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  • 201.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Svenska Vägmarkeringsföreningen, SVMF.
    Legibility of road marking symbols in the roadway2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulations concerning road markings have recently opened up more for use of symbols in the roadway. However, regulations for the dimension of road marking symbols vary even between the Nordic countries, and research on how the symbols should be designed is lacking. The aim of the ViP project described in this report was to establish guidelines for how symbols in the roadway should be extended along the road. In order to achieve the goal, a simulator study on legibility distances was carried out, followed by two minor field studies. In the simulator study, four two-character symbols and four three-character symbols were used; 55, 56, 65, 66, 55N, 56N, 65S, 66S. For each of four symbol sizes; 1.6 m, 2.5 m, 4.0 m and 7.5 m and each of four speeds; 30, 50, 70 and 90 km/h, one two-character symbol and one three-character symbol were presented to the driver. The simulator study resulted in a main effect of symbol size; the larger the symbol size, the larger the legibility distance. Another result was that the legibility distance decreased when the speed increased. As an attempt to check the results from the simulator a downscaled field study was carried out. The highest and lowest speed and the largest and the shortest symbol size in the simulator were used, although downscaled with a factor three. Comparing the results of the simulator and the downscaled field study, the speed effect was significant but weak, i.e. the effect size was small. To be able to establish if there is a speed effect that should be examined in a larger test, a validation field study was completed. In the validation field study, the symbol size was always 2.5 m and the travel speeds were 30, 50, 70 and 90 km/h, in correspondence with the simulator speeds. The results of the validation field study showed no speed effect. The simulator study in this project confirmed the logic of larger symbol sizes meaning longer legibility distances, but while the speed influenced legibility distance in the simulator this was not the case in the field. The legibility distances in the simulator were also shorter than in the field, possibly due to issues related to the graphics rendering. A conclusion from this is that in order to find out how much road marking symbols should be extended, supplementary field studies are needed. It is recommended that future studies include several symbol sizes but it would probably be sufficient to perform the tests at only two vehicle speeds; one low and one high. Data from such studies should also be used for developing the graphics rendering in the simulation.

  • 202.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Karlsson, Johan G
    Autoliv Development AB.
    Förares tankar om framtida automatiserad bilkörning: en fokusgruppstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is generally considered with automation in driving is the possibility for the driver to pass on driving tasks, or the complete driving, to the vehicle. But it can also be considered that the vehicle automatically will take over control in situations where the driver cannot cope. It is more or less unknown how drivers are reasoning about these future systems. Examples of questions the drivers might have about automation of driving are the reasons for introducing it and which drivers it should be made for. Focus group discussion was used as the method to reach a broad and rich description on this. Four discussions were carried out with a total of 28 participants. They were encouraged to think about the future (5-20 years) and the possibilities that automation might bring. First, the discussion focused on more general aspects of automated driving. Then, selected video clips on automation were shown and the participants discussed their reflections on these. Last, a questionnaire was used in order to catch thoughts and opinions on automated driving. Subjects in focus were mostly connected to whom the system was designed for and who could afford it. A great deal of the discussions were about different aspects on safety and security – if it would increase safe driving or not. A question raised was a concern that drivers will lose knowledge of driving and that education will be important. When it came to future vehicles it was not obvious that what you will see is the same kind of vehicles that you see today. Also, issues like responsibilities and legal matters were discussed. The focus group discussions also resulted in a long list of innovative ideas. When it came to full automation the participants were more positive to systems where the driver supervises the driving than the systems where the driver can attend to something else. In general, the participants were more positive to systems that already exist, than to the more advanced, future systems. If looking at main user needs it can be seen that some want to have automation when driving long and boring distances (e.g. for comfort reasons) while others want to have automation to help them cope with difficult driving situations (e.g. for safety reasons). Both these needs are probably necessary to fulfill in the future.

  • 203.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmén, Lotta
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

  • 204.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéphane
    INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, 58, Bd Lefebvre F-75732 Paris, France.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments2011In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1185-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

  • 205.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Förbifart Stockholm: utvärdering av ett gestaltningsförslag för tunnel2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Bypass (FFS) tunnel has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013 and will pass on the western side of Stockholm city centre. The tunnel will be approximately 18 km in length and the interior design is expected to affect the drivers’ experiences pertaining drowsiness, arousal, distraction and feelings of safety and security. This study examines drivers’ experiences of the interior design of the tunnel in VTI’s driving simulator III in Linköping. The study had 24 participants where 12 were men and 12 were women, with an age range of 30-45 years old. The study was performed at VTI driving simulator in Linköping. The tunnel that was studied was based on the blue-prints of the FFS tunnel (version FST Plan 2011-11-08). The results of the lateral position measure generally suggested large statistical effects, however, in practical terms; the mean values were relatively small. There were however, a number of inadvertent lane departures by two of the participants. Inadvertent lane departures are a safety concern, but there is too little data in this study to draw any conclusions concerning the tunnel design. A limited effect of the tunnel’s interior design was found in section 7, with male drivers only, where an improved (more centred) cornering line in the bend of section 7 was found, when the supporting ceiling lighting was present. Eye tracking analyses of the sections of the tunnel with supporting ceiling lighting were compared to the same sections of tunnel without the lighting. The mean glance duration was 234.3 ms without the lighting and 445.3 ms in the tunnel with the ceiling lighting and was significantly longer but should nevertheless be seen as mild from a traffic safety perspective. When specifically asked about their preferences, the 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the ceiling lighting, 29 per cent preferred the tunnel without the ceiling lighting and 13 per cent didn’t prefer one tunnel design more than the other. In summary, a good rating of approval for the tunnel design concept in the opinion of the participants.

  • 206.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Interior tunnel design and road traffic safety2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining high levels of road traffic safety is always important and when the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. In Sweden, the Stockholm Bypass tunnel (FFS), has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013. The tunnel will be approximately 16.5 km in length. The length of the tunnel is expected to affect the drivers’ experiences pertaining drowsiness, arousal, distraction and feelings of safety and security. The study included 24 participants, 12 men and 12 women, aged 30-45. All of the participants drove two versions of the tunnel, one version with a decoration design in terms of strings of lights in the ceiling of the tunnel and one version of the tunnel without any decoration design. The results revealed that 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the strings of light in the ceiling and 29 per cent preferred the tunnel without the ceiling lighting. 13 per cent prefer neither one design more than the other. The participants perceived feelings of their driving through the tunnel suggested that the tunnel with the ceiling light design was experienced as being more ”visually cluttered” than the tunnel without the light strings but at the same time it was also experienced as more ”arousing/stimulating”. The results also revealed that 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the strings of light in the ceiling and 29 per cent preferred the tunnel without the ceiling lighting. 13 per cent did not prefer either one design over the other. The negative safety implications of the elaborate interior lighting features would appear to be minimal in terms of distraction and irritation whereas the safety benefits in this particularly long road tunnel, in terms of subjective feelings of visual stimulation is encouraging. Based on the participants’ experiences of the interior design concept of the 16 km long tunnel, having stimulating lighting features in different locations alone the length of the tunnel is recommended.

  • 207.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Interior Tunnel Design and Traffic Safety Aspects2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining high levels of road traffic safety is always important and when the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. In Sweden, the Stockholm Bypass tunnel (FFS), has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013. The tunnel will be approximately 18 km in length. The length of the tunnel is expected to affect the drivers’ experiences pertaining drowsiness, arousal, distraction and feelings of safety and security. The study included 24 participants, 12 men and 12 women, aged 30-45. All of the participants drove two versions of the tunnel in VTI driving simulator; with a decoration design in terms of strings of lights in the ceiling of the tunnel and without any decoration design. The results revealed that 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the strings of light in the ceiling. The participants perceived feelings of their driving through the tunnel suggested that the tunnel with the ceiling light design was experienced as being more ”visually cluttered” than the tunnel without the light strings but at the same time it was also experienced as more ”arousing/stimulating”. The negative safety implications of the elaborate interior lighting features would appear to be minimal in terms of distraction and irritation whereas the safety benefits in this particularly long road tunnel, in terms of subjective feelings of visual stimulation is encouraging. Based on the participants’ experiences of the interior design concept of the 18 km long tunnel, having stimulating lighting features in different locations alone the length of the tunnel is recommended.

  • 208.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Trafikverket.
    Stockholm bypass tunnel – merging traffic study: technical report2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm bypass (Förbifart Stockholm) project is a new road project that will create a bypass of central Stockholm. The entire project includes motorways, bridges and two tunnels, one of which will be 16.5 km. The Stockholm bypass is the largest infrastructure project in Sweden to date. When the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. The present report describes a simulator study on the merging of traffic from entry-ramps into the main tunnel. The study focused upon the specific situation of driving down the entry-ramps and entering (merging) into the main tunnel with a special emphasis on measures of safety and driving performance. A group of 21 test drivers, 11 males and 10 females, participated in the study. They were instructed to drive a series of test scenarios in a 3D-model of the Stockholm bypass tunnel in the VTI driving simulator III. There was simulated traffic in the main tunnel to improve the realism. Two relatively small gap sizes between vehicles in the main tunnel were used, representing gape sizes that road users can observe on a daily basis when using the E4 motorway through Stockholm. Driving performance (speed, time headway, vehicle position, and distance to tunnel wall) and the test drivers’ experiences of the driving task were measured. The main results of the study suggest that the merging zones were too short for some of the drivers to merge comfortably and safely. The merging zones are found at the point where the entry-ramp tunnels merge with the main motorway tunnel and comprise an observation section, an adjustment section and a completion section. The distance-to-wall results for the Vinsta ramp (0.5 km) with heavy traffic are particularly concerning from a road traffic safety perspective because more than 25 % of the drivers completed the merging manoeuvre with less than two seconds of time headway remaining before the end of the completion section.

  • 209.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Tekniska system: krav vid införande av ny teknik i förarmiljöer inom alla trafikslag2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to study vehicle rules, regulations, directives and standards pertaining the development and introduction of technically advanced driver/operator support systems for all mode of transport, commissioned by the Swedish Transport Agency. The inventory of the process for introducing new technology systems into the operator’s environment suggests that the Swedish national regulations for all four modes of transport are to a large degree steered outside of the national arena. The Swedish Transport Agency should therefore consider spearheading their efforts internationally if they are to exert influence on the formation of new rules and regulations. Some additional recommendations for the Swedish Transport Agency regard the utilisation of function based requirements as a complement to the detailed based rules, including the compulsory use of test pilots for all modes of transport. It is however important to use validated evaluation methods with the development of valid measures. The use of pass/fail criteria should be considered. The evaluation criteria (and measures) should be mapped to the operator’s cognitive abilities (to e.g. process information) but must also be based on the operator’s cognitive workload for all modes of transport and in a number of typical journey types. It is important that the authorities’ decisions are based on solid empirical data.

  • 210.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Syns jag bättre med en gul plexiglasskiva framför strålkastaren?: en studie om motorcyklisters synbarhet i trafiken2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of the motorcyclists that are killed or injured occur when interacting with other vehicle-users. These accidents are typically intersection, head-on or rear-end collisions. A contributing factor to these collisions can be the difficulties that other road users have in detecting the motorcyclists and thereby correctly deducing their position and speed. All motorised vehicles in Sweden have a mandatory daylight running lights (DRL) requirement. The main purpose of this project was to examine possibilities of increasing the conspicuity of motorcyclists by using a yellow Plexiglas disc or sheet (yellow glass) placed in front of the motorcycle’s headlight. The project comprised four studies viz. 1) a field study, 2) a laboratory study, 3) an interview study and 4) a questionnaire study. The results from the field and laboratory studies suggest that the maximum amount of conspicuity is achieved when yellow and white light are combined; one with yellow and one without. The results from the interview and questionnaire studies show that the motorcyclists that drive with the yellow glass, perceive that their own conspicuity had increased. They believe that they are detected by other road users earlier and more easily especially in certain traffic environments and ambient lighting/weather conditions. This had also contributed to an increased sense of security by the yellow glass group. Am I more conspicuous with yellow glass? The results from this project suggest that the answer is yes, in certain circumstances. This must however, be qualified by the limitations of the studies in this project where all traffic situations, weather conditions and lighting conditions have not been assessed.

  • 211.
    Persson, Rickard
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Motion sickness in tilting trains: description and analysis of the present knowledge: literature study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbody tilting is today a mature and inexpensive technology allowing higher speeds in curves and thus reduced travel time. The technology is accepted by most train operators, but motion sickness is an issue still holding back the full potential of tilting trains. Evidence of motion sickness has been reported in air, in space, at sea, on cars, on trains, at fairground rides etc. There are more reports of motion sickness in tilting trains than in non-tilted trains, and the share of passengers getting motion sick is also higher in tilting trains. Motion sickness resulting from provocative experiments in laboratories is one very important key in finding the cause of motion sickness as provocative motions can be isolated in laboratories but not in real environments. Laboratory tests have proven that translations in all directions can cause motion sickness. Rotations seam to have less correlation with motion sickness than translations. However, all the laboratory tests causing motion sickness have been performed at amplitudes higher than amplitudes measured in tilting trains. Combinations of motions, in particular translations combined with rotations, may be the cause of motion sickness in tilting trains as combinations of motions are recognized as effective in creating motion sickness. The report has two main parts. The first part, chapters 2 and 3, covers the knowledge found in the literature and the experiences from tests performed in laboratories. Also reported and discussed are the issues where motion sickness has been found to appear, the character of the motions involved, different hypotheses for the causation of motion sickness as well as its time dependence. The second part, chapters 4 and 5, reports on specific motion quantities for tilting trains and their relations to motions known to cause motion sickness in laboratories. This part ends up with conclusions based on the literature and the analyses made.

  • 212.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Refresher courses for older drivers: a literature study2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , p. 12p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a literature survey on refresher courses for older drivers, which was conducted in a project commissioned by the Norwegian Road Administration. The aim was to determine if there is any scientific evidence that refresher courses are an effective intervention for older drivers in terms of sustained safe mobility. The current literature study covering the period 1999 to 2009 provides some evidence that refresher courses can be an effective means to promote both mobility and safety for older drivers. Most studies were conducted in the US and Canada. Courses were grouped in to general and traffic specific education (theoretical) and training (practical). General education can include e.g. knowledge about aging and performance while general training can be e.g. cognitive training programs. Traffic specific education includes e.g. knowledge of new traffic rules while traffic specific training can be closed track driving with an instructor. Most courses were theoretical and consisted of a mix of general knowledge on aging and traffic specific knowledge on handling critical situations and often promoting a cautious driving style. A wide range of methods were used ranging from traditional classroom teaching to coaching by driving instructors. Simulator based training was seldom used even if a general interest is often expressed by participants. Both learning theories and evaluation methods should be further developed, not the least with respect recent neuropsychological research on aging and cognition.

  • 213.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Developing a unified model of driving behaviour for cars and trains2012In: Human factors of Systems and Technology / [ed] D. de Waard, N. Merat, A.H. Jamson, Y. Barnard and O.M.J. Carsten, Maastricht: Shaker Publishing , 2012, p. 343-357Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A driving simulator experiment was conducted to investigate two design features of four-way joystick systems used for vehicle control (accelerator, brake and steering). Effects of active force feedback and decoupled speed and steering control were investigated. These were features expected to

    facilitate driving with joystick systems. Time lags were made similar to what is found in conventional primary car controls, as those found in existing joystick systems seems to complicate usage and prolong learning. The joystick was designed for drivers with severe locomotor disabilities. Sixteen drivers with spinal cord injuries at a cervical level participated, all inexperienced with joystick driving. All participants drove on a rural road and performed a double lane change manoeuvre task. It was found that the decoupling provided better control and less workload, especially for those eight drivers with better hand and arm function. Active force feedback together with decoupled control was found positive for the same subgroup and provided better control in the lane change manoeuvre. However, drivers with less arm and hand function preferred passive feedback, and active feedback was even found disturbing. In general, the tested joystick was found to be very easy to learn which was attributed to the short in time lags.

  • 215.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Letter to the Editor: Electronic Billboards and Driver Distraction2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 554-555Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 216.
    Rudin-Brown, Christina M
    et al.
    Human Factors Team, Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    Young, Kristie L
    Human Factors Team, Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lenné, Michael G
    Human Factors Team, Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Driver distraction in an unusual environment: effects of text-messaging in tunnels2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, p. 122-129p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phones and other portable devices while driving can be distracting and significantly increases the risk of being involved in a collision. Compared to highway driving, driving in a tunnel environment introduces additional factors such as monotony, boredom and fatigue, as well as limitations in road width, which may interact with drivers’ attentional resources to exacerbate the effects of distraction on driving performance and hazard perception ability. Planning and design of the 17 km Swedish Förbifart Stockholm (FFS) tunnel is currently underway. Expected to be completed by the year 2020, safety measures are a high priority for the FFS because of the potentially devastating consequences of collisions in longer tunnels compared to those that occur in open environments.

    The primary aim of the present simulator study is to assess the effect of road environment (tunnel vs. highway) on measures of driver distraction. Twenty-four participants aged 22 to 50 years will drive the MUARC advanced driving simulator while reading and sending text messages using their own mobile phones. Presentation of 7 km highway and tunnel road segments will be counterbalanced across participants. Dependent measures of driving performance will include vehicle speed, speed variability, lane position, lane position variability, and steering wheel reversal rate. The FaceLab™ eye tracking system will measure eye glance location and duration as surrogate, objective measures of driver distraction. Objective (responses to text-messaging tasks) and subjective (NASA-TLX) measures of driver workload will also be compared across environments.

    Results are expected to reveal differences in driving performance, eye glance behaviour, and workload measures between tunnel and highway road environments when drivers are distracted. Specifically, it is hypothesised that, compared to driving on a highway while text-messaging, tunnel driving while text-messaging will result in: slower speeds, a more central position in the lane with less lane deviation, more glances of shorter duration to the mobile phone, and increased subjective workload. Study outcomes will have implications in terms of government policy on the use of portable devices in tunnels, and will allow recommendations to be made regarding the practice of using mobile phones to communicate safety messages to drivers in tunnels.

  • 217.
    Sandberg, D.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wahde, M.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The impact of sleepiness on lane positioning in truck driving2013In: Driver Distraction and Inattention: Advances in Research and Countermeasures, Ashgate, 2013, 1, p. 405-416Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter concerns the detection of sleepiness in truck drivers. Data obtained from a driver sleepiness study involving real-world driving are used in order to analyse the performance of several sleepiness indicators based on driving behavior; such as, for example, variability in lateral position and heading angle. Contrary to the results obtained for passenger cars, for heavy trucks it is found that indicators based on variability provide little or no information; their performance does not rise significantly above chance levels.

    However, the data indicate that there is a significant difference in the average lane position for sleepy and alert drivers, respectively, such that a sleepy driver generally places the vehicle closer (by about 0.2 m) to the centre of the road than an alert driver. The analysis also shows a significant, monotonous, increase in average lateral position (measured from the right, outer, lane boundary towards the lane centre) between the four cases of (i) daytime alert driving, (ii) daytime sleepy driving, (iii) night-time alert driving and (iv) nighttime sleepy driving.

  • 218.
    Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Karlsson, Johan G
    Autoliv.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night: a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience.2011In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1317-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving. Participants drove 55 km (at 90 km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09:00 or 11:00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01:00 or 03:00 (balanced design). 

    Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register particpated in daytime and nighttime drives. The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving.

    The conclusion is that night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness.

  • 219.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Johansson, Regina
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Svanberg, Bo
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Petersson, Mats
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Evaluation of a Run-off-Road Scenario for Driving Simulators used for the Assessment of Automatic Steering-Wheel Interventions2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015, 2015, p. 545-550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The setup of a run-off-road scenario was based on the current knowledge about critical run-off-road situations and accidents. The scenario was initiated by a visual secondary task. During the task, an added clockwise yaw deviation, intended to create the run-off-road scenario, was presented visually but not by the vehicle dynamics or the lateral acceleration of the simulator’s motion system. Results from two experiments show that the drivers frequently neutralised the yaw deviation because of their lack of full attention to the secondary task, the occasionally rough yaw deviation, or a combination of both. Because of the frequently neutralised yaw deviations, the number of steering-wheel interventions from an implemented system, intended to steer back into the lane in run-off-road situations, became limited in number. The system generated in total 14 steering-wheel interventions, ranging from torque levels of 0.3 to 3.7Nm. During ten of the interventions, the driver counteracted the torque with one hand. Nevertheless, the drivers that had experienced the interventions would like to have a system that could steer back to the lane when approaching the road edge, and accept that it takes control of the steering wheel. Further research on shared steering control is required so that driver responses to interventions does not neutralise the intended safety benefit of the system.

  • 220.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    A Lane-Change Gap Acceptance Scenario Developed for Heavy Vehicle Active Safety Assessment: A Driving Simulator Study2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015, 2015, p. 537-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators in order to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles. The scenario was set up based on information from lane-change accidents and on-road lane-change observations. The gap acceptance scenario consisted of two consecutive lane changes were the intention was to study truck drivers’ accepted gap between two vehicles in the adjacent right lane, at the initiation of each lane change. An experiment was conducted with 18 truck drivers in a full-motion driving simulator with implemented high fidelity models of an 80tonnes and 32m long vehicle combination and a 40tonnes and 22m tractor semi-trailer. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the accepted gaps to the lead and lag vehicles in the target lane. For both heavy vehicles, the overall average lead gap and lag gap was estimated to 0.85s and 0.83s respectively, at the average velocity of 17.3m/s. The difference in lane-change duration for the two vehicles was statistically significant and estimated to an average of 8.7s for the tractor semi-trailer, and 10.5s for the A-double. The conclusion from the present study is that the drivers performed the lane changes equally well with the tractor semi-trailer and the long vehicle combination. There were no major differences between the manoeuvres other than the duration times, which can be justified by the difference in vehicle length. Future studies are able to use this scenario as a non-critical reference to more critical events in the development and assessment of active safety functionality and automated driving systems.

  • 221.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Traffic safety of Heavy Goods Vehicles and implications for High Capacity Transport vehicles2014In: Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper summarizes the results of the programme "Traffic safety effects of High Capacity Transport (HCT) vehicles and suggestions for compensatory measures" this far. An analysis of ten years of Swedish accident data shows that "long" combinations (18.76m to 25.25m) had lower rate of fatal or severe accidents per billion vehicle kilometres travelled compared to medium and short vehicles. It is argued in the literature that HCT vehicles would, on average, reduce the number of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) accidents because fewer vehicles would be needed to transport a given amount of goods. However, further investigation is required of the causal relationship between crash risk and a HGVs’ weight, length, number of units, links and axles in certain traffic situations. One way to ensure the safety performance of HCT vehicles, and HGVs, is to assess them by Performance Based Standards. The paper describes the plans to adapt PBS to Swedish conditions, and to monitor Swedish HCT vehicles under trial with the surveillance system Intelligent Access Programme (IAP).

  • 222.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo GTT.
    Drivers’ Assessment of Driving a 32 Meter A-double with and without full automation in a moving base simulator2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situations where LongCombination Vehicles can be challenging to maneuver, drivers could be supportedthrough automated driving systems. A safe way to assess prototypes of suchsystems is to take advantage of driving simulators. This study assessed therealism of driving a 32m and 80 ton A-double in an advanced moving-base drivingsimulator, with and without full automation. The conclusions were that the realism of the roadenvironment, vehicle suspension, vibrations, steering-wheel feeling and themaneuverability/drivability was on adequate levels but would benefit of moretuning. More urgent were adjustments of braking, acceleration, level of enginesound and improved view in the right-hand side mirror. Two tested automateddriving systems were appreciated for their lane positioning and drivingperformance, with a slight preference of the more advanced system for lateralcontrol. Negative comments referred to harsh decelerations before curves. Thesubjective assessment was much in correlation with the objective data from thesame simulator experiment.

  • 223.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The effect on passenger cars’ meeting margins when overtaking 30 meter trucks on real roads.2012In: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012, Taylor & Francis, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to study the effect of vehicle length on meeting margins during overtaking maneuvers. A field study video-recorded overtaking maneuvers of a 30 m and a 24 m truck on a two-lane road. The difference in average meeting margins between the trucks was not statistically significant. An ocular assessment of the video material revealed a few critical situations during the overtaking maneuvers of the 30 m truck; all with meeting margins less than 3 s. Although these results should be interpreted with great caution as the number of analyzed overtaking maneuvers was limited, two previous studies describe similar findings. The conflict technique is discussed as a tool in the assessment of critical meeting margins. It is concluded that more field studies and data are needed to estimate the risks when overtaking Longer Combination Vehicles.

  • 224.
    Schwarz, J. F.
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingre, M.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Karlsson, J. G.
    University of Surrey.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Van der Veen, D. R.
    Autoliv AB.
    Archer, S. N.
    Autoliv AB.
    Dijk, D.
    Autoliv AV.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    PERIOD3 VNTR polymorphism modifies sleepiness during real road driving2012In: SLEEP, 2012, Vol. 35, p. A109-A109Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ingre, Michael
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kecklund, Göran
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Philip, Pierre
    University of Bordeaux, S ANPSY, USR 3413, Bordeaux, France .
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Effectiveness of traditional countermeasures2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 20% of motor vehicle crashes are caused by sleepiness or fatigue . Therefore, the search of effective countermeasures against driver sleepiness is a key issue in crash prevention. While caffeine, energy drinks and napping have been reported to improve driver alertness, listening to music and cold air have shown too transient and marginal effects in counteracting sleepiness in a driving simulator. However, a recent Swedish survey depicted that drivers use turning on the radio and opening a window more frequently as countermeasure than drinking coffee or stopping for nap. This raises the question if those drivers apply rather ineffective countermeasures or if these countermeasures are more effective when used during actual driving, in contrast to simulated driving. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the effect of listening to music and opening the window during real driving on the motorway.

  • 226.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Taillard, Jacques
    Universite de Bordeux.
    Philip, Pierre
    Universite de Bordeux.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: Popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness2012In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 595-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n=8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  • 227. Sena, Michael L
    et al.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Svensk, Per-Olof
    Wevers, Kees
    Johansson, Anders
    GRO:NT: Green route optimisation and navigation for heavy trucks. Final report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish program for strategic automotive research (FFI) financed a one-year study of energy efficient navigation for heavy vehicles beginning October 2010. Scania is the leading party in the project with participation by Navteq, Triona AB, Michael L Sena Consulting AB, the Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The project has investigated the issues that can lead to the delivery of energy efficient navigation for heavy vehicles . A state-of-the-art study has been made analyzing data and usage issues, route optimization algorithms, the actors and business cases required for the accurate and timely data delivery to heavy vehicles. Concrete recommendations are presented concerning which are intended to serve as a foundation for an eventual full implementation of energy efficient navigation for heavy vehicles.

  • 228.
    Shinar, David (ed)
    et al.
    BGU.
    Oppenheim, Ilit
    BGU.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Dahyot, Rudy
    UNIVAL.
    Pichon, Marianne
    UNIVAL.
    Ouedraogo, Abel
    UNIVAL.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Carsten, Oliver
    University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Cacciabue, Carlo
    Kite.
    Description of unified model of driver behaviour (UMD) and definition of key parameters for specific application to different surface transport domains of application2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first work package (WP1) contains a critical review and synthesis of human behaviour models ofdrivers of road vehicles, trains and maritime vessels (ships). Based on this review a reference modelof Driver–Vehicle–Environment is developed. A variety of approaches to modeling driver behaviourare possible as options. The literature review covers the more widely cited of these. Generally, thesemight be categorized as either 'Descriptive' models which can only describe the driving task in termsof what the driver has to do or 'Functional' models which are able to explain and predict drivers'performance in demanding situations and drivers' behaviour in typical ones. It seems that theoptimal approach might be a hybrid of several types of models. In recent years, a variety of driversupport and information management systems have been designed and implemented with theobjective of improving safety as well as performance of vehicles. While the crucial issues at atechnical level have been mostly solved, their consequences for driver behaviour remain to be fullyexplained. To reach this goal predictive models of the interaction of the driver with the vehicle andthe environment are necessary. The aim of the European Project AIDE was to integrate all in vehiclesupport and information systems in a harmonized user interface (Saad, 2006). The ITERATE projectwill take this further by developing it into a unified driver model that is also applicable to othertransport domains.The first deliverable in this work package (D1.1) presented a critical review of Driver-Vehicle-Environment (DVE) models and most relevant drivers' parameters and variables to be implementedin such models, in different surface transport modes and in different safety critical situations. Theaim of this deliverable (D1.2), succeeding D1.1 is to describe and detail the Unified Model of Driverbehaviour (UMD), define the environmental parameters to be implemented and their relationshipswith the driver variables. The proposed model will be used to support design and safety assessmentof innovative technologies and make it possible to adapt these technologies to the abilities, needs,driving style and capacity of the individual drivers. The model will also present the environmentalparameters, different road and traffic scenarios with different weather and visibility conditions to besimulated in the test phases. The scenarios of traffic that are independent of the activities carried outby the vehicle and driver will be simulated. The model is simplified in the sense that traffic conditions(density, complexity) are not sensitive to the 'test' driver and vehicle behaviour, but remain fixed in agiven trial. Thus, within the constraints of this pioneering effort, only the behaviour of the test driveris variable, while the environment and vehicle are defined as parameters with fixed values.

  • 229.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Processutvärdering av körkortsutbildning för EU-moped2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to decrease moped accidents a new driving license category AM for class I mopeds was introduced on October 1st 2009 in Sweden. A 12 hour mandatory training course was introduced including at least 4 hours of practical training. The study aim was to examine the education and which effects it might have on traffic behavior. A qualitative study using direct observations, checklists, interviews and a questionnaire were performed studying five different types of training courses. Results showed that most educators used teacher centered education based on PowerPoint presentations, sometimes engaging students in short group discussions. Teachers received good judgments from the students and had good study materials and a good teaching climate. There was much information in a short amount of time hence the students had to learn a lot by self-tuition. The main emphasis of the theory education was on regulations and traffic signs. The results indicated an improvement of the level of knowledge. However, risk awareness and attitudes towards speeding and alcohol probably remained unchanged. In order to make the educators focus more on these questions, the examination ought to include higher levels of knowledge in accordance to the national curriculum.

  • 230.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Workshop om trafik och pedagogik: vilken forskning bedrivs inom området idag och hur vill vi att den ska utvecklas?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop initiated by the Traffic Education Group (TUG) at VTI on the theme "Traffic Education - What research is currently conducted in the field today and how do we want the field to develop" was held at VTI in November 2010. TUG was represented by six researchers and six visiting participants from The National Society for Road Safety (NTF), The Swedish National Association of Driving Schools (STR), Trivector Information and The Swedish Transport Agency participated. Initially a lecture was held on the topic of educational trends of today. The presentation focused on the relationships between learning goals, teaching methods and examination. The presentation was followed by a discussion presented in this report.

    A lot of research has been conducted in the field but has it been put into practice? Various methods have been tested but not yet used on a larger scale. A proposal about traffic education in the mandatory school has been developed but as the subject will not be compulsory it will probably have very low practical impact. Another important question is who is responsible for financing research in this field. It seems like this task has fallen through the cracks.

    The largest part of the discussion was devoted to driving license education and the question was raised whether or not there would be a revision of the whole system initiated by the politicians. The evaluation results of the new syllabus for driving license B indicate that little has changed within the driving license education and the question is whether the driving teachers need more support to transform the curriculum into practical education. The driving schools have to contend with a culture where as few lessons as possible is considered the best (cost and time), which makes it difficult to improve teaching quality.

  • 231.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Kunskapssammanställning över introduktionen av elbilar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an overview of the field of electric driven vehicles, aiming to give an overview of the introduction of vehicles and supporting the development of the vehicle electrification. Some current technical solutions are presented, and a possible future is outlined, in the field of vehicles, batteries as well as infrastructure and power supply solutions. A brief overview of the system perspective on society, drivers and vehicles and the impact on the environment is given. Some electrification initiatives, realized or planned, are described with a major focus on the Swedish market, although a brief international view is presented. Governmental electrification targets and duly support is presented, as well as some examples of current research in this field. For this document, the electric vehicle is mainly to be understood as a passenger type vehicle with some type of electric power supply. Initially presented are various types of electric vehicles, EV, such as (pure) electric vehicles (with no alternative power), electric hybrid vehicles, plug-in (chargeable) hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. On the 30th of April 2014 there were 3714 vehicles named “plug-in” hybrid, with an option of external charging, registered in Sweden. Out of those there were 1 260 only electric powered and 2454 of the type chargeable hybrid vehicles. The most common battery type in the modern EV is the lithiumion accumulator. EV normally retain a high purchase price, mainly due to the cost of the batteries. The sustainability of the batteries will affect the overall cost. Second hand value is still very uncertain, as well as an uncertainty by the users about the EV functionality, i.e. the possibility to drive a certain distance. An often raised question is the lack of external vehicle noise, possibly making the EV a potential risk due to low hearing detectability. To be able to use an EV, batteries need to be charged. A survey by Transport Analysis (Sweden) shows that 70% of all transportation made by passenger vehicles in Sweden are shorter than 30 km, with the implication that most of these travels are well suited to be performed by an EV. In the report various solutions to the charging of batteries are presented and whether and how power could be supplied.

  • 232.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ansvar och roller vid skolskjutsning: en fördjupad analys genom gruppdiskussioner2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to increase knowledge about different actors' (municipality, school, bus driver/contractor and parents) view of their role in relation to school transport. The present study aims to create a more detailed description about the perception of responsibility for school transport of children, especially in situations where shared responsibility is possible. Results of the study intends to provide a starting point for guidance on what to consider in order to ensure a clear division of responsibilities between actors. The study was conducted in the form of focus group discussions with bus drivers, school staff, officers of the municipality and parents in an area in northern part of Sweden. If the topics discussed are summarized from a more general perspective it can be noted that there is a need for increased communication between the stakeholders, in order to ensure a clear understanding of who takes responsibility for what. This is evident both in the planning of the school bus transport and during the realisation of the transport. The result shows that if the different elements involved - from door to door - are broken down into who is formally responsible and who themselves feel that they take responsibility, there is a difference in these pictures. It is also noted that there are tasks where no one felt that they took responsibility.

  • 233.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i introduktionsutbildningen för privat övningskörning: en kvalitativ studie av innehåll och effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a qualitative analysis of the introductory courses was carried out. Observations and interviews with teachers at the course were made during 18 different training sessions. In addition to this, 32 instructors and 34 pupils were interviewed over the phone. The purpose of this study was to observe how the course affected their understanding of the problem as well as their attitudes and behaviour.

    The results showed that the time devoted to the environmental parts of the introductory courses varied a great deal, from 3 to 35 minutes (out of three hours). However, to only count minutes will not present the whole picture, the commitment of the instructor and the pedagogical approach are of more importance. Analysis of the course material revealed that the content of the courses varied a great deal. The instructors and the pupils were contacted some months later and most of them remembered that environmental issues related to driving was discussed on the introduction course.

    The part which they remembered mostly was the one about eco-driving, but also the environmental effects of starting a cold engine and standing still with the motor running, as well as maintenance of the cars. They remembered less regarding the environmental issues not directly linked to practicing driving, which can be seen as a sign that these issues were less frequently discussed during the course. Both instructors and pupils were positive about environmental issues being in the course. The majority wanted to drive in an environmentally friendly way, whether this depended on the introduction course or something else is difficult to say. It could not be concluded if their driving behavior had changed to drive in an eco-friendlier way.

  • 234.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Drivers’ knowledge and learning of advanced driver assistance systems2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed end-users’ knowledge of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the role of learning in relation to use of the systems. Therefore end-users’ perspective on the subject of the systems’ purpose, functions, potential risks and usefulness were explored, as well as motives behind choosing to use the systems. The study used qualitative/mixed methods through a combination of focus group interviews, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews. Results show that safety, technology interest and assistance were the main motives which influenced knowledge, learning and use of ADAS. Furthermore two groups of users were identified: drivers with special interest in car technology, and drivers with less interest in car technology. They had different needs and relations to the systems. An indication is that activities for learning could close the gap of knowledge and raise compatibility as well as value of ADAS, beneficial for both users and traffic safety.

  • 235.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Older drivers’ needs for safety and comfort systems in their cars: a focus group study in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus group study with a total of 63 older drivers (70 years or older) in two rounds was conducted to identify needs and means for transportation as a passenger car driver. The aim was to understand attitudes to and use of advanced driver assistance technologies. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible differences between drivers in terms of correct assessment of own driving performance. All 63 participants had previously participated in an on-road driving assessment followed by an interview. The on-road assessment was done using a standardized protocol (expert assessment). The result was then compared to the driver’s subjective assessment of driving performance. It was found that experience of assistive technology was highly variable, from low technology systems to advanced automatic systems. However, there was a general interest in assistance systems among the participants. Most of them found the systems positive if they could improve safety. Those who were skeptical pointed to expected necessity to learn to use them, cost and need for repair.

  • 236.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Facing failures: interactions between drivers and advanced driver assistance systems2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers’ interactions with advanced driver assistance systems based on experiences from real driving and results from driving in a driving simulator were under investigation in this thesis. Questions posed were: - How do drivers perceive and interact with ADAS? - How are (technical) failures handled by drivers, and which are the consequences’ of these failures? - Which are the implications for diagnosis and detection of failures, as well as for system development? Special attention was given to driver behavior in response to technical failures in an adaptive cruise control system. The results are based on two studies, adopting an approach with a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. In study I focus group interviews were conducted and in study II a driving simulator experiment was conducted. The findings include notions on behavioral adaptations and monitoring inefficiencies for drivers facing failures. Implications for design, failure detection, and traffic safety are discussed. With regard to human- machine-interaction it is concluded that ADAS have effects on driver’s behavior, that these effects are individual and based on experience, and that measures towards failure containment should be a taken.

    List of papers
    1. Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems
    2011 (English)In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores end-user experiences of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. A qualitative approach has been applied and data have been collected by means of focus group interviews. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to analyse and interpret collected data. In total the study consists of three focus group sessions with five to seven participants in each. Themes explored include interaction between user and system, functional limitations and trust, and system effects on driving behaviour. Key findings include reported driving behaviour changes as, for instance, an increasing tendency to stay in the right lane as well as users' conception of system functionality from which it can be concluded that end-users of ACC carry rough mental models of the system. A potentially hazardous situation for other road-users following the use of ACC is highlighted and discussed. In addition, some features desired by the end-users are discussed, for example, the call for conventional cruise control functionality when owing to weather conditions functional limitations are apparent.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2011
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Driver, Behaviour, Acceptability, Attitude (psychol), Interview, Adaptiva farthållare, Förare, Beteende, Godtagbarhet, Attityder, Intervjuer
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5295 (URN)10.1049/iet-its.2010.0116 (DOI)000291030700006 ()
    Conference
    2nd European Conference on Human Centred Design in ITS
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Interaction with and use of driver assistance systems: a study of end-user experiences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction with and use of driver assistance systems: a study of end-user experiences
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems Orlando, 2011, Washington, 2011, , p. 12Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington: , 2011. p. 12
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Collision avoidance system, Driver assistance system, Driver, Behaviour, Attitude (psychol), Acceptability, Interview, Adaptiva farthållare, Kollisionsvarningssystem, Förarstödssystem, Förare, Beteende, Attityder, Godtagbarhet, Intervjuer
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    40 Road: Construction of roads, tunnels and bridges; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5297 (URN)
    Conference
    18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems Orlando, October 16-20, 2011
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
    3. Driving with failing automatisation in longitudinal control: a driving simulator study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving with failing automatisation in longitudinal control: a driving simulator study
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Publisher
    p. 20
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Error, Driver, Behaviour, Simulator (driving), Test, Adaptiva farthållare, Fel, Förare, Beteende, Körsimulatorer, Test
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5299 (URN)2012.0061 (Local ID)2012.0061 (Archive number)2012.0061 (OAI)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
    4. Driver performance in the presence of adaptive cruise control related failures: implications for safety analysis and fault tolerance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver performance in the presence of adaptive cruise control related failures: implications for safety analysis and fault tolerance
    2013 (English)In: Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W) 2013: 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP, IEEE Press, 2013, , p. 9p. 1-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how failures related to an adaptive cruise control (ACC) were handled by drivers and what the effects on safety can be. The experimental study included forty-eight subjects and was performed in a moving base driving simulator equipped with an ACC. Each subject experienced two different failures in separate scenarios. In total, the study included four different failures, i.e., Unwanted acceleration, Complete lack of deceleration, Partial lack of deceleration, and Speed limit violation. The outcome of each failure scenario has been categorized based on whether the driver managed to avoid a collision or not. For the outcomes where collisions were successfully avoided, the situations were analyzed in more detail and classified according to the strategy used by the driver. Besides showing that partial lack of deceleration caused more collisions than complete lack of deceleration (43% compared to 14% of the participants colliding), the results also indicate a preference among drivers to steer and change lane rather than to apply the brakes when faced with acceleration and deceleration failures. A trade off relationship was identified between allowing a failing ACC to stay operational and on the other hand disabling it when an error is detected. Keeping the system operational can cause confusion about the mode of the system but as the results of the study indicate it can also improve the situation by reducing impact speed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE Press, 2013. p. 9
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Error, Driver, Behaviour, Simulator (driving), Test, Adaptiva farthållare, Fel, Förare, Beteende, Körsimulatorer, Test
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5298 (URN)10.1109/DSNW.2013.6615531 (DOI)
    Conference
    Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W)2013, 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP, 24-27 June 2013, Budapest
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
  • 237.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    When Driving Automation Fails2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Karlsson, I.C. MariAnne
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    End-users’ Acceptance and Use of Adaptive Cruise Control Systems2014In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics AHFE 2014, Kraków, Poland 19-23 July 2014 / [ed] Ahram, T., Karwowski, W., & Marek, T., 2014, p. 3680-3689Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An online survey was distributed to end-users of adaptive cruise control (ACC). In total 90 drivers answered the questionnaire, which covered e.g. ACC usage and how such use affects driver behaviour. According the responses: the ACC is used primarily on roads with higher speed limits; the end-users trust the system even though it has some functional limitations; they have a very positive attitude towards the system; and positive effects on comfort and safety are observed including reduced inclination to overtake and increased compliance with speed regulations.

  • 239.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, I.C. MariAnne
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lena, Nilsson
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Semi-automated versus highly automated driving in critical situations caused by automation failures2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vehicle automation and automation failures on driving performance. Previous studies have revealed problems with driving performance in situations with automation failures and attributed this to drivers being out-of-the-loop. It was therefore hypothesized that driving performance is safer with lower than with higher levels of automation. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that driving performance would be affected by the extent of the automation failure. A moving base driving simulator was used. The design contained semi-automated and highly automated driving combined with complete, severe, and moderate deceleration failures. In total the study involved 36 participants. The results indicate that driving performance degrades when the level of automation increases. Furthermore, it is indicated that car drivers are worse at handling complete than partial deceleration failures.

  • 240.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Division design & human factors, Chalmers.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Driving with failing automatisation in longitudinal control: a driving simulator study2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems2011In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores end-user experiences of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. A qualitative approach has been applied and data have been collected by means of focus group interviews. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to analyse and interpret collected data. In total the study consists of three focus group sessions with five to seven participants in each. Themes explored include interaction between user and system, functional limitations and trust, and system effects on driving behaviour. Key findings include reported driving behaviour changes as, for instance, an increasing tendency to stay in the right lane as well as users' conception of system functionality from which it can be concluded that end-users of ACC carry rough mental models of the system. A potentially hazardous situation for other road-users following the use of ACC is highlighted and discussed. In addition, some features desired by the end-users are discussed, for example, the call for conventional cruise control functionality when owing to weather conditions functional limitations are apparent.

  • 242.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Division Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems2011In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores end-user experiences of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. A qualitative approach has been applied and data have been collected by means of focus group interviews. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to analyse and interpret collected data. In total the study consists of three focus group sessions with five to seven participants in each. Themes explored include interaction between user and system, functional limitations and trust, and system effects on driving behaviour. Key findings include reported driving behaviour changes as, for instance, an increasing tendency to stay in the right lane as well as users' conception of system functionality from which it can be concluded that end-users of ACC carry rough mental models of the system. A potentially hazardous situation for other road-users following the use of ACC is highlighted and discussed. In addition, some features desired by the end-users are discussed, for example, the call for conventional cruise control functionality when owing to weather conditions functional limitations are apparent.

  • 243.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Division Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Interaction with and use of driver assistance systems: a study of end-user experiences2011In: Proceedings of the 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems Orlando, 2011, Washington, 2011, , p. 12Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Linköpings universitet.
    Mertz, C.K
    Decision Research, USA.
    Debiasing overoptimistic beliefs about braking capacity2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 58, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated, using questionnaires, different strategies for removing drivers’ overoptimism (Svenson et al., 2012a) about how fast their speed could be decreased when they were speeding compared with braking at the speed limit speed. Three different learning groups and a control group made collision speed judgments. The first learning group had the distance a car travels during a driver's reaction time for each problem. The second group had this information and also feedback after each judgment (correct speed). The third group judged collision speed but also braking distance and received correct facts after each problem. The control group had no information at all about reaction time and the distance traveled during that time. The results suggested the following rank order from poor to improved performance: control, group 1, group 3 and group 2 indicating that information about distance driven during a driver's reaction time improved collision speed judgments and that adding stopping distance information did not add to this improvement.

  • 245.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Stockholms universitet.
    Salo, Ilkka
    Lunds universitet.
    Peters, Ellen
    Ohio State University.
    Judgments of mean speed and predictions of route choice2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are driving speeds integrated when speeds vary along a route? In a first study, we examined heuristic processes used in judgments of mean speed when the mean speeds on parts of the trip varied. The judgments deviated systematically from objective mean speeds because the distances driven at different speeds were given more weight than travel time spent on the different distances.

    The second study showed that when there was a 10-15 min pause during a travel the effect on the mean speed decrease was underestimated for driving speeds of 90 km/h and higher. In the third study, the objective mean speeds and the subjective biased mean speed judgments were used to predict choices between routes with different speed limits. The results showed that subjective judgments predicted decisions to maximize mean speed significantly better than objective mean speeds. Finally, some applied and basic research implications of the results were discussed.

  • 246.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholms universitet.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Stockholms universitet.
    Modeling and debiasing resource saving judgments2014In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 465-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Svenson (2011) showed that choices of one of two alternative productivity increases to save production resources (e.g., man-months) were biased. Judgments of resource savings following a speed increase from a low production speed linewere underestimated and following an increase of a high production speed line overestimated. The objective formula for computing savings includes differences between inverse speeds and this is intuitively very problematic for most people.The purpose of the present studies was to explore ways of ameliorating or eliminating the bias. Study 1 was a control study asking participants to increase the production speed of one production line to save the same amount of production resources(man-months) as was saved by a speed increase in a reference line. The increases judged to match the reference alternatives showed the same bias as in the earlier research on choices. In Study 2 the same task and problems were used as in Study 1,but the participants were asked first to judge the resource saving of the reference alternative in a pair of alternatives before they proceeded to the matching task. This weakened the average bias only slightly. In Study 3, the participants were askedto judge the resources saved from each of two successive increases of the same single production line (other than those of the matching task) before they continued to the matching problems. In this way a participant could realize that a secondproduction speed increase from a higher speed (e.g., from 40 to 60 items /man-month) gives less resource savings than the same speed increase from a first lower speed (e.g., from 20 to 40 items/man-month. Following this, the judgments of thesame problems as in the other studies improved and the bias decreased significantly but it did not disappear. To be able to make optimal decisions about productivity increases, people need information about the bias and/or reformulations of theproblems.

  • 247.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholms universitet.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Stockholms universitet.
    Productivity increase options and distorted decisions: How to improve intuitive judgments and decisions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 248.
    Taillard, Jacques
    et al.
    CNRS, SANPSY, USR 3413, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Sagaspe, Patricia
    CNRS, SANPSY, USR 3413, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Capelli, Aurore
    CNRS, SANPSY, USR 3413, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Leger, Damien
    Centre du Sommeil et de la Vigilan ce, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France .
    Fabrigoule, Colette
    CNRS, SANPSY, USR 3413, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Davenne, Damien
    University of Caen, INSERM ERI27, Caen, France.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Philip, Pierre
    CNRS, SANPSY, USR 3413, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Effectiveness of blue light2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At night, driving ability is impaired by sleepiness induced by sleep deprivation. To meet societal demand, it is necessary to develop countermeasures to fight this drowsiness. Currently, caffeine and naps are effective countermeasures but they have some limitations (differences between individuals in terms of efficiency, limited efficiency duration, side effects). The development and evaluation of new and easily usable countermeasures is wished for the prevention of accidents related to sleepiness. A light wavelength of 480 nm (light blue) improves performance and increases the night time arousal. This countermeasure will be tested under real driving conditions. Since there are differences between individuals in the driving ability degradation induced by sleep deprivation and in the countermeasures efficiency duration, this study will also attempt to determine whether some gene polymorphisms (e.g. PER3, COMT, ADORA2A and ADA polymorphism) or some hormone concentrations (e.g. cortisol and amylase concentrations) involved in regulating the sleep / wake cycle can explain the differences between individuals. Basal cognitive performance of subjects could also explain these inter individual differences. Age is an important factor to consider because half of fatal and nonfatal accidents involving young people occur at night and nocturnal performance were considerably more impaired in young than in older subjects.

  • 249.
    Tapani, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Reed, Nick
    Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), London, UK .
    Stevens, Alan
    Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), London, UK .
    Exploring Driver Behaviour Using Simulated Worlds2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World: Road Traffic Safety / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2011, 1, p. 125-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the background, along with some illustrated examples, of simulator applications for the needs of assessing novel systems and infrastructure interventions, in terms of enhancing the forgiving and self-explanatory nature of a road. The first two, “Active traffic management” and “Non-physical motorway segregation” are designed to ease congestion but also have implications for safety, the first leading towards a self-explanatory road environment (SER), whereas the second contributing towards a more forgiving road environment (FRE). The second two “Actively illuminated road studs” and “Psychological traffic calming” are FRE types of interventions, designed for rural roads specifically to improve safety, but these may also have unanticipated consequences. For example, delineation of a road at night by actively illuminated road studs offers the driver much greater visibility of the road ahead, but this could be exploited by drivers choosing to drive at higher speeds. Finally, the pilot testing of milled vs. “virtual” rumble strips as in-vehicle information is presented (another FRE measure), as tested within IN-SAFETY, following a testing methodology which brings together methods for collecting data on individual driver behaviour and traffic simulation, building upon the traffic safety related adaptations of microsimulation models.

  • 250.
    Thomson, Robert William
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    EDR Pre-Crash Data: Potential For Applications In Active Safety Testing2013In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, May 2013, Seoul, 2013, article id 13-0414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive safety testing has been based on accident research where objective physical evidence can be compiled and analysed when establishing technical test requirements. Active safety tests pose new challenges because objective data is more difficult to obtain. Until pre-crash variables became available in Event Data Recorders (EDR), the only sources of pre-crash vehicle motions were tire marks or witness statements. Both data sources have limitations since they may not always be available and require interpretation by the analyst. The pre-crash EDR data variables provide an objective source of data to active safety test development. However, the suitability of the data has not been thoroughly investigated in the published literature.

    The review of existing data shows that the variables identified in the new EDR requirement in FMVSS 563 are useful but incomplete for a comprehensive analysis of vehicle dynamics manoeuvres prior to a crash. In particular, the absence of vehicle yaw rate reduces the positioning accuracy of the vehicle in reconstructions. The objective data in the limited cases were used to compile the frequency of pre-crash braking and steering, and when possible, the magnitude of these driver inputs. Active Safety test development will benefit with more EDR analysis but the older data that does not conform to Part 563 has limited application.

23456 201 - 250 of 281
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