrodynamik, dynamisk och viskös vattenplaning. Därefter ges exempel

    på experimentella och teoretiska studier av vattenplaning och till sist en

    kort inblick i de beräkningsmetoder som används för kullagersmörjning.

    Möjligheter och problem med att använda beräkningsteknik från

    kullagersmörjning för att studera vattenplaning eller våtfriktion diskuteras.

    Var för sig är vattenplaning och elastohydrodynamik i maskinelement väl

    utforskade områden men kombinationen är tämligen outforskad vilket

    tillsammans med de likheter som finns talar för fortsatta studier i ämnet.

  • 307.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Fyrhjulsmodeller för bestämning av vägojämnhet: dokumentation av verksamhet på VTI 2002-–20112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, longitudinal roughness has been more or less synonymous with the International Roughness Index (IRI). IRI is calculated from a longitudinal profile, and describes the accumulated movement between the wheel and chassis on a quarter-car model. The result is given as this movement divided with the traveled length. In Sweden, the unit millimeters per mere is normally used. The IRI-model is only affected by movements in the vertical direction, and the speed is fixed to 80 km/h. This report presents the work to make a full-car model, with the aim to produce a more realistic view of the movements of a vehicle traveling on a normal road. The benefits with a more realistic vehicle model is that indices with a higher correlation to drivers’ and passengers’ experiences can be made. It should be mentioned that a relatively high correlation between IRI and drivers’ estimates road condition has been shown. A FullCar model should, however, give more detailed information about the effect of the road surface on the vehicle. A truck model could, for example, be used to find sections with a dangerous cross fall. A realistic vehicle model could also be used in studies concerning the deterioration of roads, as the road is partly worn by wheel abrasions and partly deformed by contact forces. A simple model could simulate hundreds of thousands of vehicle passages in only a few minutes.

  • 308.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Tema Vintermodell: etapp 3: dokumentation av programkod2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ”Vintermodellen” is a software tool to help form strategies for winter road maintenance.

    The present document is intended to serve as a support for future development of Vintermodellen (the Winter Model). No manual has been written before as the computer program ”vintermodellen” is exclusively used within VTI.

    The Matlab implementation of the Vintermodellen computer program was written from January 2013 to March 2014. A substantial part of the work presented in the present document was to restructure the code, and move in-data from the Matlab code to spreadsheets (Excel files).

    The presentation starts with some basics facts which are important to consider when running the ”vintermodellen” Matlab program. In chapter 6–8 the Matlab code is described in general terms. The presentation ends with the different ways to export the results.

    The Swedish Transport Administration owns the Vintermodellen and is responsible for the development. The Vintermodellen is administered by VTI by direction of the Swedish Transport Administration.

  • 309.
    Andrén, Peter
    et al.
    Datamani.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Prognosmodeller för tillståndsmått i Trafikverkets Pavement Management System: IRI och spårdjup2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the road surface condition is assessed regularly with laser-based profilographs. This has been done since 1987. All roads are, for financial reasons, not assessed every year, but one way to describe the condition of the entire road network is to work with models. The purpose of these assessments is to provide the Swedish Transport Administration’s Pavement Management System (PMS) with data. The main uses of the PMS are: • To provide a description of the overall road condition and its changes to determine if the selected operation and maintenance strategies are successful, and if an acceptable road standard can be offered. • Support the maintenance planning (prioritization and selection of sections for maintenance). • Support for the choice of maintenance method. • Monitoring of performance of construction or maintenance, for example, functional related contracts. • To support research. The Swedish Transport Administration needs a complete description of the road condition in order to demonstrate to the government and parliament how the mission to maintain the roads is achieved. One way to describe the condition of the entire road network is to work with models that forecast the condition the years when measurements are missing. In the choice between using a global or local model to describe the state of development for IRI (International Roughness Index) and rut depth on individual 100-meter segments, the present report shows that a local model is preferred. The coefficient of determination is not high enough in a global model. Also, the researchers cannot see any consequent pattern in the regression coefficients for the explanatory variables we have tried.

  • 310.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Det antikvariska landskapet: ett paradigmskifte inom svensk landskapsförändring. En artikel ur Med landskapet i centrum, kulturgeografiska perspektiv på nutida och historiska landskap, Meddelande 119, Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet 20032003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver och analyserar hur landskapet behandlas inom den

    offentliga samhällsplaneringen, särskilt med fokus på natur- och

    kulturmiljöorganisationerna. Artikeln har växt fram ur en kritik mot att man

    idag inte beaktar landskap på ett adekvat sätt trots forskning inom denna

    disciplin, samt att man vid sektorsmyndigheterna sällan diskuterar

    konsekvenserna av sitt antikvariska betraktelsesätt.

    Författaren har valt att begränsa analysen till en del av landskapet och har

    valt bort städer och samhällen till förmån för landsbygden. Ibland kallas

    denna del av landskapet för odlingslandskapet eller kulturlandskapet.

    Bakgrunden till artikeln hämtas från praktiska erfarenheter vilka inhämtats

    under knappt 20 års arbete inom branschen vid olika myndigheter på olika

    nivåer samt inom forskarsamhället.

  • 311.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kulturmiljöns visuella dimension: utveckling av ett redskap för att identifiera det historiskt visuella innehållet i dagens kulturmiljö2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 312.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    MKB-handböcker om kulturmiljön: en studie utgående från användarens erfarenheter2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handböckerna om kulturmiljövärdenas för arbetet med miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) för vägar börjar bli föråldrade och bör bytas ut. De konsulter som beskriver konsekvenserna för kulturmiljön i MKB är akademiskt skolade landskapsarkitekter och saknar utbildning i flera av de klassiska kulturmiljöämnena. Det är två slutsatser av föreliggande undersökning om kulturmiljö och MKB.

    För att stärka kulturmiljövårdens intressen i MKB-arbetet föreslås:

    • att Vägverket vid upphandlingen av MKB för vägprojekt ställer krav på kulturmiljöcertifiering avMKB-författaren,
    • att kulturmiljövårdens organisationer tar fram bättre underlagsmaterial iform av regionalt anpassade beskrivningar av Sveriges kulturvärden och
    • att det ges kurser och anordnas seminarier om kulturmiljöfrågor för konsulter

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt två handböcker om kulturvärden och MKB används av MKB-konsulter. Detta undersöktes i enkäter och intervjuer bland konsulter inom VV-regionerna Sydöst, Mälardalen, Skåne och Väst. Enkäten besvarades av 29 av de 34 tillskrivna konsultföretagen.

    Arbetet avses utgöra ett hjälpmedel till Vägverkets arbete att nå de transportrelaterade miljömålen.

  • 313.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Public participation and written submissions: A transport infrastructure planning case study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Written submissions or comments as a response on an EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) rank as one of the most common forms of public participation. Within public participation research there appears to be an international dearth of knowledge concerning such written submissions. The possible impact of such responses on an EIS is - with few exceptions - seldom put in focus. The aim in the present brief communication is to study one aspect of public participation within transport infrastructure planning, namely the role of written submissions sent to the applicant by individuals, Non-governmental organisations, companies and authorities. By comparing 34 written submissions with road planning documents (including EIS) the impact of the public views has been analysed in a south Swedish case study. At a time when the new Environmental Code only had been in force for less than one year, it does not appear as if the Road Administration's regional office accepted most of the written submissions just to show that the new regulation concerning participation had a direct impact on the planning. Sweden's long tradition of public access to official documents may explain why written submissions as one aspect of public participation worked well in the E18 highway planning process, because civil servants have long been taught to promptly furnish information and guidance, as well as to giving advice and other assistance to individuals in matters concerning an authority's activity. This study shows, then, that - if properly managed by the developer's street-level staff - the use of written submissions may improve the EIS from a stakeholder perspective and also make the stakeholders feel they are being taken seriously.

  • 314.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Retrospection of medieval landscape change in mid-Sweden Historical maps analysed using a retrogressive approach2014In: NEW FOCUS ON RETROSPECTIVE METHODS: RESUMING METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS - CASE STUDIES FROM NORTHERN EUROPE, 2014, no 307, p. 163-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars from different historical disciplines use the word 'retrospective in different ways which might sometimes be confusing. In historical geography, 'retrogressive methodology' is the term for what in history is known as retrospective methodology: using later sources to shed light upon earlier times. In this field, retrospective methodology is the opposite: making earlier sources throw light upon later times. The aim of this article is to present the retrogressive method as I know it from historical geography and in two case studies show how it works and highlight its potential for medieval landscape studies by the use of (post-medieval) maps from the provinces of Halsingland and Jamtland, mid-Sweden (fig. 1). The cases discuss medieval hamlet and village formation as well as late medieval farm desertion.

  • 315.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 316.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 317.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage?: corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    When new roads are built today, the Swedish official strategy is to leave in situ the cultural layers that are not directly affected by the road construction, rather than to excavate the entire layer even if it stretches outside the verge of the planned road. This strategy has its roots in the Act concerning Ancient Monuments and Finds and is built on the assumption that the soil layers protect the archaeological artefacts far better than the national archives and museum shelves. The cultural layers are looked upon as a national archive in situ. However, recently excavated metal artefacts generally exhibit greater deterioration than those excavated many years ago, implying that recent pollution is responsible for accelerating the corrosion. Unfortunately, the de-icing salt used in winter maintenance operations does not stay on the road surface, where it has its desired effects on traffic safety and accessibility, but is transported - by different mechanisms - to the sides of the road where it may have undesired effects on e.g. vegetation, soil and groundwater, and possibly also on archaeological artefacts (metal, wood, cloth, bone, leather etc). The mechanisms responsible for the roadside exposure to salt are influenced by many factors such as wind, road surface condition, topography and surrounding vegetation. In many cases the salt will spread several tens of meters from the road, and in the worst cases raised levels of salt may be found up to some hundred meters from the road. When transported by groundwater, salt may be moved very far and may reach cultural layers in discharge areas where the ground water reaches the soil surface layers. This paper describes the problem of exposure to de-icing salt and the possible corrosion of archaeological artefacts with reference to a literature review and suggests some ways in which the extent of the suggested problem can be investigated by field studies under semi-controlled conditions and by a GIS survey.

  • 318.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser av svenska väg- och järnvägsprojekt2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser har blivit allt vanligare sedan 1995. Det ständigt pågående utvecklingsarbetet med uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser, vid Vägverket och Banverket, visar många positiva resultat. Bland annat har flera genomgripande uppföljningsprogram tagits fram för några vägobjekt, även om enstaka uppföljningsformuleringar i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) och arbetsplaner/järnvägsplaner fortfarande dominerar.

    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) har studerat ca 70 uppföljningsarbeten, producerade under 1990-talet, huvudsakligen från 1996 och framåt. Materialet har eftersökts vid Vägverkets regionkontor Sydöst, Väst och Mitt samt inom hela Banverket. Det har varit svårt och tidskrävande att få tillgång till relevant material. För att underlätta eftersökningen har dessutom en rad initierade personer vid Vägverkets regionkontor kontaktats.

    Några av de viktigare slutsatserna är att:

    • det sedan 1995 har blivit vanligare med uppföljningsformuleringar, 
    • uppföljning inte självklart omfattar såväl byggskede som tiden efter färdigställande,
    • uppgifter om före-data är ovanliga,
    • de vanligaste uppföljningsparametrarna är vatten, buller, djur och landskapsbild,
    • mätmetoder sällan anges,
    • kompetenskrav sällan anges,
    • fastställda statistiska krav sällan anges,
    • syftet med uppföljningen sällan anges, och att
    • kommunikation med olika aktörsgrupper såsom allmänhet är en ovanlighet.

    Det material som insamlats, även om det är magert, kommer att kunna användas som en utgångspunkt i såväl upprättande av en handbok för uppföljning i samband med MKB, som vid utvecklandet av ett informationssystem om uppföljning.

  • 319.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: en metodutveckling, huvudrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in

    environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed

    in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for

    road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage

    assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for

    nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been

    studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas. The method has

    been developed with reference to a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and

    supranational handbook and educational literature, investigation material

    from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. The method is

    designed as a checklist which deals with a number of planning stages, i.e. a

    number of questions each of which must be answered before proceeding to the

    end of the checklist where an assessment - no damage, damage or pronounced

    damage - has to be made. At the same time, those completing the checklist

    must also answer a number of relevant questions in order to motivate their

    standpoint regarding the assessment of damage, both to themselves and to

    others. The method has been tested on a newly produced EIA and has been

    judged by external reviewers to work well.

  • 320.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: ett kunskapsunderlag inför en metodutveckling2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas.

    The study is based on a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and supranational handbook or educational literature, investigation material from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. From this review, the following aspects were highlighted: the environmental aspects which are listed as capable of being damaged, the way damage is assessed, the way environmental pressure, change in environmental state and related impacts are described, the evaluatory principles to be used, and the legal basis for the conservation of assets deemed worthy of conservation. These aspects have been used as building blocks in constructing a method.  

  • 321.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.

  • 322.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Identifiering av samband i landskapet: ett pilotprojekt för tillämpning inom transportinfrastruktur. EKLIPS-rapport, kulturmiljö och kvartärgeologi2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eklips är ett samarbetsprojekt med många inblandade parter. VTI:s del har

    varit att undersöka vissa samband i landskapet utifrån ordinära fält och

    kartstudier. Därefter har forskare vid Metria Miljöanalys försökt identifiera

    dessa samband automatiskt. De studerade sambanden är kända sedan länge inom

    kulturgeografisk och agrarhistorisk forskning. Det är samband mellan olika

    företeelser i landskap, exempelvis mellan olika bebyggelsekategorier såsom

    mellan herrgård respektive bondgård och dess underlydande torp. Därefter har

    simulering och analys av hur vägar bryter sambanden genomförts. Att försöka

    visualisera sambanden har också varit viktigt i arbetet samt att försöka

    förstå hur sambanden uppfattas när man lyfter blicken från kartan till det

    faktiska landskapet. Vi har kommit fram till slutsatsen att sambanden måste

    vara konkreta för att kunna uppfattas, dvs. om man skall kunna förstå måste

    man också kunna se. Det räcker således inte med att sambanden går att

    grafiskt visualisera på en karta. De måste kunna upplevas i landskapet för

    att kunna pekas ut som exempelvis bevarandevärda eller hänsynsvärda.

  • 323.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    People and parking requirements: Residential attitudes and day-to-day consequences of a land use policy shift towards sustainable mobility2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, no 62, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A land use policy shift is taking place in a growing number of cities regarding parking, whereby a conventional supply management approach is being replaced with a parking management approach. As part of this policy shift, many cities are lowering their parking requirements.

    This study analysed changes in car use, car ownership, spatial parking patterns and the consequences for the everyday life of residents in a housing area with a relatively restrictive parking requirement in Gothenburg, the second largest city in Sweden. The housing area, a concrete example of how lowering parking requirements can be used to achieve targets on reduced car use and sustainable urban development, is used to discuss how parking policy should be applied to achieve the desired effect.

    The results show that the consequences of the restrictive requirement was paradoxically small in the study area. In practice, the requirement did not result in a decrease in the number of parking spaces, because e.g. of access to parking in neighbouring residential areas. This shows how important it is to adopt a holistic approach in parking policy, by e.g.introducing more restrictive parking requirements in parallel with other measures, such as raising parking charges and decreasing the number of public parking spaces. It also shows that planning of parking must be coordinated with other urban planning functions. Otherwise, the actual contribution of a shift in parking policy to the development of a more environmentally friendly transport system and city risks being small, despite lower parking requirements

  • 324.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national-local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives.

    Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents.

    The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning.

  • 325.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steem
    University of Stavanger.
    Tourism development strategy or just brown signage?: Comparing road administration policies and designation procedures for official tourism routes in two Scandinavian countries2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 342-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study maps and explores planning and designation of official tourism, routes in two countries with quite similar planning traditions, responding to a deficiency in research, on tourism route planning and development.

    Based on personal semi-structured interviews with, public road planners and managers in Norway and Sweden, the paper illuminates establishment and, management of official tourism routes, with an emphasis on overall strategies, funding, and, stakeholder involvement.

    Results show that public road administration route planning procedures in, the two countries are quite different. In Norway, a top-down principle is basically employed, concerning initiatives and designation of routes.

    In Sweden, the principle is one of muddling through, giving street-level planners more opportunities for individual influence on route planning. Funding for, road stretches included in the Norwegian national route programme is earmarked, whereas Swedish, routes are financed from ordinary appropriations to the regional road administrations.

    In Norway, regular follow-up studies such as road user surveys are conducted. In Sweden, a dearth of, documentation of tourist interests and route assessments seemingly makes route development, susceptible in relation to regional road administrations' economic priorities.

  • 326.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turistvägar och näringsutveckling: trafikantupplevelser och planeringskriterier2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI and the Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics (TØI) have at the request of the Swedish Road Administration carried out a research and development project concerning tourist routes in Sweden. The project was done in two parts, one literature study with examples of how other countries work with tourist routes and one field study about the opinions of visitors and business operators along two Swedish tourist routes (the present publication). The two tourist routes which have been studied are Tourist Route Gränna-Ödeshög-Rök in the Counties of Jönköping and Östergötland, and Tourist Route Kullaberg in the County of Skåne. The study of the experiences of the business operators, the visitors' willingness to pay and a deepened analysis of the landscape was only done along the Gränna route. As for the experiences of the visitors the data for the two Swedish tourist routes have been compared with similar data from a Norwegian tourist route, Tourist Route Sognefjell.

  • 327.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 328.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A crack in the Swedish welfare façade?: A review of assessing social impacts in transport infrastructure planning2018In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of social impact categorisation in strategic planning across European Union Member States shows that Sweden neither categorises nor breaks down categories of social impact in areas such as transport infrastructure development. This article accordingly studies how social issues are handled during transport infrastructure planning. An analysis of different source materials will answer four research questions:

    1. To what extent are social impacts integrated into environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports?
    2. Are social impacts sufficiently integrated and/or does this treatment simply amount to ‘good practice’?
    3. Can any trend be detected over time in terms of addressing social issues in impact assessments?
    4. What key measures could increase the influence of social impact issues on transport infrastructure planning practice?

    The study involved a content analysis of six EIA handbooks and EIA statements (EISs) for 18 large transport infrastructure projects. The concepts searched for in these documents largely apply to issues of vulnerability, health, social problems, perceived safety, and alienation. Our data were interpreted through the theoretical lens of institutional interplay. We found that though social aspects are not new considerations in EIA research, they are included in only a small proportion of the 18 Swedish EISs, mostly in connection with health and accessibility. We also found that the more recent documents allotted less space to social issues. It is unlikely that most individuals in the organisations that order EISs, or the consultancies that write them, are unaware of the broader interpretation of ‘human beings’ which includes social aspects.

    The conclusion is that in the absence of a government initiative to clarify how social impacts can be addressed in transport infrastructure planning, there is a need for an external network for organisations involved in transport infrastructure EISs.

  • 329.
    Antonson, Hans (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportrelaterad miljökvalitet: rapport från workshop den 10-11 september 20012001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 10–11 september 2001 möttes 31 representanter från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället på Scandic hotell Hasselbacken i Stockholm för att lyssna till föredragningar om och diskutera kring begreppet transportrelaterad miljökvalitet.Initiativet till workshopen togs av VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut) genom en delansökan i en bred ansökan kallad Tema miljökvalitet ställd till Vägverket, Banverket och KFB.Workshopens syfte var att diskutera begreppet miljökvalitet i relation till transportsektorn och att rekognosera intresset för bildandet av ett nätverk för transportrelaterad miljökvalitet. För att underlätta urvalsarbetet och göra workshopen hanterbar inbjöds ett antal gäster från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället som alla hade relevanta kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området.

  • 330.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    SLU.
    Landskapsanalys och upphandling: en intervjustudie med aktörer i väg- och järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report builds on interviews with twelve key individuals concerning issues surrounding landscape analysis (LA) during the planning and procurement process for roads and railways. The background to the study is the long-established use of LA to support broad-scale planning and large projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes.

    In its strategic plan the then Swedish Road Administration (Vägverket) decided that from 2010 onwards all public road-building projects must include a formal landscape analysis and design programme. However, there is no regulatory framework to say what should be analysed, or how the analysis should be conducted.

    There is considerable variation in the experiences and opinions of those interviewed, from which it can be concluded that project leaders at the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) adopt different styles of working depending on which geographic region or individual project they are associated with. For example, a common understanding of what ‘landscape’ might mean is largely missing, while the way that the respondents describe the landscape does not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the European Landscape Convention (ELC). The term design programme presents a similar case, whereas the concept of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is well established and goes unquestioned by the interviewees, because it is used both in legislation and in the literature.

    Another conclusion is that there is little in the way of consensus concerning LA except for a common perception that there is a lack of guidelines or assistance from the responsible authority (Trafikverket) in the form of a handbook or a dedicated chapter in the existing EIA handbooks. The importance of a handbook or similar document to the respondents is striking. There is uncertainty as to how to assure the quality of a given LA, and often a review of the EIA is regarded as sufficing for the LA as well.

    There are two schools of thought among the respondents as to when an LA should be carried out: either early in the planning process, or continuously throughout the entire planning process. In reality, though, there is a third school of thought evident in the existing planning system: that an LA is a part of the EIA, and as such should first take place during the consultation process.

  • 331.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    "This is what we did last time". Uncertainty over landscape analysis and its procurement in the Swedish road planning process2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 42, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some European countries, landscape analysis has long been used in support of large-scale planning or major projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes, in line with both the UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment and the European Landscape Convention. Some countries, however, lack a regulatory framework for what should be analysed, how a landscape analysis should be conducted, or even how it should be procured. Sweden is one such country.

    The research project on which this article is based, uses in-depth interviews with twelve key Swedish officials to consider landscape analysis issues in the planning and procurement of road and railway infrastructure. The findings point to the fact that skilled transport planners are not entirely comfortable with the current situation, and the way landscape analysis is handled in daily planning practice varies enormously. For example, nearly all the respondents believe that the way formal landscape analyses are procured is important, not least to ensure quality, yet at the same time they are rarely commissioned separately, even when this is explicitly stipulated by the regulations. There is no generally accepted notion of what 'landscape' might be, and the terms in which respondents describe the landscape do not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the ELC.

  • 332.
    Antonsson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nya miljökvalitetsmål, ny MKB-procedur2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 333.
    Antov, Dago
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Banet, Aurélie
    Barbier, Cécile
    Bellet, Thierry
    Bimpeh, Yaw
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Brandstätter, Christian
    Britschgi, Virpi
    Brosnan, Michael
    Buttler, Ilona
    Cestac, Julien
    De Craen, Saskia
    Delhomme, Patrice
    Dogan, Ebru
    Drápela, Emil
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Freeman, R
    Furian, Gerald
    Gábor, Miklós
    Goldenbeld, Charles
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Holte, Hardy
    Kraïem, Sami
    Papadimitriou, Eleonora
    Podlesek, Anja
    Polič, Marko
    Sánchez-Martín, Fermina
    Sardi, Gian-Marco
    Schmidt, Eike-Andreas
    Silverans, Peter
    Siska, Tamas
    Skládaná, Pavlina
    Theofilatos, Athanasios
    Von Below, Ariande
    Yannis, George
    Zaidel, David
    Zavrides, Neophytos
    Delhomme, Patricia (Editor)
    IFSTTAR.
    European road users' risk perception and mobility: the SARTRE 4 survey2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several European countries. Various topics related to road safety are in the focus of the project such as alcohol, drugs, or phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems and the transport infrastructure and environment.

  • 334. Antov, Dago
    et al.
    Roivas, Tiita
    Speed experiments in Estonia - impacts on road safety and road user behaviour2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 335.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Analys av haveriutredda olyckor1996Report (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Beteendeeffekter av olika företrädesregleringar1992Report (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Frästa räfflor i mitten på tvåfältsväg2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Milled rumble strips in combination with the centre line could be a way to

    improve traffic safety and to explore the concept of selfexplanatory roads as

    a counter measure. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a centre line

    in combination with a milled rumble strip helps to improve driver behaviour

    with the possible result of fewer accidents, especially head-on accidents.

    The evaluation mainly dealt with the rumble strip as a self explanatory

    counter measure and only indirectly considered forgiving road aspects e.g.

    warning by the rumble strip in the event of a lane deviation caused by driver

    fatigue or distraction. A before-after study was initiated in August 2003.

    Three different methods were used; measures of speed and lateral position for

    traffic flow in four positions on the road, observations of overtaking

    behaviour and finally road side interviews. The result showed that milled

    rumble strips in combination with the centre line definitely have en effect

    on car drivers. They reduced their speed by 1.8 kilometres per hour and they

    drove 5 centimetres closer to the edge line. Both changes in speed and

    lateral position were significant at the 5% level. There were no significant

    effects on truck drivers' choice of speed or position. Furthermore there was

    no significant difference in overtaking behaviour. The rumble strips were

    favourably received by drivers; 76% answered that milled rumble strips at

    centre line would make them feel more secure about that no driver will

    inadvertently drive into their lane; 83% answered that milled rumble strips

    will make them feel secure about that they are not about to leave the lane

    without being aware of this; 88% of the respondents thought milled rumble

    strips at the centre line will increase traffic safety.

  • 338.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ofrivilligt överskridande av kantlinjen1998Report (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Parkeringsstrategi1995Report (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Pilotstudie för att utvärdera förslag till förändringar av instruktioner och mätprotokoll avsedda för observationer av rödljusefterlevnad1996Report (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Riktlinjer och observationsunderlag för att avgöra om en olycka har orsakats av att föraren somnat eller nästan somnat2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness is one common reason for road crashes. The exact number of crashes is difficult to say. The aim of the present study is to identify criteria and protocols to use in field in order to learn more about driver sleepiness involvement in road crashes. The study has been done in collaboration with the police in Umeå. The police in Linköping and Gothenburg have also contributed during the development of the protocols. The study has three phases: review of earlier studies and experience from other countries, development of a protocol based on the most relevant criteria and finally a pilot test using the protocols at field directly at the road crashes. The result shows that attempts have been done all over the world. However, very few studies have been published or documented in scientific journals. It is more a question of practical experience at best having been documented in technical reports. The most used protocols are based on the work done by the Canadian police. They use two types of checklists; one at road directly at the crash site, one at the office in case the first analysis indicates suspicions that sleepiness has been involved. In the present study the protocol used directly at the crash site was used. The results show that the questions involved in the protocol were easily addressed to the involved drivers. The field study shows problems to motivate the police officers to take their time to use the protocol in field. The reason for this is unknown. One reason could be that this new routine needs time to be settled. The motivation among the police officers was seen to increase during the project. One explanation given was that they were more and more aware of the problem with sleepiness, thanks to the protocols. This will most truly make them more motivated over time.

  • 342.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Räfflor: effekter och konsekvenser av olika räffeltyper vid mitträffling på 2-fältsvägar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Milled rumble strips is one way to attract the drivers’ attention when they involuntarily are about to leave the lane. The rumble strips provide both internal and external noise but also vibrations in the vehicle. The overall aim of this work is to elucidate the effects and consequences of the use of intermittent milled rumble strips compared to sinus milled rumble strips in the center of the road. The comparison take into account; external noise, internal noise, vibrations, damage to the road surface and the price. However, due to lack of data, vibrations and price issues are excluded here. The results show that the intermittent rumble strips provide an increase of external noise on the 2–8 dB (A). The corresponding figure for the sinus rumble strip is 0.0 to 4 dB (A). Further, it is found that the sinus rumble strips provide more low frequency noise (30–40Hz) compare to the intermittent rumble strips (60–160 Hz). Maximum noise from intermittent rumble strips are obtained around 80–90 km/h, and at 90 km/h the threshold for noise for those living close to the road is 90–140 meters. It is not known at what speed the sinus rumble strip provide the maximum noise. Regarding the internal noise most studies have focused on passenger cars and an increase in internal noise when driving on intermittent rumble strips varies between 13–17 dB (A). Results from simulator studies show that even low levels of internal noise is helpful for drivers who are about to leave the lane due to sleepiness. The sinus rumble strips provide not only noise but also vibrations.

  • 343.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samband mellan vissa olyckstyper och trafikens fördelning på olika situationer1995Report (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skyddsutrustning för barn i bil i ett användarperspektiv: en studie i tre delar1998Report (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studie av mätfel vid observationer av reflexanvändning hos fotgängare1997Report (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Taktisk trafikantinformation för att kunna utnyttja vägsystemets möjligheter: En litteraturstudie1994Report (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trötthet i samband med bilkörning: översättning till svenska av avhandlingen Sleepiness at the wheel2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sömniga förare är en viktig orsak till trafikolyckor. Syftet med denna avhandling är att förmedla ny kunskap om sömnighet och risken för olyckor på vägarna genom att undersöka försämrad körförmåga kopplad till sömnighet hos förare. Motmedel kommer också att lyftas fram. Avhandlingen börjar med ett avsnitt om dödsfall och skador som ett folkhälsoproblem och hur sömnighet hos förare inverkar på trafikolyckor. Därefter följer att avsnitt som beskriver sömn, trötthet och grundläggande reglering av sömn och uppvaknande. Nästa avsnitt handlar om sömnighetsrelaterade trafikolyckors orsaker och kännetecken. Avslutningsvis diskuteras några motmedel mot sömnighet.

  • 348.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Uttröttning - vad säger lagen?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year people are injured or killed in crashes caused by sleepy drivers. It is debatable whether the existing regulatory framework is clear enough to lead to punishment but also if it is clear enough for the drivers to know when it is inappropriate to drive. The aim of the project was to investigate the concept of "fatigue" with a focus on clarifying what is required for a driver who caused an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor, to be punished. In addition, the aim has been to define the term so that road users know when there may be a risk of fatigue and thus refrain from driving. An expert group with representatives from a police district, the national police, prosecutors, the Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish Transport Agency, clinicians / researchers in sleep medicine (Sahlgrenska University Hospital), VTI and Stress Research (SU) discussed pre-prepared questions at three occasions. The Swedish law stated that it is not legal to drive when you are fatigued. However, there is no clear definition of what is meant by fatigued. The conclusion was that the regulations that exist today are not enough to trap fatigued drivers or fatigued drivers that cause a crash, especially not if they are private drivers. The view is that as long as there is no trustable and objective way to measure either fatigue or performance, it is not possible to find a better solution than the regulations that exist today. A future change should be in the demands on the ability to objectively determine whether fatigue of the driver has been a contributing factor.

  • 349.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Uttröttning: vad avser lagen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Årligen skadas och dödas människor i trafiken i olyckor då förare kör alltför sömniga. Regelverket reglerar körning i trött tillstånd på lite olika sätt. Det kan diskuteras om befintligt regelverk är tillräckligt tydligt för att leda till straff men även för att förare ska veta när det är olämpligt att köra. Syftet med projektet har varit att utreda begreppet ”uttröttning” med fokus på att tydliggöra vad som krävs för att en förare som orsakat en olycka, där uttröttning varit en bidragande faktor, ska kunna straffas. Syftet har även varit att definiera begreppet så att trafikanterna vet när det kan föreligga en risk för uttröttning och därmed avstå från att köra. En expertgrupp med representanter från polisen, rikspolisstyrelsen, åklagare, Trafikverket, Transportstyrelsen, kliniker/forskare inom sömnmedicin (Sahlgrenska sjukhuset), VTI och Stressforskningsinstitutet (SU) har under tre tillfällen diskuterat i förväg förberedda frågor. Slutsaten är att det regelverk som finns i dag inte är tillräckligt för att fälla förare som kör i uttröttat tillstånd eller har orsakat olyckor då de varit uttröttade. I synnerhet inte om de varit privata förare. Bedömningen är att det så länge det inte finns objektiva sätt att mäta antingen sömnighet eller prestation så är det inte möjligt att hitta en bättre lösning än det regelverk som finns idag. En framtida ändring bör ligga i de krav som ställs på möjligheten att objektivt avgöra om uttröttning hos föraren varit en bidragande orsak. Vi förordar att lagen kvarstår som den är idag till dess att objektiva sätt att mäta finns tillgängliga. För att underlätta för förare att inte utsätta sig själv och andra för farlig körning rekommenderar vi att man i möjligaste mån avstår att köra om man varit vaken 19 timmar eller mer och/eller sovit färre än 5 timmar den senaste sammanhängande sömnen. Vidare bör man undvika att förlägga körning under sen natt (mellan kl. 03-06) då de flesta personer befinner sig i botten av dygnsrytmen. Daetta är av extra betydelse om önskemålet om vaken tid och tid för sömn inte är uppfyllt. På samma vis rekommenderar vi förare att inte köra längre sammanhängande tid och då speciellt nattetid. Om det måste ske rekommenderas föraren att vara extremt uppmärksam på trötthetssignaler och genast stanna om man känner sig trött. Generellt bör även personer med obehandlad sömnsjukdom eller misstänkt sömnsjukdom eller dålig sömnkvalitet vara restriktiva till körning och i synnerhet under sömnbrist och/eller extrem vakenlängd. Insatser för att förbättra kompetensen och insikten hos förare bedöms som de mest effektiva för att förhindra körning i trött tillstånd. Det finns en avsaknad av ett tydligt ansvar för kommunikation och information inom trafikområdet vilket sannolikt är en barriär för utvecklingen inom området. Att tydligöra om detta är en fråga för Trafikverket eller Transportstyrelsen är viktigt. Andra åtgärder är att säkra att uttröttning finns med som en del i ISO 39001 arbetet och att det därmed är en faktor när vi skapar en framtida säkerhetskultur inom yrkestrafiken, samt att de läkarintyg som är ett krav kan baseras på systematiska och evidensbaserade bedömningar. Tekniska system spås en god framtid när de lyckas mäta förarens vakenhet och prestation som gör att resultaten går att integrera som en del i ISO 39001 och i så kallade Fatigue Risk 6 Management System. Modellering av trötthet hos förare med avseende på tid på dygnet, sömn och vakenhet är då en av förutsättningarna för att optimera till exempel scheman för yrkesförare. Fortsatt arbete med räffling av vägren och vägens mitt välkomnas. Vidare betonas vikten av att skapa fler rastplatser som uppfyller de krav som privata förare och förare i yrkestrafiken har.

  • 350.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägytans inverkan på fordonshastigheter1992Report (Other academic)
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