Publications
Change search
Refine search result
2345678 201 - 250 of 480
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The cost of aircraft noise – Does it differ from road noise?: A meta-analysis2016In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 57, p. 138-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at studying the difference in cost between aircraft noise and road noise using meta-analysis. 90 NDI estimates have been gathered from the literature (a total of 53 studies), out of which 44 are estimates for aircraft noise and 46 are for road noise. The results of the meta-regression suggest that aircraft noise costs somewhere in the range of 0.40 and 0.60 percent more per increased dB than road noise. Knowing the associations between these costs of noise pollution can be a convenient tool for planners and policy makers, offering an opportunity to make predictions of aircraft noise when only estimates of road noise are available, and vice versa.

  • 202.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Does infrastructure really cause growth?: the time scale dependent causality nexus between infrastructure investments and GDP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between infrastructure investments and economic activity in Sweden for the period 1800-2000. In order to overcome the problem of endogeneity, independent time scales are used to analyze the relationship. The paper also examines the dynamics between the variables by testing for causality in the Granger sense and constructing a vector autoregressive model separately for each time scale. The finding is that the causality nexus between growth and transport infrastructure investment is timescale-dependent since it reverses in a comparison of the short-run dynamics (2-4 years) and the longer-run dynamics (8-16 years). This causality reversal is unique for infrastructure investments compared to investments in other sectorsof the economy.

  • 203.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Estimating Traffic Demand Risk: A Multiscale Analysis2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 1741-1751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel method for estimating the traffic demand risk associated with transportation. Using mathematical properties of wavelets, we develop a statistical measure of traffic demand sensitivity with respect to GDP. This measure can be adapted in a flexible way to capture risk levels relevant for different investment horizons. We demonstrate the timescale decomposition of risk with Swedish traffic demand data for 1950-2005. In general, rail transport shows a stronger co-movement with GDP than road transport. Moreover, we examine the volatility exhibited by traffic demand. Our findings suggest that rail investments are more risky than road investments. Since the findings can be used for optimal investment timing and for choice between public investment alternatives, they are deemed important for public policy in general.

  • 204.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro University.
    Fatal Connections: Socioeconomic Determinants of Road Accident Risk and Drunk Driving in Sweden2013In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 46, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: In recent years a considerable number of papers have examined socioeconomic factors influencing the number and the outcome of traffic accidents. There is however more research needed to confirm the previous results in order to generalize them and a need to examine additional factors that might have an impact.

    Method: This paper uses both regional panel data and national time series data combined with filtering techniques to determine what factors influence the number of accidents, the accident outcome and detected drunk driving.

    Results: Using time series data, it is found that the number of traffic fatalities increases for both per capita and per person kilometer travelled during economic booms. This indicates that the death risk rises not only because of increased mileage or motorization during booms. Using panel data, it is found that traffic fatalities decrease with unemployment, whereas personal injuries increase on a per capita basis with youth and the number of cars. In contrast to property crimes and other types of crime, drunk driving in Sweden decreases during economic contractions. Discussion: The main policy conclusion from our results is that resources for safety measures should not be spend uniformly across time and space. Instead, safety measures should be concentrated to areas with a high share of young people and to periods with low unemployment. The results of the time series analysis suggest that factors other than increased mileage during booms contribute to the higher rate of fatalities during good times. Increased risk taking, such as drunk driving, might be an explanatory factor.

    Impact on Industry: The results might be interesting for safety-oriented car and truck producers as well for developers of traffic safety products, since the results indicate in what regional markets and under what market conditions their products are most needed.

  • 205.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    Karlstad University, Department of Economics.
    The Impact of Economic Fluctuations on Crime: A Multiscale Analysis2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 179-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use a wavelet-based approach in order to analyse the periodicity in the relationship between economic fluctuations and different types of crime. All examined types of crime share seasonal behaviour with variations of real economic activity. Removing the intrayear dynamics, we find that the effect of real economic activity is different between different types of crime. We conclude that property crimes, violence crimes and sex crimes are countercyclical. The reverse is true for both alcohol/drug-related crimes and economic crimes, because there is a highly significant increase of these types of crime during economic expansions.

  • 206.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    To Kill a Real Option: Incomplete contracts, real options and PPP2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1359-1371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the implications of public-private partnership agreements for the execution of expansion options in road infrastructure. More specifically, it analyzes the expansion of an existing two-lane road in Sweden, and examines the real options created by an intermediate type of road with three lanes. Interpreting the results from real option analysis in the light of incomplete contract theory, this paper finds that external congestion costs might necessitate public ownership to ensure a social optimal outcome in public-private partnerships.

  • 207.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Haglund, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Department of Economics.
    Consumer Value of Fuel Choice Flexibility: A Case Study of the Flex-Fuel Car in Sweden2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper examines the value of fuel choice flexibility derived from a flex-fuel engine.

    Method

    Based on the stochastic properties of fuel prices, we use Monte-Carlo simulation in order to value the option to switch fuel.

    Results

    Our findings indicate a considerable value of fuel choice flexibility, ranging between 7,500 and 37,800 SEK, depending on the underlying stochastic process we assume that fuel prices follow. This can be compared to the state subsidy of 10,000 SEK provided until recently for buying a flex-fuel car.

    Conclusion

    Compared to an environmentally friendly pure ethanol strategy, the switching strategy is considerably less costly, about 2,000–19,000 SEK depending on the assumed underlying stochastic process, a fact that is important to take into consideration with environmental policy.

  • 208.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet, Örebro Universitet.
    Good Times are Drinking Times: Empirical Evidence on Business Cycles and Alcohol Sales in Sweden 1861-20002010In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 543-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the relationship between the business cycle and alcohol sales in Sweden using a data set for the years 1861-2000. Using wavelet-based band-pass filtering, it is found that there is a pro-cyclical relationship, i.e. alcohol sales increases in short-term economic upturns. Using moving window techniques, we see that the pro-cyclical relationship holds over the entire time period. We also find that alcohol sales are a long-memory process with nonstationary behaviour, i.e. a shock in alcohol sales has persistent effects.

  • 209.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet, Karlstads Universitet.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Örebro Universitet, Karlstads Universitet.
    The Impact of Real Options on Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions2009In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 563-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public investments are dynamic in nature, and decision making must account for the uncertainty, irreversibility and potential for future learning. In this paper we adapt the theory for investment under uncertainty for a public referendum setting and perform the first empirical test to show that estimates of the value of a statistical lite (VSL) from stated preference surveys are highly dependent on the inclusion of the option value. Our results indicate an option value of a major economic magnitude. This implies that previously reported VSL estimates, used in societal benefit-cost analysis of health investments, are exaggerated.

  • 210.
    Krüger, Niclas A.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Precautionary and operative costs of freight train delays: a case study of a Swedish grocery company2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge about the valuation of reduced transport time variability for freight transports. This paper analyses a Swedish grocery company’s transports by shuttle train, as a case study. The distribution of the train arrival time is analyzed; it is shown that the 10 per cent worst delays contribute to more than half of the total train delays. Type and amount of the firm’s precautionary and operative costs are identified and calculated. It is shown that it is possible to get estimates for the cargo component of the VTTV (Value of Transport Time Variability) valid for the specific company based on the precautionary costs, the operative costs for delays and for the costs for cancellations separately or in combination. Further case studies are advocated in order to cover the whole freight transport market and study the differences between different segments of the market.    

  • 211.
    Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jong, Gerard de
    Significance, Den Haag.
    Halse, Askill
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI.
    Killi, Marit
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI.
    Value of freight time variability reductions: results from a pilot study performed on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreliable rail transports are the main contributor to the transport time variability. The Swedish Transport Administration registered around 40 000 delay hours in 2012, which corresponds roughly to 20 million tonne-delay-hours, given that 500 tonnes per train is assumed to be the average load. This figure is 10 times higher than the corresponding figure for road transports. Information about the reliability of the rail transports and how different policy measures influence i.e. the number and length of delays and or the risks for delays has been limited. The former has been improved in recent years but the latter is still a problem. The lack of underlying data is one reason why the recommended Value of reduced transport time variability (VTTV) have only been applied in a few rail infrastructure projects. Nevertheless, the industry complains about the extensive problems caused by train delays or cancellations and that the reduction of these problems is not taken into account in a proper way in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). Another question that is debated is how much more high value products would be transported by rail if the rail transports would be more reliable. The value of the outgoing goods transported by road (SEK 9.5 per kg) is about three times the value of the outgoing goods transported by rail or rail in combination with other modes (SEK 3.7 per kg). The Transport Administration are aware of the shortcomings and has among others funded this pilot study that studies different approaches to calculate the VTTV for the cargo transported. The following parts were carried out in the pilot study: • Part One presents the Stated preference studies (SP-studies) to calculate VTTS (Value of Transport Time Savings) and VTTV that have been carried out recently in The Netherlands and Norway. Part One also discusses to what extent the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies can be transferred to Sweden. It is shown that the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies in principle can be transferred to Sweden. However, empirical studies that are adjust with respect to the commodity mix, the transport distances, level of congestion etc. in Sweden are needed. • In Part Two three alternative approaches to calculate VTTV for Swedish rail freight transports are demonstrated, that to the best of our knowledge have not been implemented before o Precautionary costs approach, o COOP case study, o Stock market approach. The report includes a table that summarizes VTTV for goods carried by rail, calculated using the different approaches.

  • 212.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Options for Europe when acting alone on CO2 emissions from shipping2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was prepared as a contribution to the Working Group on Ships of the European Union's European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) and presented on 22–23 June 2011 at the second meeting of the group. It discusses various options that may be considered by the EU when contemplating, in the absence of any progress in the International Maritime Organzation (IMO), to act unilaterally on market-based measures for curbing CO2 emissions from international shipping. Focus is, in particular, on the pros and cons of introducing a hybrid scheme where emissions from domestic shipping and other small vessels (below a certain size threshold) are addressed by up-stream allocation of liability, i.e. with the fuel suppliers, while a down-stream allocation of responsibility would apply to large ships and to journeys departing from ports outside of the EU. For the latter, the ship owner would be directly responsible for submission on emission allowances or, alternatively, for paying a CO2 charge or levy.

  • 213.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    The financial implications of a Levy & GHG Fund2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the financial capabilities of a Levy on carbon dioxide emissions from international shipping as proposed in the International Maritime Organization (IMO) by Cyprus, Denmark, the Marshall Islands and Nigeria. The conclusion is that a relatively high levy would be required to create the resources needed for satisfying all four objectives brought forward by the proponents and in addition provide compensation to developing countries based on the principle of no net incidence. Choosing a low and stable rate would force the decision maker to forsake the task of offsetting any shipping emissions above a proposed (declining) cap, which would make the scheme less environmentally effective.

  • 214.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Vad skulle likabehandling av alla transportslag innebära för kustsjöfarten, miljön och behovet av infrastrukturinvesteringar?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of short-sea shipping on the seas surrounding Sweden will increase considerably after 2015 as a result of the introduction of stringent emission limits on NOx and sulphur. This may give trucks and trains an upper hand in market segments where customers can choose between sea transport and land-based modes. This report shows that the balance would shift in favor of shipping if government gives all modes an equal liability for external costs. With the internalization based on the short-term social marginal costs of infrastructure use, accident risk, and emissions of NOx, sulphur and CO2, rail will be losing market shares. In this scenario the current fairway dues would have to be lowered by at least 90 per cent in order to reflect the short-term marginal cost (rather than variable + fixed costs), while at the same time railway infrastructure charges would quadruple. A surprising result of the calculations is that long-distance freight transport by truck on the main road arteries that compete with short-sea shipping will by 2015 have internalized its short-term social marginal costs based on the current (2011) taxation of vehicles, roads and fuels. This is a result of an increasingly cleaner vehicle fleet and the use of the best roads whose social marginal costs for accidents and road tear are well below average. Equal treatment of all modes with regard to social cost liability will make it possible for short-sea shipping to relieve the national railway system of some of its growing capacity problems that would otherwise have to be resolved by substantial investment in additional rail infrastructure.

  • 215.
    Landergren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Berglund, Moa
    WSP.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Persson, Christer
    WSP.
    Waidringer, Jonas
    Logistic Landscapers.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP.
    Flodén, Jonas
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet.
    VTTV – Value of Transport Time Variability: Method development and synthesis. Value transfer, measurements, and decomposition of VTTV2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transporttidsvinster (TTS) och minskad transporttidsvariation (TTV) för gods-och passagerartrafik är viktiga nyttoposter i de samhällsekonomiska kalkylerna inom transportsektorn. Ett av antagandena som behöver göras är den monetära värderingen av TTS och TTV – VTTS och VTTV. Resenärers värderingar av dessa mått baseras oftastpå SP-studier (Stated Preference). VTTS för godstrafik baseras på kostnaden för kapitalbindningen i, och därmed värdet av, godset. I nuläget antas VTTV vara lika med det dubbla VTTS. Transportörers nyttor av minskad transporttid och transporttidsvariation beräknas som en del av transportkostnaderna (i andra poster i kalkylen). Detta projekt fokuserar på VTTV för godstransporter.

    Den här rapporten består av två delar. Kapitel 2, som är skrivet av WSP, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet och Logistics Landscapers, beskriver WP 4 som handlar om vilket mått som ska användas för transporttidens variation, vilka delar VTTV består av samt härleder en matematisk modell för att beräkna VTTV.

    Syftet med WP 4 var ursprungligen att kartlägga och utvärdera olika mått för transporttidsvariationen (TTV). Med mått menas enheten som används för att kvantifiera variationen, som exempelvis standardavvikelsen eller den genomsnittliga förseningen. En litteraturstudie har genomförts där använda mått i 22 tidigare samhällsekonomiska studier i Sverige ochutomlands listas. En slutsats av litteraturstudien är att många olika mått använts, vilka kan kategoriseras under

    • Standardavvikelse
    • Spridning (ofta i form av skillnad mellan percentiler)
    • Andel av sändningar som är försenade
    • Genomsnittlig försening (om försenad)

    Fördelar och nackdelar med de olika måtten diskuteras. En annan slutsats är att valet av mått sällan diskuteras i de genomgångna studierna, utan man verkar ha valt ett mått som passar undersökningsmetoden. Vidare har det undersökts om det används mått inom logistikbranschen som skulle kunna passa TTV inom samhällsekonomin. Slutsatsen är att dessa mått (eller indikatorer) är framtagna med andra syften och för användning på mikronivå (företag eller enskilda transportkedjor) vilket gör det svårt att tillämpa dem på makronivå. Dock finns ett behov av mått på en mesonivå som gör det möjligt att analysera förändringar i transportsystemet ur båda perspektiv – samhällets och enskilda aktörers.

  • 216.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Conclusions and recommendations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The CATRIN project aimed at producing qualified research with the ambition to support the European transport policy, specifically to assist in the implementation of transport pricing. The project has thus both a strong research element and an element of short-term policy relevance. While this latter element requires a certain degree of simplicity the project emphasize that simplicity has to be created from the understanding of complexity. We have the ambition to have our research published in international scientific journals. We have involved different disciplines and does not focus on one single cost allocation approach but acknowledge that different viewpoints need to be taken in different situations. The project also recognizes that cost allocation (or pricing principle) recommendations need to be given in a short-term and a long-term perspective. The former stresses immediate implementation with a degree of uncertainty. The project will in a long-term perspective outline how these uncertainties can be resolved to suite the European transport policy for the future. Finally, our policy focus also means that CATRIN stresses the importance of dialogue with infrastructure managers.

  • 217.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Olyckskostnader för oskyddade trafikanter: (Bilaga 4 i "Skadade fotgängare")2012Report (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Smith, Tony E
    University of Pennsylvania,.
    A note on a recent paper by Dagsvik on IIA and random utilities2016In: Theory and Decision, ISSN 0040-5833, E-ISSN 1573-7187, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 305-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper in this journal, Dagsvik derives the class of independent random utility representations that are “equivalent” to the independence-from-irrelevant-alternatives (IIA) assumption by Luce (Individual choice behavior: a theoretical analysis. Wiley, New York, 1959). In this short note, we clarify the relations between this paper by Dagsvik, and a paper in Lindberg’s 2012 thesis.

  • 219.
    Lindgren, Anne-Li
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Andersson, Martin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportsystemets kunder: en kritisk kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this literature review has been the customers of the transportation system identified by the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). One aim was to identify theoretical and methodological problems and the gap of knowledge that could be linked to the SRA use of the concept customer. Another aim was to identify important needs of knowledge. The literature review has been based on earlier research related to the use of the concept customer within different areas and disciplines: the public sector - health and medical service - child research, economics, consumer and consuming psychology, pedagogy and ethics. The discussion takes a perspective from bottom to top. This means that the discussion is focused on the consequence in first hand from the customers' perspective. Within this frame the SRA customers have been treated both from an individual perspective and a perspective of the industry. The literature review has shown that the use of the concept customer is complex and that it most truly includes different meanings and will raise different feelings when it comes to the definition of the concept customer, how it should be understood and used, but also if it is suitable to be used at all. The crucial point of the use of the concept customer and customer oriented work within the SRA will be the employees' definition, thoughts and attitude to the use of the concept customer. It could be questioned if it really contributes to the holistie approach the SRA aiming at. This needs further investigations. A conclusion is that there is a need for developing new tools in order to support and optimize well balanced decisions and actions both related to the desires of the customers and service to the customers.

  • 220.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vad styr valet av trafikslag för godstransporter?: en kunskapsöversikt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to compile and assess the research and knowledge base with regards to what determines the choice of mode from a business perspective. The literature review is based on grey research and scientific articles within transport economics and logistics.

    The literature identifies a range of factors that can potentially affect the decision-makers in their choice of transport mode. The factors that are reviewed in this survey are those that commonly occur within the literature and often deemed the most relevant.

    First, the influence of shipment attributes (value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, weight, density and volume) and transport distance are discussed. Surveys and behavioural studies show how the competitiveness of the transport modes depend on shipment attributes and transport distance. For certain shipments, the distance class and commodity type are such that it is only realistic to use a specific mode. Other factors that usually matter for the choice of mode will have little impact on the choice. The exact size of the contestable market is hard to measure, but it is likely that for a significant part of the goods flows on the freight transport market it is only realistic to use one specific transport mode.

    Second, the review analyses how the choice of mode is influenced by modal characteristics (transport cost, transport time, reliability, shipment frequency and damage risk). The importance of these characteristics vary across decision-makers, partly according to transport distance and commodity class, but is generally relatively low. In other words, the propensity to switch transport mode as modal characteristics change is relatively low. This may be due to the effects only measuring the impact in the short and medium term, that they are based on changes in a single factor holding other determinants constant or that the analysis miss how decision-makers actually weigh in modal characteristics in their choice of transport mode.

    Third, the review discusses how the firms’ choice of distribution and production strategies entails possibilities and limits for its choice of transport mode. This analysis identifies multiple factors that tend to facilitate the choice of multimodal transport chains and direct rail or sea transports. These factors mitigate the effect of multimodal transports’ disadvantages or facilitate the utilization of its advantages. Generally, this entails promoting shipments of larger volumes and economies of scale that can be utilized by rail and sea transports.

    Fourth, the transport contract and the relationship between buyers and sellers of transport services are investigated. The contract can facilitate or limit the choice of transport mode by distributing risk and limit the way the firms can perform their operations. A close cooperation between transport buyers and transport companies can make the parties more aware of this possibilities and problems that the transport solution entails.

  • 221.
    Lindé, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    An evaluation of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden 1998–20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to present and analyze the development of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden and the impacts of the system. A system differentiated for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was introduced in 1998. The implementation of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) stricter SOx requirements in the Baltic and North Sea areas in 2015 made the SOx differentiation obsolete. In 2018 the system was replaced by a new fee system with different differentiation.

    The Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) is responsible for determining and collecting the fairway dues and is also dependent on this income as an important source of funding for its activities. The amounts to be paid and the emission levels that are necessary to be eligible for a certificate that entitles discounts are stated in the SMA’s regulations on fairway dues. These regulations have changed over the years and to give an overview of these changes a presentation of regulations and found amendments is provided.

    Except for some early studies evaluating the first few years of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues, little has been done to evaluate the impact of the policy instrument that was in place for 20 years. The information found in previous studies, annual reports and available data provided by the SMA is compiled and analyzed to present the impacts of the fairway dues from 1998 to 2017.

    The numbers and characteristics of vessels with SOx and NOx reduction certificates are compiled from several sources. Abatement techniques and costs are discussed. Available estimates of reduced emissions from certified vessels are presented and analyzed. As far as possible, the costs and benefits for society of reduced emissions are compared and the contribution to fulfillment of environmental objectives is discussed. More emphasis is placed on the NOx differentiation since problems with high levels of NOx emissions remain whereas SOx emissions have declined substantially in the Baltic Sea, especially since the implementation of stricter IMO requirements.

  • 222.
    Lindé, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Evaluating the effects of Sweden's environmentally differentiated fairway dues2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 70, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • Evaluation of a globally unique system of environmentally differentiated fairway dues.
    • The evolution of the system and its effects are analyzed.
    • Emissions reductions achieved and associated abatement costs are estimated.
    • Costs and benefits for society are compared.
    • Abatement costs for both SOx and NOx substantially lower than value to society.
  • 223.
    Link, Heike
    et al.
    DIW, Berlin.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Infrastructure2005In: Measuring the Marginal Social Cost of Transport / [ed] Chris Nash & Bryan Mattews, Elsevier, 2005, 1, p. 49-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 224. Link, Heike
    et al.
    Stuhlemmer, Anna
    DIW Berlin.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Abrantes, Pedro
    Wheat, Phil
    Iwnicki, Simon
    Nash, Chris
    Smith, Andrew
    ITS.
    Cost allocation Practices in the European Transport Sector2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable D1, Cost Allocation practices in the European Transport Sector, is one of two reports from WP1 - State of the art methodology and survey of existing practice. It summarises the existing practice of cost estimation and cost allocation in all modes of transport. Its purpose is to identify gaps and open issues in allocation methods which currently prevent the use of marginal cost figures in pricing, and to analyse the methodological background of available studies. As the whole CATRIN project, the focus is on infrastructure costs, e.g. on the costs of providing, maintaining, renewing and operating infrastructure. The second deliverable from WP1 provides the internal blueprint for the case studies to be conducted in CATRIN.

  • 225. Link, Heike
    et al.
    Stuhlemmer, Anna
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Internal blueprint for case studies2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report highlights four important tasks for CATRIN. o To provide more evidence on the relationship between marginal cost (MC) and average cost (AC), i.e the cost elasticity. Ultimately this relationship will define the rate of cost coverage from marginal cost based charges. o To improve the knowledge on the shape of the cost curve (decreasing versus increasing). The shape of the MC curve will define the MC based price and rate of cost coverage for infrastructure with different levels of traffic demand and thus explain regional differences. o To increase the knowledge of marginal cost in relation to different vehicle types. For this differentiation the CATRIN case studies include a meta-analysis of engineering experience in the field of infrastructure deterioration. o To improve the comparability of results between different studies and ensure a clear classification of cost items included. An important characteristic of research on marginal cost estimation for infrastructure is the lack of sufficiently detailed data on the cost of maintaining, operating and renewing transport infrastructure as well as on the use of infrastructure across all modes of transport. It appears that for applying state-of-the-art estimation methods, researchers have to allocate a considerable bulk of time and resources to collect this type of data. This will also hold true for the CATRIN case studies. While a general improvement of the data situation is a task for the administrations in the sector and cannot be subject of a research project like CATRIN, the CATRIN case studies have to anticipate this problem and should care for a thorough documentation of data collection including a precise definition of the type of data collected.

  • 226.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Impacts of increased rail infrastructure charges in Sweden2012In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of the already decided increase in rail infrastructure charges in Sweden are described for various market segments within the rail transport system and on the aggregate level for society as a whole. The need for complementary measures in the road transport system is also discussed. Likewise, the paper also mentions the impact of increased rail infrastructure charges on certain significant industrial sectors. An increase in rail charges may reduce social welfare even though the reduction in rail transport mileage is small. This is mainly due to large non-internalised absolute externalities for road freight. For commuter trains, the infrastructure charges' share of the costs of rail transport is expected to rise to 13 percent, which in an international perspective still will be small.

  • 227.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Local public Transport on the Basis of Social Economic Criteria2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying the welfare economic approach it is demonstrated what the effects of certain supply changes in the local public transport will be and the potential of innovative demand management measures are examined. Straighter bus routes would reduce the average travel time from door to door. The travel time on the buses decreases and the frequency increases, which reduces waiting times at bus stops. Using smaller buses and more of them would also increase the net benefit, but increase the need for subsidisation. The peak within the peak in the morning is hard to handle by price policy alone. Introducing a small variation of the start of the school-day for high-school pupils would make investment- and operation cost savings possible, and the inconvenience costs for the pupils could be limited. It is only during peak hours in the main direction of peak travel and in the critical section of the line that optimal price becomes high relative to the present level. Zero fares in off-peak will be social profitable, but an increase in subsidy is needed. An introduction of these policy changes would give rise to a net social benefit of 30 million SEK per year in Linköping.

  • 228.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Staggered school hours to spread peak demand for public transport: benefits and costs2009In: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 141-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author uses a case study of student transportation by public bus in Linkoping, Sweden, to discuss the possibility of public transportation peak demand spread through staggered school hours. The study found that introducing a staggered morning start for Linkoping's high schools can substantially reduce extreme morning peak at only one departure point on Linkoping's many lines. It demonstrated that bus service cost savings from the leveling out of the extreme morning peak could be of the same magnitude as costs for students resulting from a change in school hours. Staggered school hours could introduce other changes that could benefit the bus transportation system while reducing student costs. Cooperation between the public transportation authority and the high school headmasters is the biggest challenge.

  • 229.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Daly, Andrew
    Capturing generalised cost differences between public transport modes in Stockholm2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers in many European countries seem to prefer rail over bus services, claiming that travellers prefer services operating on tracks, the preference is referred to as a “rail factor”. This assumption is to some extent supported by Eliasson’s (2016) finding that accessibility by metro increases the property prices of apartments in Stockholm more than accessibility by bus. Nevertheless, common large-scale transport models struggle to capture these effects.

    In this paper we show how state-of-practice large-scale models can be enhanced to capture these nuances by modelling public transport modes as different alternatives. Results suggest that differences among public transport alternatives are strongly linked to unobserved attributes. Surprisingly, we found no statistical evidence that differences are proportional to the in-vehicle time, suggesting that in-vehicle characteristics of public transport modes, such us comfort, are perceived as similar by the users. We also found that the value of time is higher for auxiliary modes than for the main mode, and that the unobserved preference for metro is highest and the preference for light rail lowest. These are empirical findings for the transport system of Stockholm, and whether these findings can be generalised to other cities is an empirical matter. However, the methodology developed in the present paper provides the possibility to investigate these issues further.

  • 230.
    Lunander, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Taking the Lab to the Field: Experimental Tests of Alternative Mechanisms to Procure Multiple Contracts2004In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680X, E-ISSN 1573-0468, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of the paper reports the results from a sequence of laboratory experiments comparing the bidding behavior for multiple contracts in three different sealed bid auction mechanisms; first-price simultaneous, first-price sequential and first-price combinatorial bidding. The design of the experiment is based on experiences from a public procurement auction of road markings in Sweden. Bidders are asymmetric in their cost functions; some exhibit decreasing average costs of winning more than one contract, whereas other bidders have increasing average cost functions. The combinatorial bidding mechanism is demonstrated to be most efficient. The second part of the paper describes how the lab experiment was followed up by a field test of a combinatorial procurement auction of road markings.

  • 231.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Jenpanitsub, Anchalee
    Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Cost overruns in Swedish transport projects2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost overrun of transport projects is one of the most important problems in transport planning. It also makes the result of the cost-benefit analyses uncertain, thus decreasing their usefulness for decision making. In recent years more emphasis has been put on improving cost calculations and reducing cost overruns, in Sweden and internationally. Still cost overruns have not decreased. We find that the average cost overrun in Swedish road projects is similar to other countries, while it is lower than in other countries for rail. Small projects (< 100 million SEK) have much higher cost overruns than large projects and constitute a large share of total overruns. A project type with large overruns, both in absolute and relative terms, is new rail tracks on existing lines. To improve cost estimates in Sweden, the Successive Calculation method has recently been applied. We find that the variance is significantly lower in these than in actual outcomes, and that the difference is surprisingly small between projects in different planning stages. Another method, Reference Class Forecasting, is demonstrated in two case studies. It results in higher required uplifts. An interesting way forward would be to develop risk-based estimating, based on principal component analysis. To do that, a database needs to be collected, which in turn demands better follow-up procedures.

  • 232.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    A Comparison of Unit Price and Fixed Price Contracts for Infrastructure Construction Projects2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    A Comparison of Unit Price and Fixed Price Contracts for Infrastructure Construction Projects2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Asymmetric Information and the Choice of Remuneration Principle2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carbon emission values in cost benefit analyses2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New infrastructure projects may affect CO2 emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO2. The value may be based on the marginal social cost associated with emissions or on the shadow price resulting from present and future policies geared towards CO2 emissions. In the present paper it is argued that the social cost approach should be seen as preceding the shadow price approach. Both are thus necessary, but for cost benefit analysis of infrastructure projects we argue for the shadow price approach as the primary tool. There is a series of complications involved when applying this principle in practice. Several of these are discussed in the paper, including non-marginal projects that affect permit prices, non-transparent permit markets, different instruments capturing different aspects of a CO2-value, multiple policies present simultaneously etc.

  • 236.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carbon Emission Values in Cost Benefit Analyses2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 888-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New infrastructure projects may affect CO(2) emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO(2). This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the shadow price resulting from present and future policies. This paper argues that both approaches are necessary, but for cost benefit analysis of infrastructure projects the latter should be the primary tool. A series of complications arise when applying this principle in practice. These are discussed in the paper. Even if the complications make the implementation of a shadow price approach difficult, we argue that the approach still is preferable to a social cost approach. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 237.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carbon Emissions and Cost Benefit Analyses2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New infrastructure projects may affect CO2 emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO2. This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the carbon price resulting from present and future policies. This paper argues that both approaches are necessary, but for cost benefit analysis of infrastructure projects the latter should be the primary tool. A series of complications arise when applying this principle in practice. These are discussed in the paper. Even if the complications make the implementation of the approach difficult, we argue that it is still preferable to a social cost approach.

  • 238.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    CO2-värden i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 239.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Freight transport, policy instruments and the climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Freight transport, policy instruments and the climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Incentives for innovation and adoption of new technology under emissions trading2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common claim in both the public and academic debate is that a tradable emission permits scheme does not provide sufficient incentives for R&D investments. The present paper addresses R&D investments and penetration rates of new technology focusing on the specific characteristics of a tradable permits market. It is showed that a complex dependency between the emissions cap, the market price for emission permits, the price for technology once it is developed and the R&D investment decision add an additional layer to the ‘traditional’ market failures associated with R&D. Even though the cap and how it is calibrated in response to the introduction of new technology is shown to be of importance both for the level of R&D investment and the technology’s penetration rate, we argue that the policy maker’s ability to use the cap to counter market failures in the R&D stage is limited. This is due to a dynamic inconsistency problem where the policy maker is unable to credibly commit to a future policy that is more stringent than motivated by efficiency concerns given the then existing technology. Such a policy may not be stringent enough to cover the necessary R&D investments.

  • 242.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Incentives for innovation and adoption of new technology under emissions trading2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal mix of emissions taxes and cap-and-trade2008In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, ISSN 0095-0696, E-ISSN 1096-0449, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In practice, different emitters of a particular pollutant are sometimes subjected to different control mechanisms. This paper focuses on the situation where a part of the economy is regulated by a cap-and-trade program, while the rest is subjected to an emissions tax. Using an extended version of Weitzman's 'Prices vs. Quantities' model [M.L. Weitzman, Prices vs. quantities, Revi. Econ. Stud. 41 (1974) 477-491], we analyze the conditions under which this is superior, from an efficiency point of view, to subjecting the whole economy to either of these control mechanisms. The paper addresses a crucial trade-off between two sources of efficiency loss, one due to cost-effectiveness issues and another due to emissions volume. This trade-off determines the optimal size of each sector. It is shown that the size of the taxed sector, at an optimum, increases with the relative steepness of the aggregate marginal abatement cost function

  • 244.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ownership of Terminals in a Railway Industry with Open Entry2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Policies towards a more efficient car fleet2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures both to decrease the amount of transportation and/or to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. The present paper addresses the latter by providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model highlights the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  • 246.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Policies towards a more efficient car fleet2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 5184-5195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  • 247.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Prices and quantities in a climate policy setting2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its departure in two observations from the EU’s climate policy. First, the EU has adopted a dual approach with a trading scheme covering CO2 emissions from the energy intensive industry, while the remaining emitters are subject to emission taxes. Second, the targets are quantitatively phrased, i.e., there is an upper limit on the total CO2 emissions. These observations are of interest under the realistic assumption of abatement costs being uncertain. Then the dual approach is likely not ex post cost effective. Furthermore, earlier literature suggests that an emissions tax on CO2 yields lower expected efficiency losses than a tradable permit scheme. Thus, quantitative targets, which are easier fulfilled through a trading scheme, stand in contrast to taxes being the preferable policy instrument. The present paper addresses, by the means of a stylized model, the two observations and shows when and why a dual approach is optimal from an efficiency point of view given an upper limit on total emissions. What determines the characteristics of the optimal solution, e.g., size of the trading vs. taxed sector and tax levels, is studied in some detail.

  • 248.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Prices and Quantities in a Climate Policy Setting2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Quantity Choice in Unit Price Contract Procurements2011In: Kuhmo Nectar Conference and Summer School on Transportation Economics: Book of abstracts, 2011, p. 70-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the optimal quantity to procure when unit price contracts (UPC) are used and there is uncertainty surrounding the actualrequired quantity will be. The model shows that the optimal quantity, i.e., the one that minimizes the procurer’s expected total cost,is determined by a fundamental trade-off between (1) the risk of having to pay for more units than actually necessary and (2) therisk of having to conduct costly renegotiations. In optimum, the procured quantity will increase in costs associated with a possiblerenegotiation. It will decrease in the expected per unit price. Typically, if the renegotiation does not result in too large mark-up inper unit price, the procured quantity decreases in the uncertainty surrounding the actual quantity required.When the procured quantity is low compared to the expected amount required, the risk that the final amount exceeds the procuredone is obviously large. This implies that the actual total cost, with high probability, will exceed the total sum agreed upon in thecontract. If we allow ourselves to define this as being a measure of cost-overrun, we may conclude that not only is it rational andoptimal to allow for cost-overruns. It is actually more likely, in optimum, to see cost-overruns in projects that are expected to runsmoothly in the sense that the costs of renegotiations are expected to be low.Previous work dealing with UPC more or less implicitly assumes that the principal will procure the estimated amount of eachactivity. We show that this notion is not correct. Rather, there are cases in which the principal should – in order to minimize herexpected total costs – procure a quantity exceeding the estimated or expected one and other cases in which the procured quantityshould be lower. More importantly, the model will provide us with an intuitive understanding for the mechanisms at work.This paper is akin to a literature on strategic bidding in UPC procurements due to agents having superior information, e.g., Ateyand Levin (2001), Bajari et.al. (2007), and Ewerhart and Fieseler (2003). This literature typically models the bidding agents’behavior in UPC auctions while the present paper models the procurer’s behavior. Thus, the present paper is a step towards aunified model which allows for strategic behavior of both procurer and bidders.Furthermore, our model adds to the literature on cost overruns. That cost overruns are frequently occurring in infrastructureprojects seems to be an established fact in the literature; Flyvbjerg et.al. (2003) and Odeck (2004), and Priemus et al (2008). Thelatter provides a couple of plausible explanations for systematic miscalculation leading to cost underestimation. Our modelsuggests one additional reason. Namely that the procurer, in some situations, contracts on a low quantity knowing that the requiredquantity with high probability will be larger than the contracted one and, thus, that total costs ex post most probably will exceed thecontracted sum. Papers that, as in the present study, formally models procurements in which cost-overruns are likely to occur inoptimum include Ganuza (2007) and Gaspar and Leite (1989/90). However, these studies focus on different aspects of procurementthan our model (impact on competiveness and a selection bias effect, respectively).

  • 250.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Steering the European transport greenhouse gas emissions under uncertainty2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector when abatement costs are uncertain. In an EU context, it is shown that a combination of a cap-and-trade system and emission taxes is preferable as it minimizes the expected efficiency loss. The optimal design will depend on the relative cost structure within and outside the transport sector. It is argued that the optimal regime for the transport sector has similarities, but is not identical to, a pure emissions tax.

2345678 201 - 250 of 480
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf