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  • 251.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Salusjärvi, Markku
    Statens Tekniska Forskningscentral, Finland.
    Effekt på trafikolyckor av rekommenderad och påkallad användning av varselljus i Finland1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to investigate, on the basis of Finnish statistics, the effect of daytime vehicle lighting, "running lights", on road accidents.

    The relevance to this road safety precaution of Finnish figures concerning accidents occuring on the national road network and reported to the police is connected with the fact that various measures have been taken to increase the use of running lights in Finland outside urban areas during the winter period and that these measures have resulted in a very high frequency of use.

    The conclusion is that although the analysis of the effect on accidents of the use of running lights is hampered by other precautions and by variations in external conditions, the results obtained from the Finnish statistics strongly indicate that the use of running lights do a great deal to reduce accidents.

  • 252.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Fixed effects estimation of marginal railway infrastructure costs in Sweden2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New railway legislation in Sweden has increased the need for transparent access charges on the Swedish railway network. We estimate cost functions for infrastructure operation, maintenance and renewal in the Swedish national railway network, using unobserved effects models and calculate marginal costs for railway infrastructure wear and tear. We find evidence of unobserved fixed effects at a track section level for infrastructure operation and maintenance costs. The estimated weighted average marginal infrastructure operation cost is SEK 0.12 per train kilometre and the estimated marginal maintenance cost is SEK 0.0073 per gross tonne kilometre. Altogether, the results indicate that the current charge for railway infrastructure wear and tear in Sweden is below marginal cost.

  • 253.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal cost of railway infrastructure wear and tear for freight and passenger trains in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse maintenance cost data for Swedish railway infrastructure in relation to traffic volumes and network characteristics, and separate the cost impact from passenger and freight trains. Lines with mixed passenger and freight traffic, and dedicated freight lines are analysed separately using both log-linear and Box-Cox regression models. We find that for mixed lines, the Box-Cox specification is preferred, while a log-linear model is chosen in the case of dedicated freight lines. The cost elasticity with respect to output is found to be higher for passenger trains than for freight trains. From a marginal cost pricing perspective, freight trains are currently over-charged, while passenger trains are under-charged.

  • 254.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway infrastructure costs in a dynamic context2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic aspects of railway infrastructure operation and maintenance costs in Sweden are explored. Econometric cost functions are estimated to check the robustness of previous marginal cost estimates by introducing lags and leads of both dependent and independent variables. We find support for a forward-looking behaviour within the Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) as both infrastructure operation and maintenance costs are reduced prior to a major renewal. There are also indications of both lagged traffic and costs affecting the cost structure, but these results are more uncertain due to limitations in data.

  • 255.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway renewal costs: a survival data approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 500 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes.

  • 256.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Rail cost allocation for Europe: Annex 1A. Marginal cost of railway infrastructure wear and tear for freight and passenger trains in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse maintenance cost data for Swedish railway infrastructure in relation to traffic volumes and other characteristics, and separate the cost impact from passenger and freight trains. Lines with mixed passenger and freight traffic, and dedicated freight lines are analysed separately using both log-linear and Box-Cox regression models. We find that for mixed lines, the Box-Cox specification is preferred, while a log-linear model is chosen in the case of dedicated freight lines. The cost elasticity with respect to output is found to be higher for passenger trains than for freight trains. From a marginal cost pricing perspective, freight trains are currently paying too much, while passenger trains should be charged more. An adjusted pricing scheme based on these results would still lead to higher revenues than today if total demand is unaffected.

  • 257.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: a survival data approach2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for aggregate freight and passenger trains is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 258.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: A survival data approach2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 87, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for total tonnage is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 259.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Strategi för utveckling av en samhällsekonomisk analysmodell för drift, underhåll och reinvestering av väg- och järnvägsinfrastruktur2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to make structured decisions about the optimal funding for operation, maintenance and renewal of roads and railways is currently limited. This creates significant risks that the funds are used in an inefficient manner. It is therefore important that the Swedish Transport Administration develops a transparent model for decision support in this field. VTI has undertaken a review of the state of knowledge in various areas required to bring about an economic analysis of operation, maintenance and renewal. The review shows that there are good prospects to produce a decision basis within a relatively short time. This makes it possible to answer at least some of the issues formulated. The review indicates that there are great opportunities to move forward both in road and railway areas. Five specific projects have been suggested, of which three are short term and two are long term. The aim in the long run is to make transparent and structured decisions on funding needed from an economic perspective on various road and railway sections.

  • 260.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Smith, Andrew
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds, UK .
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wheat, Phillip
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds, UK .
    Estimating the marginal cost of railway track renewals using corner solution models2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic theory advocates marginal cost pricing for efficient utilisation of transport infrastructure. A growing body of literature has emerged on the issue of rail marginal infrastructure wear and tear costs, but the majority of the work is focused on costs for infrastructure maintenance. Railway track renewals are a substantial part of an infrastructure manager’s budget, but in disaggregated statistical analyses they cause problems for traditional regression models since there is a piling up of values of the dependent variable at zero. Previous econometric work has sought to circumvent the problem by aggregation in some way. In this paper we instead apply corner solution models to disaggregate (tracksection) data, including the zero observations. We derive track renewal cost elasticities with respect to traffic volumes and in turn marginal renewal costs using Swedish railway renewal data over the period 1999 to 2009. This paper is the first attempt in the literature to apply corner solution models, and in particular the two-part model, to disaggregate renewal cost data in railways. It is also the first paper that we are aware of to report usage elasticities specifically for renewal costs and therefore adds important new evidence to the previous literature where there is a paucity of studies on renewals and considerable uncertainty over the effects of rail traffic on renewal costs.

  • 261.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Smith, Andrew
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wheat, Phillip
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds.
    The marginal cost of railway track renewals: a sample selection modelling approach2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic theory advocates marginal cost pricing for efficient utilisation of transport infrastructure. A growing body of literature has emerged on the issue of marginal infrastructure wear and tear costs, but the majority of the work is focused on costs for infrastructure maintenance. Railway track renewals are a substantial part of an infrastructure manager’s budget, but in disaggregated statistical analyses, they cause problems for traditional regression models since there is a piling up of values of the dependent variable at zero. Previous econometric work has sought to circumvent the problem by aggregation in some way. In this paper we work with disaggregate (track-section) data, including the zero observations, but apply censored and sample selection regression models to overcome the bias that would result from estimation using OLS. We derive track renewal cost elasticities with respect to traffic volumes and in turn marginal renewal costs using Swedish railway renewal data over the period 1999 to 2009. Our paper is the first paper in the literature that we are aware of to report usage elasticities specifically for renewal costs and therefore adds important new evidence to the previous literature where there is a paucity of studies on renewals and considerable uncertainty over the effects of rail traffic on renewal costs. In the Swedish context, we find that the inclusion of marginal track renewal costs in the track access pricing regime, which currently only reflects marginal maintenance costs, would add substantially to the existing track access charge.

  • 262.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Thörn, Helena Braun
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gomér, Ylva
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of parking is in many cities subsidized and instead channelled through higher housing prices, wages, taxes, etc. The effects on other markets are principally well known, but the work on the area is limited. In this paper, we study how parking norms affect the size of the housing stock. Our analysis is based on a model of the rental, asset- and construction markets, the results are quality-assured by interviews with market actors. Prices and profits are affected when constructors are forced, through parking norms, to build more parking spaces than the customers demand. Parking norms reduce the housing stock by 1.2% and increase rents by 2.4% (SEK 300) in our example suburb.

  • 263.
    Andersson, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bifrost - instrument för automatisk digital registrering av vägars tvärprofiler1973Report (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Andersson, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätning av vägars bärighet - en jämförelse mellan fyra mätmetoder1975Report (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Andersson, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samarbetsprojekt för tillämpning i Norden av AASHO-undersökningen. Slutrapport. Teknisk del: 7. Syntes och slutresultat. ( NU A 1977:3, s 167-73)1977Report (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Andersson, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikbuller från grov vägyta1976Report (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Freden, S
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Influence of a plastic fabric upon the pavement at frost break. ( Frost i jord nr 18, 1977)1977Report (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Freden, S
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Inverkan av plastfilterduk på överbyggnader vid tjällossning1976Report (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lilja, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Beläggningsslitage genom dubbade radial- och diagonaldäck - en jämförelse1976Report (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lilja, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studier av beläggningsslitage genom dubbade personbilsdäck på raka provsträckor, Brommabanan1971Report (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lilja, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studies of pavement wear caused by studded passenger car tyres on straight test tracks, the Bromma "track"1972Report (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nordström, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Längsprofilering genom koordinatmätning och lutningsmätning, en jämförelse mellan två mätsystem1973Report (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Söderström, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hållfasthetsegenskaper hos cellplast i väg1972Report (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Andersson, O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tholen, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Analytisk bestämning av lastekvivalentfaktorer. ( Nordisk Utredningsserie nr 1975:12, s 66-8)1975Report (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Andersson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bestämning av vägkonstruktioners egenskaper genom upprepad belastning1970Report (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Andersson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bifrost: Instrument for automatic digital recording of road cross profiles1973Report (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Andersson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Measurement of the bearing capacity of roads: A comparison between four measuring methods1975Report (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Andersson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    PCA-mätaren: Instrument för inventering av vägars körbarhet1974Report (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Andersson, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nordström, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Longitudinal road profiling by measurement of coordinates and slopes: A comparison between two different measuring systems1973Report (Other academic)
  • 280. Andersson, Pia
    Väg på lös undergrund1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 281.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Explaining regional changes in employment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 282. Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Omregleringsprocesser i kommunikations- och transportsektorn: ett historiskt perspektiv1997Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 283.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lind, Bo
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Claesson, Anna (Nystrom)
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Larsson, Lennart
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Jacobson, Torbjom
    Coal tar-containing asphalt: Resource or hazardous waste?2007In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  • 284.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    SGI.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Landslide risk management: A brief overview and example from Sweden of current situation and climate change2013In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 3, no March, p. 44-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landslide risk is a function of the probability of the event and its consequences. Previous research has shown that preventive measures to reduce the risk are preferred over reactive measures but, especially in developing countries, rarely undertaken. A contributing factor is the lack of evidence that preventive measures pay. This study includes a brief overview of landslide risk management in general and an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden based on interviews in 11 municipalities complemented with interviews in Norway. The result shows that climate change has become part of the general awareness and started to be taken into account in the municipal spatial planning. Landslide susceptibility maps and databases are useful tools in the complex spatial planning. The results indicate that the application of landslide susceptibility and risk maps as previously applied for preventive measures and spatial planning in the landslide prone area Gota alv river valley have been cost effective. Improved documentation and more active communication among different stakeholders would, however, contribute to more effective landslide management.

  • 285.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS): en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport redovisas det arbete som pågått inom ESS-programmets första fas inom temaområde naturolyckor. Detta temaområde innefattar skred, ras, erosion och översvämningar. Målet med det arbete som presenteras i denna rapport har varit att skapa en överblick över hurman idag arbetar med dessa frågor i Sverige med fokus på kommunal nivå. Arbetet utgörs aven sammanställning av tidigare studier, beskrivning av metoder samt intervjuer med svenska och norska kommuner och myndigheter. I de svenska kommunerna har politiker och tjänstemän intervjuats.

    Förebyggande åtgärder för att minska sannolikheten för, eller konsekvensen av, olyckor vidtas ofta. Åtgärderna är baserade på en analys eller akut reaktion på en specifik händelse. Vissa åtgärder är platsspecifika och kan vara både fysiska och icke fysiska. Andra åtgärder är mer generella såsom lagstiftning och utbildningsinsatser, regional, nationell och internationell policy, direktiv och ramverk.

  • 286.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. COWI AB.
    Davidsson, Göran
    COWI AB.
    Risk Management of Landslides and Flooding: Recommendations and Step Wise Process2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction & Management / [ed] Christian N Madu, Chu-Hua Kuei, World Scientific, 2017, p. 329-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year flooding and landslides cause severe material damages and thousands of deaths and injuries. To reduce the risk, measures can be taken by applying different management strategies either by reducing the probability of the event or by reducing the potential consequences in case of an event. This chapter provides a systematic (step-by-step) guidance, a brief overview of landslide and flood risk management in general and a summary of an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden which has resulted in some general recommendations. Examples of general recommendations are to apply available knowledge, for example by learning from existing good examples and, when available, lessons learned and documentation of the rational argumentation made in the decision process. There is a request of checklists and guides that can be used in the current daily work among planners and risk managers. It is important with a broad basis for decisions, therefore integrated assessments and valuations are recommended for example by applying multi-criteria analysis methodology and involving relevant stakeholders in the process for example through well working networks. It is further important to counteract the current trend that more automatic monitoring results in less field monitoring and reduced local knowledge.

  • 287.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstads universitet.
    Landslide risk and climate change: economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden.

    The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide.

    This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 288.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Fallsvik, Jan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Hultén, Carina
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Climate change in Sweden: geotechnical and contaminated land consequences2008In: WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science,2008, 2008, p. 52-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 289.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Melica.
    Janhäll, Sara
    IVL.
    Simulations of ozone formation from different emission sources in Sweden1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 2045-2050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emission inventory concerning volatile organic compounds (VOC) and their emission profile linked to their sources in Sweden has been undertaken. The inventory has been used in model simulations to predict the ozone formation from different emission source categories in Sweden. The studies have been carried out using the IVL photochemical trajectory model for two types of air masses which describes clean and polluted air. In Sweden mobile sources contribute to 45 % by mass of the total national VOC emissions, 58 % of the NOx emissions and to at least 43 % of the ozone formation from national sources. In general, the ozone formation in Sweden is more dependent and sensitive to emissions of NOx rather than VOC

  • 290.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael,
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klimatförändringens påverkan på sjöfart och luftfart: översiktligt underlag för handlingsplan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a summary analysis of how climate change may affect Swedish naval and aviation. The aim was to provide a basis for an action plan on climate adaptation within the two sectors. The action plan will be developed by the Maritime and Aviation Department of the Swedish Transport Agency.

    The potential climate change outlined in this report are all based on scenarios included in the compilations of potential climate change at global level by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014) and calculations of SMHI for Sweden.

    The expected air temperature increase will affect the flight specifically, as increased heat reduces the aircraft's lifting ability. This leads to reduced load capacity and at very high temperatures can lead to cancellation and delay of flights.

    Reduced ice coverage is expected to result in longer shipping season and reduced need for icebreaking measures. For the Baltic Sea, the reduced ice coverage may result changes in type and distribution form of the ice. Airports will have a reduced need for deicing and also for the use of salt and chemicals for road and other land improvements.

    The flood risk caused by high water levels, prolonged precipitation, heavy rainfall and storms is expected to increase in large parts of Sweden. This may affect the accessibility of all road and rail traffic and there are already occasions with long shut-off times, which may affect both accessibility to and from airports and ports, as well as other activities involving flights and shipping. Ports and coastal airports may need to be adapted to maintain their activities and operations.

  • 291.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Uppfyllelse av klimat- och miljömål vid en fullständig internalisering av vägtrafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 9 February 2017, The National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) received the governmental commission to continue previous research on socio-economic costs of traffic by developing new knowledge and update the existing knowledge base. As part of this mission, an assessment of the impact on the climate and the national environmental objectives of internalizing external costs was included. The transport sector has a direct or indirect impact on virtually all Swedish environmental quality objectives. This report focusses on road traffic and the environmental quality objectives that were considered in the previous governmental commission SAMKOST 2 and where relevant quantifiable targets, specifications and indicators were available: Limited climate impact, Fresh air, Only natural acidification, No eutrophication and noise as a part of the environmental quality objective Good built environment.

    According to results presented in this report, a taxation corresponding to 100 percent internalization would, if imposed in 2016, contribute to a 2 percent (ca 0,4 million ton) decrease in emissions of carbon dioxide 2030 in comparison to current internalization degrees. Such an estimated change is small in relation to the calculation uncertainties due to for example uncertainties about traffic development, price elasticity, technological development, economic development, the development of prices of oil etc. To achieve the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transport (except aviation) by 70 percent by year 2030 compared with 2010, would need additional instruments and measures than those which have already been decided to reduce the emissions by a further 1–3 million ton or 5–15 percent. An increase in the current carbon dioxide tax from SEK 1.14 per kg of carbon dioxide to SEK 2 per kg of CO2 will reduce emissions by an additional 1.6 million ton or 8 percent more than achieved with current degree of internalization (all other aspects alike). In combination with the already decided instruments, an increase in the carbon tax with SEK 1 per kg carbon dioxide for passenger cars implies that the target of reducing emissions from domestic transport by 70 percent from year 2010 level to 2030 can be reached. For future emissions of nitrogen oxides, a 100 percent internalization, or increased CO2 tax, will only result in a marginal impact.

  • 292.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Fredriksson, Lena M
    Tidningen Utemiljö.
    Att värdera ekosystemtjänster2017In: Gröna Fakta från Utemiljö, ISSN 0284-9798, no 8 / 2017, p. I-VIIIArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ekosystemtjänster används allt oftare och värdet av ekosystemtjänsterna ska, enligt Naturvårdsverkets etappmål, vara allmänt kända och integrerade i olika ställningstaganden och beslut senast 2018. Här förklaras begreppet i korthet och några tips om hur det kan implementeras i kommuner ges. Därefter beskriver forskarna Yvonne Andersson-Sköld och Jenny Klingberg ett forskningsprojekt som de har deltagit i och vars resultat är en handbok om hur ekosystemtjänster kan värderas.

  • 293.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    Göteborgs stad.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    SLU.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, Fredirk
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    SLU.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 294.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Metod för bedömning och värdering av ekosystemtjänster i staden (VEKST): Handbok version 1.02018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2013–2016 genomfördes forskningsprojektet Värdering av ekosystemtjänster av urban grönska med syftet att kartlägga, synliggöra och värdera den urbana grönskan. Inom forskningsprojektet studerades bland annat hur ekosystemtjänsterna klimatreglering, förbättrad luftkvalitet, dagvattenhantering, bullerdämpning, rekreation och välbefinnande kan bedömas och värderas. Dessutom kartlades delar av den biologiska mångfalden (träd, buskar, örter, bin och fåglar). För att kunna bedöma och värdera de ekosystemtjänster som ingick i projektet utvecklades en stegvis metod. Metoden baseras på mätningar och inventeringar i sju fallstudieområden i Göteborg, intervjuer och enkätstudier samt relevant litteratur. I denna handbok presenteras metoden samt mallar som guidar användaren genom metodens fem steg. Handboken innehåller också exempel på hur metoden har använts. Viktigt att poängtera är att metoden som beskrivs i denna handbok inte är en slutprodukt utan en första version. I takt med ökad kunskap kan, och bör, metoden utvecklas, kompletteras och förbättras. Till exempel kan fler ekosystemtjänster bedömas och värderas. Metoden är utvecklad med tanken att den ska vara enkel att använda, systematisk och transparent i alla steg. Denna handbok vänder sig bland annat till stadsplanerare och konsulter som på uppdrag av planerare arbetar med beslutsstöd i planprocessen. Metoden kan användas för att bedöma inverkan av förändringar i stadsbilden, t ex vid förtätning, eller för att följa förändringar över tid.

  • 295.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values.

    The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved.

    The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 296.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 297.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Berglund, Svante
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of distortive taxation and agglomeration benefits in the labour market means that there are benefits and losses not captured by standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures. Recent theoretical analyses have raised concerns that the labour market effects of congestion charges may constitute considerable losses in the form of reduced aggregate labour income, over and above what is captured by the consumer surplus in the standard analysis of congestion charges – possibly to the extent that congestion charges may reduce aggregate social welfare, contrary to conventional wisdom in transport economics. The sign and size of these effects are an empirical question, however. We investigate this issue by estimating the labour income effects of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between workplace accessibility and labour income. Results show positive effects on labour income, meaning that the “wider economic benefits” of this system are in fact benefits, not losses. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity in the income/accessibility relationship and in the calculation of generalized travel costs.

  • 298. Andreas, AD
    Maintenance cost effectiveness studies for the Strategic Highway Research Program1988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 299.
    Andren, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Laser RDT: beskrivning av metod för deflektionsberäkning1999Report (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    FUD rörande gång- och cykelvägar: en beskrivning av VTI:s kompetens och resurser2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The present report presents, partly, the collected VTI research on the "functional properties" of pedestrian and bicycle roads, and partly a survey of what has been done in this field outside of VTI. The term "functional property" has been interpreted in a broad sense, and basically everything connected with bicycle roads and bicycle traffic is included in the VTI literature review, which is the major part of the report. The operating environment analysis is made on the basis of the discussions from a seminar held at VTI, December 12, 2005, and complemented with literature reviews. The possibilities to build an instrumented vehicle for measuring bicycle roads, and the relevant properties of an evenness index, were discussed at the seminar. In the literature review, the research of VTI has been divided into five parts: traffic safety, maintenance and operation, mode choice, measurement of cycle flow, and the umbrella part "others". The research concerning traffic safety dominates, both at VTI and elsewhere. One of the conclusions from the project is that VTI should try to get funding to develop a measuring vehicle for cycleway surfaces. There is also a need to develop the unreliable methods used today (elastic tube and induction coil) to count bicycle traffic.

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