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  • 251.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Steering the European transport greenhouse gas emissions under uncertainty2010In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 44, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector when abatement costs are uncertain. In ail EU context, it is shown that a combination of a cap-and-trade system and emission taxes is preferable as it minimises the expected efficiency loss. The optimal design will depend on the relative cost structure within and outside the transport sector. It is argued that the optimal regime for the transport sector has similarities, but is not identical to, a pure emissions tax.

  • 252.
    Mandell, Svante
    Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
    The choice of multiple or single auctions in emissions trading2005In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether CO2 permit auctions should be held on one, several or many occasions per commitment period has not been discussed at any length in the literature. When at all observed, auction frequency has often been set at once per month or quarter. Here, it is argued that for reasons of efficiency, it is generally best to have just one single auction per commitment period. The arguments given relate to the role played by such factors as emission trading design, auction design, market power, transaction costs and, in particular, ‘the winner's curse’.

  • 253.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Transportsektorn och klimatpolitiken2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 254.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Quantity choice in unit price contract procurements2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach for procuring large construction projects is through Unit Price Contracts. By the means of a simple model, we study the optimal quantity to procure under uncertainty regarding the actual required quantity given that the procurer strives to minimize expected total costs. The model shows that the quantity to procure in optimum follows from a trade-off between the risk of having to pay for more units than actually necessary and of having to conduct costly renegotiations. The optimal quantity increases in costs associated with possible renegotiations, decreases in expected per unit price, and, if a renegotiation does not increase per unit price too much, decreases in the uncertainty surrounding the actual quantity required.

    Older version: http://swopec.hhs.se/vtiwps/abs/vtiwps2011_004.htm

  • 255.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Quantity Choice in Unit Price Contract Procurements2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 483-497Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    A comparison of unit price and fixed price contracts for infrastructure construction projects2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s dominant mechanism for infrastructure project tendering is the Unit Price Contract (UPC). While the winning bidder retains risk related to the unit price bids submitted, the Principal carries all risk related to misspecification of the activities required for having a project build. This paper reviews the microeconomic foundations for this contracting procedure and identifies situations where an alternative mechanism, Design - Build (DB) contracts, may be preferable. DB leaves the bulk of project risk with the agent and therefore requires bidders to hedge against unpleasant surprises in the implementation by increasing the demand for compensation for undertaking the job. It is argued that DB should not be used if the number of bidders is expected to be large; this is a means for reducing the duplication of design costs. Moreover, DB projects should be complex with respect to the number of sub-tasks required for construction and it should be feasible to substitute one input for another. This is a way for society to benefit from the agent’s superior information about alternative implementation techniques and relative input prices. The projects should moreover not include too many unobservable quality features and the risks for geotechnical problems should be manageable.

  • 257.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Kan det bli mer effektivt med totalentreprenad?2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 258.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ordning på torpet2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Freight transport, policy instruments and climate2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of policy instruments supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from road freight transports may seem smaller than expected. Using insights from economics and contract theory, the paper sorts out the (possible) instances of market failure in the freight transport market; operator market power, asymmetric information split incentives, and public goods. The primary limitations of standard policy instruments are demonstrated to be linked to unobservable information. Some of these may be reduced but not eliminated as information technologies develop, making it possible to observe, verify and provide contract-relevant information to the uninformed parties. There is little reason to believe that possible market failures present major limitations to the efficiency of economic instruments geared toward protecting the climate, other than possibly in the short run.

  • 260.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Too much balance in unbalanced bidding2013In: Studies in Microeconomics, ISSN 2321-0222, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds to the theoretical base of unbalanced bidding in auction theory. The importance of this concept is justified by being a decisive feature in the make-or-buy decision of a client who cannot rely on repeated interaction, often the case in public procurement, for example. Earlier theoretical models on unbalanced bidding often predict corner solutions, that is, zero bids for unit prices of expected overestimated quantities. However, anecdotal evidence indicates a lack of zero bids in the actual contracts. The article offers a possible explanation for this anomaly by focusing on the risk-aversion of the contractor. Using a simple model, it shows that a contractor with superior information may exploit this in the bidding process to increase her expected revenue. This increases risk exposure. A risk-averse contractor will typically avoid a corner solution to reach an optimal balance between risk and expected return.

  • 261.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Proost, Stef
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Why truck distance taxes are contagious and drive fuel taxes to the bottom2016In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 93, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the way in which countries with international and local truck traffic decide to switch from a simple fuel tax system to a dual system of fuel and distance charge taxes. We show what drives a country to switch and how this affects the level of fuel taxes as well as incentives for other countries to also adopt the dual system. The model is partially able to explain the gradual extension of kilometer charging for trucks in Europe. The model also shows that, in the absence of diesel cars, the gradual introduction of kilometer charges will make fuel taxation for trucks virtually disappear and will lead to a system where truck use is (1) taxed mainly based on distance, (2) is taxed too heavily, and (3) where highest distance taxes are expected in transit countries with a strong market position. When the fuel tax must in addition serve as an externality tax for diesel cars, the introduction of distance charges for trucks will give rise to diesel taxes that are lower than the external cost of diesel cars. For trucks, this leads to a sum of diesel taxes and distance charges that are higher than the external cost of trucks.

  • 262.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Ecologize AB.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Hållbara turistresor i samhällsekonomisk analys2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics show that tourism in Sweden is increasing, thus increasing its importance for the overall economy, exports and employment. However, tourism is also associated with environmental and other effects, for example from tourist travel. This study investigated the possibility of using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in planning to achieve more sustainable tourist travel. This was done by studying whether and how impacts related to tourism and tourist travel can be analysed using the methods routinely used in infrastructure investment planning, i.e. regulatory impact assessment (RIA) (samlad effektbedömning) including CBA. Opportunities and obstacles were evaluated, with particular attention to the environmental aspect of sustainability

    The study was conducted as a theoretical analysis of how tourism and sustainability perspectives can be included in RIA. In addition, four different scenarios were analysed: relocation of the railway station in Kiruna, development of a new airport in Sälen, an extended county bus service in Åre and increased train traffic and an electric car pool in Vimmerby.

  • 263.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Financial infrastructure and house prices2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that banks operating in a local market possess better information about the local housing market than do non-local banks. Possessing this information may influence their willingness to grant loans to house buyers and the specifics of the loan terms, which in turn may affect house prices because credit facilitation makes the housing market more efficient.

    Using a panel data set covering a period from 1993 to 2007 and involving 274 municipalities in Sweden, we establish a positive causal influence of local bank presence on local house prices. There are significant spatial and spillover effects – that is, banks in a municipality affect the housing markets in neighboring municipalities, although to a lesser extent than in their own municipality. Similar results are obtained through a gravity model. The results are robust over time and municipality size.

  • 264.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Financial Infrastructure and House Prices2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH.
    Local Banks and Economic Growth2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH.
    Willingness to pay for sustainable housing2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades there has been an increasing focus on how to build a sustainable society and in particular on how to design policies that pushes the society into a more sustainable direction. The present paper aims at analysing differences between house buyers when valuing environmental characteristics associated with the house as such. The theoretical framework used is based on the hedonic modelling, but we are also estimating the second stage by assuming a translog utility function. In doing that we are able to estimate the non-marginal willingness to pay for environmental housing attributes and whether environmental aware household have a higher willingness to pay or not. The conclusion to be drawn from the analysis is that there is a positive willingness to pay for environmental attributes. Hence, there may be room for policy measures such as information campaigns. However, it seems to be more effective concerning environmental housing attribute that do not require large investment.

  • 267.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH.
    Willingness to pay for sustainable housing2011In: Journal of Housing research, ISSN 1052-7001, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzed the differences between house buyers when valuing environmental characteristics associated with the house. The theoretical framework used is based on hedonic modeling, but the second stage is estimated by assuming a translog utility function. This technique is used to estimate the non-marginal willingness to pay for environmental housing attributes and whether an environmentally aware household has a higher willingness to pay or not. The findings reveal that there is a positive willingness to pay for environmental attributes and it is higher for households who (state that they) are environmentally aware. These results may justify policy measures such as information campaigns.

  • 268.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH.
    Willingness to pay for sustainable housing2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Martin, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    EIT University of Las Palmas.
    Roman, Concepcion
    EIT University of Las Palmas.
    Voltes-Dorta, Augusto
    EIT University of Las Palmas.
    Link, Heike
    DIW Berlin.
    Enei, Riccardo
    ISIS.
    Allocation of infrastructure cost in the air transport sector2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report highlights the main results obtained in WP6 regarding the allocation of infrastructure cost in air transport sector. In this deliverable, it has been shown that there are important economies of scale in airport operations, and, thus, it can justify the current trend of capacity expansion programs observed in major hubs. For the year 2006, the range of estimated economies of scale varies between 4.36 and 1.23, with an average value of 1.75. A basic methodology was proposed in order to analyze the likely level of output at which the economies of scales would be exhausted. The industry's minimum efficient scale (MES) was calculated to be at 2.27 million ATM737. The most interesting conclusion to draw from this result is that, within the current technological frontier, the world's leading airports will continue to benefit from scale economies in the provision of infrastructure for air transportation and commercial activities until they reach between two or three times their current scales.

  • 270.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Creutzer, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    SJÖSAM – sjöfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: förstudie inom SAMKOST2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to analyse which marginal costs are relevant and how they should be considered for maritime transports. The report is a pre-study for the sub-project Maritime transports’ socioeconomic marginal cost (Sjösam) within VTI’s governmental assignment on socioeconomic marginal costs in the transport sector (Samkost). The report focus on following marginal costs; infrastructure wear and tear, air pollution, greenhouse gases, noise, safety, and other marine externalities (i.e. water pollution, sedimentation pollution, erosion and loss of habitat and biodiversity). A clear picture that arises from the literature study is that it’s mostly the maritime transports’ emissions of air pollution and greenhouse gases that have been studied. It is also mainly for those two externalities that marginal costs have been estimated. The results from the literature study have given the following conclusions: • The marginal costs we suggest should be considered for updates are pilotage, ice breaking, air pollution and greenhouse gases, based on their relative size in Sweden. • More research, beyond the scope of this project, is needed before it’s possible to state if the marginal costs of noise and marine impact are relevant or not for maritime transports from a marginal costs perspective. • The literature on maritime safety suggests relatively low marginal costs. But more aspects than just life and health, which are the only effects considered in the current Swedish CBA guidelines (ASEK), constitute large costs for maritime accidents (e.g. environmental costs and costs for the industry). Therefore we considered this area to be a prioritized research field. • For some external effects it’s very difficult to calculate the risks since they are very low, such as invasion of alien species and large oil spills, but can lead to large consequences. It’s still important to assess the impact from maritime transport on these issues to locate the relevant impact sources and how it’s possible to estimate the external costs in safe systems where the probability for an accident is very low. • Differentiation is viewed as relevant for ice-breaking (both time and geographically) and air pollution (geographically). For air pollution and greenhouse gases a differentiation depending on type of ship is also relevant. • Marginal cost associated with ports should be treated separately, and for maritime transports the marginal costs should be limited to the ones related to the ships operation. Ports, like other terminals, are nodes for several modes of transports and the marginal costs of ports should not be allocated only to the maritime transports, but rather added to a transport chain.

  • 271.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Health effects of transport emissions: a review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose is to provide a background for a discussion concerning the methods and values used in cost-benefit analysis in Sweden for air pollutions', from traffic, impact on human health and the research needs in this area. We provide an overview of the current state of the art of models used for and input needed for external cost calculations of the health impacts. The calculations are not straightforward and depend on the collaboration between several research disciplines. In the ExternE projects, which have been used as a reference point in this study, there are still uncertainties concerning which pollutants to take into consideration. Regarding the health impacts, we have recapitulated some of the main conclusions in a review by the American Heart Association (2010). They state that e.g. the following issues need further research: the importance of ultrafine particles, what constituent parts make traffic related air pollution more harmful than PM2.5 in general and the importance of coarse particles.

  • 272.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Rydhed, Hanna
    Stena Renewables.
    Swedish ports' attitudes towards regulations of the shipping sector's emissions of CO22011In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 437-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is increasing today along with the sector's emissions of greenhouse gases. The awareness of the emissions has increased the pressure for regulations of the shipping industry. Regulating the sector is far from simple due to the complexity of the market and the evasive characteristics of the industry. We know from studies of road pricing that attitudes among stakeholders are important for a successive policy implementation. The objective of this paper is to capture the Swedish ports' attitudes towards regulations of the shipping sector's emissions of CO2. This has been done by conducting a survey among commercial ports in Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind. Our analysis indicates that ports in Sweden are generally positive towards an implementation of regulations to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the shipping industry. The ports where most positive towards CO2 differentiated port due (97%), followed by a technical standard (92%), CO2 taxation (84%) and EU ETS (The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme; 74%).

  • 273.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ståhle, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Omvärlds- och framtidsanalys: längre och tyngre väg- och järnvägsfordon2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has previously shown that there are socio-economic benefits of using longer and heavier road vehicles than the rest of the EU, i.e. 25.25 metres and 60 tons are permitted. The aim of the Co-modality project is to investigate the consequences of using even longer and/or heavier road and railway vehicles. This first subproject aims to answer which dimensions and weight limits with regards to road and railway vehicles that the Co-modality project should investigate further as well as the effects. A literature review has been conducted and to capture the views of Swedish stakeholders and transportation experts, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The respondents were invited to a hearing, too. The reason for the survey was to establish which road and railway vehicles would be in demand year 2030. The results show that no extreme changes are expected and that volume capacity was requested to a further extent than weight. For road vehicles, it is mainly a question of continuing to build on the European Modular System that combines different standardised load carriers. It allows member states to have different dimensions to those in other EU countries. For railway vehicles the demand is mainly for longer trains, but also heavier. Road safety, infrastructure, congestion, environment and transportation economy are the aspects that we identified as relevant for longer and/or heavier road and railway vehicles.

  • 274.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Internalisation of external effects in European freight corridors2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project was conducted upon a request from the Swedish Agency for Transport Analysis (Trafikanalys), with a governmental assignment to annually report the rate of internalisation per mode for passenger and freight transports. In its 2013 report, the Agency wishes to show examples of how the marginal costs and the internalising taxes and fees vary within and between European countries. With this background, VTI was given the assignment to analyse ten freight routes in Europe within the Narvik (Norway)–Naples (Italy), and Oslo (Norway)– Rotterdam (the Netherlands) corridors. The corridors were stated in the assignment from the Transport Analysis Agency. During the project, two reference group meetings were held with the following participants: Kenneth Wahlberg (Swedish Transport Administration), Stefan Back (TransportGruppen), Katarina Handel (Swedish Maritime Administration), Gunnar Eriksson (Transport Analysis), Rein Juriado (Vinnova) and Anders Ljungberg (our Transport Analysis contact). Further, Glenn Hakansson (former truck driver) helped out in selecting the routes for the road transports. The authors would like to thank all participants for their helpful comments.

  • 275.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Allocation of user benefits for international freight transports: in cost-benefit analysis2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to analyse when, if and how a transport cost reduction, following an infrastructure investment affecting international freight transports, should be allocated between countries in a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). In order to analyse this question, the project has been split into two stages. This first stage aims at presenting a more general picture of how the user benefits could be allocated according to the scientific literature, how recommendations on this issue are designed in other countries CBA guidelines, and whether this issue is treated in the planning process of transnational infrastructure projects. The available, but scarce, scientific literature indicates that the allocation of user benefits can have substantial effects on the profitability of infrastructure measures. Having studied CBA guidelines and CBAs of transnational infrastructure projects, the conclusion from our study is that to our knowledge, no other country has a well-founded allocation method that could be implemented in Sweden. Finally, the literature does not offer any strong recommendations or straightforward theoretical methods, with the exception of a first suggestion by Fosgerau and Buus Kristensen (2005).

  • 276.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Internalisation of External Effects in European Freight Corridors2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    External effects or externalities “consist of the costs and benefits felt beyond or ‘external to’ those causing the effect” (Anderson, 2006). In the case of transportation, the negative externalities (costs) can take the form of air pollution, noise and accidents. Since external effects do not have a market price, external effects are a form of market failure.Wear and tear of the infrastructure isexternal to individual drivers andoperators,and thus also includedin the analysis.

    External costs can be internalised in various ways e.g. through regulatory measures, technological development or taxes and charges. Some forms of taxation are more effective than others in internalising costs. For example, fuel tax is effective in reducing CO2emissions as it will tend to promote technological change to reduce emissions per kilometre travelled as well as reducing the kilometres driven. A fixed, undifferentiated annual tax on owning a vehicle will, on the other hand, be ineffective in relation to reducing CO2emissions. While it will have some impact on reducing vehicle ownership (and thus indirectly vehicle use), it will not affect kilometres driven by individual vehicles. In this paper the focus is on the “rate of internalisation”. This term is used to describe to what extent the marginal external costs, based on existing regulations and technology (e.g. the European Emission Trading Scheme and emissions classes for road vehicles), are compensated for through charges or taxes. Internalisation at a certain time is thus expressed as the ratio between average charges and taxes on the one hand, and marginal external costs on the other. In this case, a full rate of internalisation would imply that the transport companies are fully charged for the marginal negative effects caused by their transport. If the ratio is below 1, the taxes and charges levied are lower than the existing marginal external costs to society, i.e. there is an under-internalisation.

    The aim of this project is to study the rate of internalisation of external effects through taxes and charges in two European freight corridors during 2012; for road, rail, and sea transport, respectively.The study is based on two presumed freight corridors, between Norway (Narvik) and Italy(Naples), and between Norway (Oslo) and the Netherlands (Rotterdam).

    The analysis is further differentiated on a national level, where each country constitutes one segment of the transport.

  • 277.
    Muren, Astri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Collusion without communication2006In: Information Economics and Policy, ISSN 0167-6245, E-ISSN 1873-5975, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study tacit collusion by investigating experimentally the effect of explicit instructions on how to coordinate prices. We find:

    1. no tacit collusion in triopoly markets even with explicit instructions on how to coordinate
    2. increased tacit collusion with explicit instructions in duopoly markets.

    The results suggest that there are additional factors than the difficulty of finding a collusive pricing scheme, that effectively limit tacit collusion.

  • 278.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    Univ. of Leeds.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Link, Heike
    DIW, Berlin.
    Comparing Three Models for Introduction of Competition into Railways2013In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 191-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares three European countries with long experience of competition in rail transport— Britain, Sweden, and Germany. Given the nature of the reforms undertaken, we would expect theBritish approach to be the most successful, with Sweden next and Germany least successful. But anexamination of subsidy levels and trends in passenger and freight traffic finds that Germany has theslowest growth in public financial support for its railway, as well as the lowest increase in fares. Whiletraffic growth is faster in the other countries, it is not clear that reforms there have provided bettervalue for money.

  • 279.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Link, Heike
    DIW, Berlin, Germany.
    Comparing three models for introduction of competition into railways: is a Big Wolf so Bad after all?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the experience of three European countries with long experience of competition in rail transport – Britain, Sweden and Germany. Britain is characterised by complete separation of infrastructure from operations, competition either for or in the market for the entire passenger network, open access for freight with two large operators and several smaller ones, strong regulation and careful attention to financial incentives. Sweden also has complete vertical separation, competitive tendering for all subsidised services, open access for freight and now also for commercial passenger services. Regulation, although now strengthened, is not as tight as in Britain. At the other extreme, Germany still has the dominant operator and the infrastructure company as subsidiaries to the same holding company, the regulator has had repeated disputes regarding their powers and – although there is some tendering of subsidised passenger services and open access for commercial passenger and freight – the incumbent still dominates the market. According to the general expectations of theoretical reasoning, we would expect the British approach to be the most successful in achieving an efficient, competitive rail system, with Sweden next and Germany least successful. But an examination of subsidy levels and trends in passenger and freight traffic finds that Germany has the slowest growth in public financial support for its railway as well as the lowest fares. Both Britain and Sweden have had faster growth in public financial support than Germany, although this has mainly been in infrastructure renewal and enhancement, and there has been debate as to the adequacy of current infrastructure spending in Germany. On most measures, Britain has lower absolute levels of financial support than Germany as well as faster traffic growth. Sweden clearly has much higher financial support, although this may be the result of low population density. Thus on balance it is not clear that the reform process has worked better in the other countries than in Germany, despite initial expectations. Further in depth research on the reasons for these changes in financial support and traffic levels would be needed to reach a more conclusive answer.

  • 280.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Smith, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Crozet, Yves
    Laboratoire Aménagement, Économie, Transports.
    Link, Heike
    German Institute for Economic Research.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    How to liberalise rail passenger services?: Lessons from european experience2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the experience of Europe's three most liberalised railways - Sweden, Germany and Britain - in opening-up rail passenger services to competition by means of competitive tendering, and seeks to draw lessons for countries that are just starting the process, such as France. It also comments on experience of competition in the market in these and other countries (this form of competition has been taken furthest in other countries - notably Italy and the Czech Republic, as well as on a single route in Austria). The paper fills an important gap in the literature - that has so far focused on econometric modelling of the impact of rail reforms - by considering how competition can best be introduced in practice. This investigation is important and timely given the requirements of EU legislation (4th Railway Package)which will require competition to be introduced into passenger rail services (by 2020 for commercial services, and 2023 for public transport contracts) across the whole of the EU. It finds evidence that competitive tendering has helped increase demand for and reduce subsidies to the rail passenger sector, but that there are many decisions that have to be taken as to how it is to be implemented. Short gross cost contracts may work well for regional services where the tendering authority takes the lead in planning and marketing such services. If services where ticket revenue recovers a larger share of costs – “more commercial services” – are to be tendered, long net cost contracts may make more sense. An alternative is to leave them operated by the incumbent but with open access for competitors to enter the market. Two particular issues face countries starting on the liberalisation process. Firstly, if existing rolling stock is owned by the incumbent rather than the franchising authority or an independent company; that remains a major barrier to entry. The second is the position of existing staff. If new operators are required to take them on at existing wages and conditions; that is a barrier to improved efficiency, but for new operators to recruit their own staff may also be problematic, particularly where the pace of change is fast.

  • 281.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar: kunskapsläget avseende påverkan på ekosystemet i Sverige, betydelsen av var utsläppen sker samt kostnader för utsläpp från svensk sjöfart2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s second government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost2). In this study, we have estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact on the ecosystem and emissions from shipping.

    In the earlier study of air pollution in Samkost was concluded that a largely unexplored question was how much the transport sector contributes to secondary pollution and the impact these have on population exposure and impact on the ecosystem. It was found that this is an important issue because it is these pollutants that are the focus of the EU’s air quality policy. To carry out impact assessments of the proposals at EU level in this field, and to compare the results of different studies, it is important to clarify the pollution that has been the basis for the analysis.

    For this reason, the focus of Samkost2 on air pollution became how to perform calculations for the secondary pollutants. There was also a desire to gain more knowledge about the marginal costs of emissions from Swedish shipping, and on how impacts on ecosystems can be included in these calculations. To carry out these calculations required information in the form of dispersion modelling. Therefore, SMHI was commissioned to provide data on emissions at sea and their dispersion. Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and dispersion modelling involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Only emissions from Swedish shipping and not from the other modes were included. To get some information about geographical differences in the impact of emissions that occur in different places separate calculations for three different areas was conducted; Skagerrak and Kattegat, the Baltic Sea south of Åland and the Baltic Sea north of the Åland Islands. Specific effects, i.e. exposure, were only modelled for the population and not for different types of ecosystems.

  • 282.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Management by good intentions and best wishes: on sustainability, tourism and transport investment planning in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government, despite a possible value conflict with the ambitious Swedish climate mitigation objectives, has stated that tourism development is an important basis for economic growth, not least in rural areas. This paper explores how the Swedish policy making system, and ambitious environmental and traffic safety objectives, influence transport investment planning at the regional level. Our point of reference for evaluating the system is the work with good regulatory policy advocated by the OECD and used by the EU. The main finding is that the Swedish government and parliament lack a strategic “whole-of-government approach” to sustainable transport development. There are many principles and objectives with good intentions established at the national level that are incompatible in practice. The conflicts that follow are handed down to lower government levels to solve with best wishes. The problem with this type of management is the “tragedy of the commons.” Without clear guidance, individuals (and administrations) acting independently and rationally based on self-interests are likely to behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group (society).

    Making choices based on a more holistic assessment of impacts and benefits and costs could help to prevent this kind of outcome. However, from the data collected it appears that many investments are undertaken without being assessed due to the lack of government instructions on regulatory impact assessment. Other investments are undertaken despite having a negative net benefit. One reason for this is specific instructions given by the government that points to certain investments. Another reason seems to be the Vision Zero policy established by the parliament. In recent years this policy has been a strong driver of improvements of the road system. Seen from an environmental perspective, the unwanted consequence of the priorities made is that state roads become faster and safer and thereby a more attractive alternative to other travel modes. Seen from a regional development and tourism perspective, this may have diverted resources away from investments that would have yielded a greater benefit to the tourism industry in “rural” areas.

  • 283.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i arbetet med nationell risk- och förmågebedömning: vägledning och förslag på metodik2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) was commissioned by the government to develop and establish a procedure and methodology for national risk assessment in Sweden. In 2013 MSB continued this work and also initiated work to develop a more coherent and reliable process for producing national risk and capability assessments. An assignment was therefore given to VTI where the questions was how economics can be implemented in practice in this more comprehensive work. To provide a basis for discussion, the current system for national risk- and capability assessments undertaken by the public sector is described in the beginning of the report. Next, based on findings in the scientific literature, the report contains a discussion of how economics can be of use in risk assessment and management. Since cost-benefit analysis is the analytical tool used, this overview also contains a short summary on how to perform this type of analysis. Based on this background information a method is proposed on how to analyze a decision problem in this kind of risk context. The method comprises the following logical steps: - Scenario analysis to develop an analytical model of the risk context focusing on a description of the capabilities needed to reduce the probability of and the consequences of a certain hazard. - Capability assessment to quantify the current level of the relevant capabilities. - GAP-analysis to identify if there is a lack of important capabilities and if so, what measures that can address these insufficiencies. - Cost-benefit analysis to evaluate different policy measures to improve the capability. - Stress test and evaluation to test the functioning of the risk management system and the effect of the policy changes made. The analytical model developed in the first step can be used for this purpose.

  • 284.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University.
    Travel mode choice: effects of previous experience on choice behaviour and valuation2003In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 5-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how past experience influences choice behaviour and valuation in a hypothetical travel mode choice situation. Using a stated choice question asked of visitors to a major ski resort in Sweden, the author explores whether an individual's choice behaviour, when he or she is offered a comfort improvement to train travel, can be explained with reference to the individual and to the circumstances of his or her previous journey.

    The analysis models and compares the response behaviour of travellers who used a car and travellers who used the train on their original trip. It is found that past experience influences travellers' choice behaviour. Twenty per cent of former car users choose the train, while most train users again choose the train. As reasons for choosing car travel once again, car users mention a preference for shorter travel time and/or a preference for flexibility, while environmental concerns and long travel distance favour the use of the train. Concerning comfort improvement, as expected, willingness-to-pay estimates for the former train users are lower and more precise than those for the former car users.

  • 285.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • 286.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    Measuring the external health cost of particulate matter from road traffic and other sources in Stockholm, Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper measures the external health cost due to emissions from different sources in the Stockholm area using the Impact pathway approach. The estimated health impact is the result of detailed dispersion modelling with high spatial resolution. We make separate calculations for the impact that occur within the Stockholm area, the surrounding region and the rest of Europe. The pollutants considered are combustion and secondary particulate matter (PM) from the burning of fuels and also road wear (non-exhaust PM) that makes a large contribution to measured concentrations of PM locally in Stockholm. We also investigate the influence of assumptions made regarding the exposure-response functions used in these calculations since PM of different origin are expected to have different health impacts. According to the results road traffic makes important contributions to the external health cost both on a local and a regional scale compared to other sources. This is in part due to emissions being released in close proximity to where people live but also because of the amount of pollutants emitted. Although non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to local population exposure within Stockholm the external health cost is relatively small which is due to other health impact being relevant for this emission source. Residential heating also makes an important contribution to exposure and external health cost on a local scale while power plants have a large influence regionally.

  • 287.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bergström, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area: an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been recognized that emissions from traffic have a negative impact on human health. In recent years there has been emerging consensus that the main influence is due to particulate matter. From an economic point of view these negative effects are external costs caused by traffic that, if not accounted for in decision making regarding transport, will result in a non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses. To be able to implement road pricing measures, but also for the evaluation of other control measures through benefit-cost analysis, information on the external cost of traffic emissions is needed. In the Impact pathway approach (IPA), that has been developed in the ExternE projects, the external cost is calculated as the product of exposure, effect and value. In this study the effect we focus on is health impacts (mortality). Regarding particulate matter (PM) there is recognition among the research community that there are different types of PM and that it is likely that their impact on human health differs. Still the current practice is to treat fine PM (which are considered to be most detrimental to health) as equally harmful irrespective of origin. In the TESS project the purpose has been to investigate how important the external health cost of road traffic generated PM is in relation to the cost of other sources of PM. To do this we have both investigated how the exposure varies between sources but also assessed if it is reasonable to assume that the impact differs between PM from different sources. Whether or not to assume that PM of different origin is equally harmful is of particular interest in Sweden where non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to the concentrations of PM in urban areas. In the project we have used Stockholm as a case study and we have focused on mortality since this is the health impact that has been found to have the largest impact on health cost in other studies.

  • 288.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • 289.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Regulating transport: The possible role of regulatory impact assessment in Swedish transport planningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By performing RIA, the risk of imposing a proposal that is inefficient or leads to sub-optimization is reduced. In the EU this approach to regulatory policy making was introduced in 2002 and it is a crucial component of the Better Regulation Agenda. However the practical implementation of this approach in Member States is varied; Sweden has not implemented the full RIA process. Currently there is a focus on the reduction of administrative burdens for businesses. This paper describes the present use of RIA and CBA in the Swedish planning context and discusses the reasons for and the consequences of current practices. Using the Swedish transport regulator as a case study, the paper considers the following aspects; i) the Swedish planning context and existing requirements regarding the use of RIA, ii) current focus of research regarding CBA for infrastructure investments in the Swedish transport sector and the need for greater focus on issues concerning regulation, iii) the difficulty to quantify and place monetary values on effects, which also increases when unique, complex and uncertain situations are assessed and iv) the need for the alignment of incentives at all levels and across agencies.

  • 290.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar från transporter i olika delar av Sverige: sammanfattning och slutsatser från arbetet med luftkvalitet i SAMKOST2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att genom några beräkningsexempel klargöra hur de externa kostnaderna för luftföroreningar varierar mellan transportslag och geografi i Sverige, samt att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som ligger bakom dessa skillnader. Syftet är också att sätta in dessa resultat i en internationell kontext för att beskriva hur den svenska situationen förhåller sig till den som råder i andra länder både när det gäller miljöproblemen som orsakas av utsläpp till luft men också arbetet med att utforma miljöarbetet baserat på denna kunskap. Det senare är viktigt för att kunna föra en diskussion om hur Sverige påverkas av och kan bidra till internationellt luftvårdsarbete, framförallt inom EU eftersom den största påverkan av utsläpp från transportsektorn i Sverige sker inom Europa. Vi har i arbetet med SAMKOST studerat effekter på såväl lokal som regional nivå utifrån den metodik som tillämpas inom EU där hälsoeffekter utvärderas baserat på marginella haltförändringar i det som kallas urban eller regional bakgrund. De underlag som tagits fram i SAMKOST-projekten skiljer sig därför från flertalet svenska studier som oftast bedömer effekterna av den totala halten utan hänsyn till källa eller åtgärd. De modelleringar som är grunden för beräkningarna har genomförts av SMHI vilket säkerställer att resultaten är jämförbara mellan de olika transportslagen.

  • 291.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Sportfiske och fisketurism för landsbygdens utveckling: Om intäktspotential, framgångsfaktorer och förvaltning av gemensamma naturresurser2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordbruksverket och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har gemensamt tagit fram en strategi för utvecklingen av svenskt fritidsfiske och fisketurism fram till 2020. Där anges ett antal mål varav i första hand två är anledningen till att denna studie initierats. Dessa två mål är:

    • Kunskapen är stor om fritidsfiskets och fisketurismens samhällsnytta och betydelse för stadsbefolkningen och för möjligheterna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden.
    • Kunskapsförsörjning om fritidsfiske och fisketurism utvecklas och samordnas av ansvariga myndigheter i syfte att förse berörda intressenter med kunskapsunderlag.

    Denna studie har genomförts på Jordbruksverkets uppdrag. Syftet har varit att beskriva den forskning som pågår och de kompletterande forskningsbehov som finns med utgångspunkt från det uppdrag Jordbruksverket har att främja utvecklingen av fritidsfisket och fisketurismen. Det har också ingått att kartlägga och presentera goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet och att utifrån dessa exempel beskriva vilket värde olika typer av sportfiske och fisketurism kan generera i olika typer av vatten. Det övergripande syftet är att identifiera och kommunicera framgångsfaktorer bakom lönsam fisketuristisk verksamhet och därigenom bidra till en utveckling av branschen och förutsättningarna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden. För att uppfylla detta syfte har också förutsättningarna för att bedriva sådan verksamhet undersökts. I studien har sex goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet i olika delar av landet fått beskriva sin verksamhet, dess förutsättningar och hinder.

  • 292.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of local policy measure to improve air quality in Stockholm: an exploratory study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the research undertaken in the project TESS - Traffic Emissions, Socioeconomic valuation and Socioeconomic measures. In this report, we have studied the cost-effectiveness of particulate matter (PM) reductions from local emission sources in the Stockholm area. The input in the analysis is cost and effectiveness data collected from other studies and reports on reductions in emissions from traffic and residential heating. Contrary to other cost-effectiveness studies we have also included abatement measures where the effect is mainly due to adaptations in behavior. One example is congestion charging that we have assumed have a zero cost. We have also investigated the effect of different targeting strategies. Either the focus is on achieving air quality limit values for PM10 or the focus is on improvement in human health. In the first case we have assumed that the aim is to reduce emissions of PM10. In the second case the aim has been formulated as a reduction of the number of years of life lost (YOLL) in the population that would result if we reduce the concentrations of particulate matter in the city. The cost-effective analysis is done with a simple linear programming model. According to our results, congestion charging, a change to low-emission vehicles and installation of accumulator tanks are the least cost abatement measures irrespective of the target used in the analysis. For congestion charging and low-emission vehicles this is due to the assumption made that the abatement cost is zero. Thereafter however, the choice of measures depends on the choice of target. While less use of studded tires is efficient in order to reduce PM10 emissions, this is not a measure that has a large impact on the reduction of YOLL. This result relies on the assumptions made regarding the mortality impact of non-exhaust PM versus combustion PM.

  • 293.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of traffic emission control: targeting strategies under uncertainty2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Emissions from traffic impose negative effects on human health, and recent evidence indicates that particulate matters (PM) are the detrimental air pollutant that causes most life years lost. To improve the efficiency of resource allocation, various mitigation measures have been proposed for reducing these emissions. However, whether or not the policy instruments are welfare improving, and if yes, how much more efficient they can be remain to be studied. To answer the questions, we need to both assess the economic cost of emission control and the health benefit due to the reduced PM emission by all proposed control instruments. This paper focuses on the cost efficiency for reaching pre-determined emission targets. We are concerned with reducing the concentrations of PM in Stockholm by local policy measures. Contrary to other cost-efficiency studies we have in this study included adaptations in behaviour in addition to the conventional technical measures alone. Since there are different emissions of PM, targeting PM10 may not be a good indicator of the health benefits. We therefore compare the performance of targeting PM and of targeting years of life lost (YOLL) and found interesting differences. We find that if the ultimate objective is to save lives or say life-years, it should be more appropriate to target YOLL, provided that YOLL can be properly predicted. Moreover, since the collected data on the effectiveness and cost of the policy instruments involve large uncertainty, we have employed a stochastic control model to explore the implications of the degree of uncertainty. We find that the higher fulfilment probability, the larger the marginal cost as expected. Also, for a given fulfilment probability, the more uncertain we are about the true effectiveness parameters, the larger the marginal costs.

  • 294.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Valuing statistical lives or life years?: a choice experimental study2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Although the value of reducing mortality risks and that of reducing life year losses are closely related to each other, the valuation literature seems to treat them rather separately resulting in conflicting value estimates. While the former is more concerned with saved statistical lives from accidents, the latter is more directed to the lost life years due to air pollution etc. In this paper, we attempt to conduct an integrated valuation study for both types of values in the same choice experimental design. We formulate an econometric model which simultaneously takes into account both mortality risk reduction and life year loss. The results indicates that conditional on given remaining life years upon survival, the marginal willingness to pay is constant for each statistical life saved, which indicates strong scope effect. The marginal value per extra life year, however, is a diminishing function of the number of life years. We have also examined the effect of other covariates such as the respondents’ characteristics (e.g. gender and age), their self-confidence in making choices, and possible categorical behavior on the final value estimates.

  • 295.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Response to a social dilemma: an analysis of the choice between an economic and an environmental optimum in a policy making context2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries have begun to require benefit-cost analysis as a way of informing key regulatory decisions. However, its actual use seem to be limited, especially in the area of environmental, health, and safety regulation. Reasons for this seem to be lack of knowledge and experience among decision makers and that established quality objectives prevent the use of this type of analysis and deliberation. We present the results from an experiment designed to investigate choice behavior in a public sector context. Students with different academic majors were asked to act as decision makers. There were two choice situations: one in a municipality deciding on an action plan and one in a government agency having to propose a national limit value. In both settings, the outcome that would pass a benefit-cost test would not achieve a natural state of the environment, hence a social dilemma choice situation. We find that a majority of the respondents prefer outcomes that can be considered environmental “optimum” but that there is a difference depending on academic major. The choice context also influences the response behavior and so does the information about an international standard. The latter increases the likelihood to accept alternatives that imply higher costs.

  • 296.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    University of Dalarna.
    Allocation of track capacity: Experimental Evidence on the Use of Priority Auctioning in the Railway Industry1999In: International Journal of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0167-7187, E-ISSN 1873-7986, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1139-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocation of track capacity concerns multiple users facing demand indivisibilities, running trains over an inelastic supply of railway tracks. The paper suggests a Vickrey-type mechanism to handle incentive aspects of this technically complex optimisation task. Here, the price for operating a train will correspond to the bids foregone by other operators who are pushed off their preferred routes. The paper reports the results of 11 experimental markets using variations of this mechanism where each market includes up to 10 trading periods, and subjects bid for routes over a highly stylised railway network. The experiments generated solutions that capture 90–100% of potential benefits.

  • 297.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Banverket.
    Behövs mer infrastruktur?1990In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 8, p. 777-780Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 298.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Citytunneln. Beslutsprocess och beslutsunderlag: Appendix 3 i Nya vägar till vägar och järnvägar (Riksdagens Revisorer 2000/01:5)2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 299.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Congestion and scarcity in scheduled transport modes2015In: Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Transport Economics and Policy / [ed] Chris Nash, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 134-153Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion is a familiar concept within the road sector, first and foremost since it provides a very hands-on and frequent experience for many drivers. Analytically, congestion is an external effect within the collective of drivers in so far as the marginal driver causes extra time for those already in the system without necessarily taking this into account. This is the basis for a proactive policy towards congestion, designed in order to ascertain an optimal mix of pricing and investment principles to handle the imbalance between supply of and demand for roads. The meaning of congestion, in modes where scheduling is a prerequisite for operations, differs from the definition of congestion in the road sector. There are furthermore both similarities and differences in the way in which congestion manifests itself when comparing different scheduled modes. In the railway sector the presence of high demand means that there are not tracks available to cater for the wishes of all railway operators, or that some must adjust their demand for access in order to cater for the demand from one or more other operators. As a consequence, services may not commence without operators having been allocated a slot long before a train is about to leave. We will characterise this as a scarcity problem which is solved by constructing a timetable that can be advertised to travellers well beforehand.

  • 300.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Effektivitet i järnvägsunderhåll: vad vet vi?2015In: 2014/15:RFR3: Trafikutskottets offentliga utfrågning om järnvägens vägval, 2015, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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