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  • 201.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sänkta hastighetsgränser vintern 1999-2000: trafiksäkerhetseffekter, hastighetseffekter och bilförares synpunkter2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägverket har som en bland många trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder genomfört försök med sänkta hastighetsgränser på vissa vägar under vintern 1999/00. Försöksperioden har i norra Sverige, regionerna Norr och Mitt samt Värmlands län, avsett tiden från 1 november till 24 april. För resten av landet har åtgärden tillämpats från 1 november till 15 mars. Hastighetsgränserna sänktes från 90 till 70 km/t på 69 vägsträckor med en sammanlagd längd av 652 km och från 110 till 90 km/t på 70 vägsträckor med en sammanlagd längd av 1113 km. Försöksvägarna utgjorde 2,5 % av totala väglängden på 90-vägarna och svarade för 3 % av trafikarbetet. På det tvåfältiga 110-vägnätet utgjorde försöksvägarna 26,5 % av väglängden och svarade för 79 % av trafikarbetet. VTI:s uppgift har varit att utvärdera trafiksäkerhetseffekten och effekten på medelhastigheten av sänkta hastighetsgränser samt beskriva trafikanternas erfarenheter och inställning till åtgärden.

  • 202.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Återkallelse av körkort vid hastighetsöverträdelser1991Report (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nolen, Sixten
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thulin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspotentialer och trafiksäkerhetsreformer 1994-20001998Report (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thulin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Reformer och trafiksäkerhetspotentialer1995Report (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Andersson, Gunnar et al
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetsprognos och beräknade trafiksäkerhetseffekter för ett urval av åtgärder. Bilaga 6 till Samhällsekonomisk prioritering av trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder1991Report (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Automatic speed cameras in Sweden 2002-20032005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of 2003, camera boxes were used to enforce speed for 30 sections of road. The total road distance was about 500 km, and the number of camera cabinets was 225. The system consists of fixed pole and cabinets installed at the side of the road. All sections where speed enforcement is undertaken are clearly signed with information about the speed cameras. Speed camera enforcement has resulted in a total of 4,801 photographed vehicles in 2002 and 9,402 vehicles in 2003. Motorcycles and emergency vehicles that make up about 2% of the traffic are not included. The number of approved photos was 2,565 during 2002 and 6,073 during 2003. The proportion of approved photos and contacts with the vehicle drivers has thus increased from 53% to 65%. Nearly the entire decrease in unsatisfactory photos can be attributed to technical defects.

  • 207.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Undersökning av bilägares attityder till trafikövervakning: Resultat från en enkätundersökning till ett urval av bilägare november 19911992Report (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Perception of own death risk: a reassessment of road-traffic mortality risk2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines individuals' perception of their own road-mortality risk. Swedish data on respondents' subjective risk beliefs is used and compared with objective risk estimates. The objective risk is defined as the risk of the respondent's own age and gender group, and it is found that low and high risk groups over- and underassess their risk levels, respectively. This study replicates the analysis used by Andersson and Lundborg (2007) and the pattern of over- and underassessment found confirms their findings. As in their study, risk beliefs are updated in line with the Bayesian learning model, a relationship not statistically significant in this study, though. Regarding results of individual characteristics and risk beliefs in both studies, whereas, e.g., gender effects are robust, other results suggest a weak relationship between the perception of own road-mortality risk and individual characteristics.

  • 209.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Private and public WTP for safety: a validity test2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To elicit an affected population's preferences for, e.g., better health or environment stated preference (SP) methods are often used. SP methods are based on hypothetical market settings which necessitates validity tests of the results. This study describes a validity test on the basis of theoretical predictions and empirical findings for private and public safety measures. According to the test, public willingness to pay (WTP) should exceed private WTP.

  • 210.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hammitt, James
    Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard University, USA.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sundström, Kristian
    SLU.
    Willingness to pay for car safety: sensitivity to time framing2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stated preference (SP) surveys attempt to obtain monetary values for non-market goods that reflect individuals "true" preferences. Numerous empirical studies suggest that monetary values from SP studies are sensitive to survey design and so may not reflect respondents' true preferences. This study examines the effect of time framing on respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for car safety. We explore how WTP per unit risk reduction depends on the time period over which respondents pay and face reduced risk. Using data from a Swedish contingent valuation survey, we find that WTP is sensitive to time framing; estimates based on an annual scenario are about 30 to 70 percent higher than estimates from a monthly scenario.

  • 211.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Toulouse.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector2018In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2194-5888, E-ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 120-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden's national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners trim project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.

  • 212.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Property prices and exposure to multiple noise sources: hedonic regression with road and railway noise2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 213.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Property Prices and Exposure to Multiple Noise Sources: Hedonic Regression with Road and Railway Noise2010In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 214.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics, France.
    Levivier, Elodie
    Toulouse School of Economics, France.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norway.
    Private and public WTP for safety: a validity test2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate adverse health effects policy makers can, broadly speaking, choose between private and public safety measures. For instance, whereas legislation on seat-belt usage can be considered a private good for which the individual bares the costs and benefits, public investments to improve the standard of a road that increases safety will benefit all who travels on that road.

    Since safety comes at a cost, policies that increase safety need to be evaluated. In order to secure an efficient resource allocation, policy makers often rely on benefit-cost analysis (BCA). To facilitate the BCA, it is common to use a common metric in form of monetary values for both the costs and the benefits. However, many of the effects induced by safety policies do not have easily obtainable monetary values and for those effects policy makers turn to non-market evaluation methods, such as revealed (RP) and stated preference (SP) methods.

    Since SP methods do not rely on the existence of actual market data they are more flexible than RP methods. However, SP methods are based on hypothetical scenarios and it has been found that they often are flawed by several biases such as hypothetical and strategic bias, as well as scale insensitivity. Therefore, the hypothetical setting necessitates tests of construct validity, i.e. tests of whether the results are in accordance with expectations, based on economic theory and/or empirical findings.

    One area where SP methods have been used, is to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for public safety measures, for which tradeoffs based on actual decisions are usually not available. If individual WTP for private and public safety measures is identical, there would be no need to derive them separately. Since WTP depends on the context and the affected population there is a no a priori ground to believe that they are identical, though. The empirical evidence also suggests that private and public WTP differ. Therefore, policy makers may need different values when evaluating private and public safety policies.

    The aim of this study is to describe a validity test for private and public WTP for safety. We use a framework with a mortality risk and the motive for this study is findings on differences in WTP for private and public road safety.  It is a well-established fact that SP studies that estimate WTP to reduce mortality risk, with few exceptions, fail the test of strong scale, an important test of the validity of the WTP estimates. The validity of WTP estimates for public and private safety measures has, to the best knowledge of the authors, so far not formally been tested, however. The importance of such a test is supported by the empirical estimates of public and private WTP for road safety, since these estimates would fail the test.

  • 215.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Benevolence and the value of road safety2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the contingent valuation method to elicit individuals' preferences for their own and others' safety in road-traffic. Whereas one group is asked about a private safety device for themselves, other groups are asked about safety devices for their children, household, relatives and the public. Support is found for the hypothesis that individuals are not purely selfish when it comes the safety of others.

  • 216.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University Centre for Health Eco, LUCHE.
    Perception of own death risk: An analysis of road-traffic and overall mortality risks2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' perception of their own road-traffic and overall mortality risks are examined in this paper. Perceived risk is compared with the objective risk of the respondents' peers, i.e. their own gender and age group, and the results suggest that individuals' risk perception of their own risk is biased. For road-traffic risk we obtain similar results to what have been found previously in the literature, overassessment and underassessment among low- and high-risk groups, respectively. For overall risk we find that all risk groups underestimate their risk. The results also indicate that men's risk bias is larger than women's.

  • 217.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad universitet.
    Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non near-proportionality of the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment where their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study where they were asked about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias.

  • 218.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

  • 219.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA Université Toulouse 1.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated. Data consists of characteristics of sold properties, property-specific noise calculation, and geographical variables.

    We use the hedonic approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for maximum noise abatement where we model the effect as the maximum noise level subtracted with the equivalent noise level. Furthermore, we control for the equivalent noise level in the estimations. The estimated results show that including the maximum noise level in the model has influence on the property prices, but only for rail and not for road. This means that for road we cannot reject the hypothesis that WTP for noise abatement is based on the equivalent noise level only. For rail, on the other hand, we estimate the marginal WTP for the maximum noise level and it turns out to be substantial. Also, the marginal WTP for the equivalent noise levels seems to be unaffected by the inclusion of the maximum noise level in the model. More research of this novel topic is requested though.

  • 220.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Treich, Nicolas
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    The value of a statistical life2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper on the value of a statistical life (VSL) has been prepared for the Handbook in Transport Economics, edited by André de Palma, Robin Lindsey, Emile Quinet and Roger Vickerman. The paper's first objective is to survey some classical theoretical and empirical findings in the VSL literature; but it also attempts to clarify some of these issues often raised by the application of the WTP approach to study of mortality risks.

  • 221.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bulleravgift för järnvägsoperatörer: prissättning enligt marginalkostnadsprinciper2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Parliament has decided that, in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure, operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure shall pay charges based on short-run marginal social costs. Internalization of the social cost from noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem which people perceive as more troublesome today than they did in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two problems: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-marketed good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. We are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. We show in this study that, based on already obtained knowledge, it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. Those values that already today are used to estimate the social cost from noise exposure (which in Sweden are based on noise from road-traffic) in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research is carried out in order to get more robust estimates and to get estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charges can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important that these charges are based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 222.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Charging the polluters: a pricing model for road and railway noise2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines a method to estimate the short run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise. It is based on standardized calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary cost estimates from well established evaluation methods. Here official calculation methods and monetary values are used for Sweden, but the estimation method for the SRMC outlined can be directly applied using other standardized noise calculation methods and monetary values. This implies that the current knowledge regarding the calculation of total noise levels and the evaluation of the social cost of noise can be extended to estimate the marginal effect as well. This is an important finding since it enables policy makers to price noise externalities in an appropriate way. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that: (i) increasing the total traffic on the infrastructure has only a minor influence, (ii) estimates are quite sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and (iii) to the monetary values used. Hence, benefits transfer, i.e. using monetary values elicited based on road noise for railway noise, should be done with caution or not at all. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC. The fact that this model is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and even technologies is an important finding. It is essential that the noise charges give the operators the right incentives to choose their optimal allocation.

  • 223.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 224.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure2009In: Railway Transportation: Policies, Technology and Perspectives / [ed] Scott, N.P., Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2009, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 225.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Noise charges in railway infrastructure: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate the negative effects of transportation and to achieve a competitive transport sector, infrastructure charges in the European Union shall be based on short-run marginal costs. This paper shows that railway-noise charges can be estimated using already obtained knowledge of monetary and acoustical noise evaluation. Most European countries have standardised calculation methods for total noise level, which can be used to estimate the marginal acoustical effect. Based on a Swedish case study (with a relatively high number of exposed individuals), railway-noise charges are estimated at 0.026, 0.099 and 0.89 e/km for commuter, high-speed and freight trains, respectively.

  • 226.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Noise charges in road traffic: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way of mitigating the negative effects of noise from road traffic is to include the external cost of noise in a road charging system. This study shows how standardized calculation methods for road traffic noise can be used together with monetary estimates of the social cost of noise exposure to calculate charges based on the social marginal cost. Using Swedish data on traffic volume and individuals exposed to road noise, together with official Swedish monetary values for noise exposure, we estimate road-noise charges for light (cars) and heavy (trucks) vehicles.

  • 227.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators2012In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion parallax due to the driver’s head movement have been implemented and tested in VTI Driving Simulator III. An advanced camera-based system was used to track the head movements of the driver. The output from the tracking system was fed to the simulation software, which used low-pass filtering and a forward prediction algorithm to calculate an offset. The offset was then used by the graphics software to display the correct image to the driver.

    The effects of driving with motion parallax in the simulator were also observed by an initial study. During the experiment, the subjects caught up with several slower vehicles which forced the driver to make an overtaking maneuver. Oncoming traffic forced the subject to search for a suitable gap for overtaking. The study also included a speed perception test. The results from the study showed no difference in lateral positioning when running behind a slower vehicle nor in speed perception with and without motion parallax.

  • 228.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägräcken och risker för mc-förare vid påkörning i liten vinkel2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägräcken är inte anpassade till motorcyklars specifika problem. Trots en omfattande mytbildning finns det dock inte något stort material som styrker farhågorna om att räcket är speciellt farligt för motorcyklisten. Det konstateras (trots allt) att det saknas kunskap, att de prov som gjorts inte tar sikte på motorcyklars specifika problem samt att det synes lämpligt att på något sätt försöka införskaffa denna kunskap. På kort sikt föreslås någon form av bedömning av räckens lämplighet på empirisk grund för att på längre sikt försöka påverka standarden EN1317 så att den tar hänsyn även till motorcyklistens behov.

  • 229.
    Andersson, J
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utveckling av körsimulator. Delrapport: Spektralanalys och förslag till syntetisk generering av fordonsbuller1977Report (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sommarström, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Läsbarhet av vägskyltar i form av LED-skylt: färgkombination och fontstorlekens betydelse för läsbarheten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The readability of road signs was studied and in particular the LED format. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of color combination, font size and light conditions on readability. 101 students participated in the study, where 32 were men and 69 were women. Their age ranged from 18–66 years. The choice of subjects were driven by the study's purpose, i.e. for this study it was not of interest to study the differences between gender, age or eyesight. A statistical analysis was carried out to study how readability distances varied as a result of the combination of colors, font size and light conditions. Furthermore, illuminance was measured when the data collection occasions was conducted. Distances were examined both in daylight and in darkness. The results of the study show that the color combination of the LED-sign affects its readability. Signs with white text on blue, brown or green background could be read correctly at a greater distance than the signs with black text on white or orange background. The font size is also important for the readability and every increase in font size produces a significant difference in the distance that the sign can be read. The sign with the largest font size (300 mm) was read correctly from the longest distance. The signs were read even at greater distances in daylight than in darkness. The readability of the sign with the smallest font size 200 mm does not change significantly during the daylight compared to darkness conditions. These conclusive results demonstrate that all the variables studied are important for readability. It should be added that participants stood still during the trial when they scanned/read the signs and had free sight to the LED-sign.

  • 231.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature suggests that ocular diseases are negatively related to driving performance. The factors associated with safe driving is discussed and perceptual abilities are suggested to be related to crash involvement. The present study will focus on i) perceptual tasks or reaction time tasks and ii) attentional and cognitive tasks. All tasks will be visual and cognitive demanding and the objective is to understand how different visual cognitive tasks are related to driving performance. The motive is to be able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers with visual deficits but also understand how different mental mechanisms are related to safe, or unsafe, driving.

    The reaction time tasks are interesting since the reaction time of participants in the study can be measured when performing the driving task. The participants’ reaction time when an object is possible to detect can be measured i) within the complex driving scenario as well as in tasks ii) mimicking driving and iii) “regular” computerized reaction time tasks such as the Simon task. Hence, the objective is two-folded to develop a simulator based method able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers (among the visual deficit population). Second, to pinpoint the importance of visual reaction time and different cognitive tasks on driving performance.

    The cognitive, attentional demanding tasks are not as analyzed at this point but will be elaborated on in the presentation. The tasks are presented in the method section.

    The summarised data on patients with Glaucoma, Cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy reveal, on a general level, is that ocular diseases impair driver performance.  The literature also suggests, for instance, that not all Glaucoma patients fail on-road driving tests. In summary, the majority of the research literature results indicate, a) general decline in driving performance due to a visual impairment, but b) this is not true for all patients with the same visual deficit.

  • 232.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 233.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hultgren, J
    Almqvist, S
    Traffic safety effects when overtaking 30 meter trucks2012In: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012 / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy, Waldemar Karwowski, Taylor & Francis, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the introduction of extra-long and heavy trucks has an effect on traffic safety on Swedish roads, especially in relation to overtaking maneuvers. Traffic safety effects will be measured in terms of road user behavior concerning accelerations and time slots. First, focus group interviews with heavy truck drivers. Truck drivers that do not drive extra-long trucks believe that the introduction of extra-long trucks will create a number of traffic safety problems especially in terms of conflicts with ordinary road users. The drivers of extra-long trucks do not experience the problems that ordinary truck drivers predict. The problems they experience can be taken care of with more planning (thinking ahead). They also believe that the traffic sign on the back of the extra-long vehicle has a positive effect. The truck company, working environment and truck equipment are other important aspects mentioned by the drivers of the extra-long vehicles.

    The simulator study investigates overtaking situations on a 2+1-lane highway, with extra-long trucks (30.4 m) and ordinary trucks (18.75 m). The results reveal that the distance from the rear/front of the truck to the point where only one lane exists affects car drivers’ decision to overtake, independently of truck length. If the truck is in the relatively same position, the timeslot for a safe overtaking maneuver before next one-lane section was reduced significantly for extra-long trucks compared to ordinary trucks. The conclusion is that there exist small tendencies which point in the direction of enhanced traffic safety problems with the introduction of extra-long trucks. The results should, however, be interpreted with caution as the number of data points was few and collected in specific situations and in specific conditions. It was neither considered how the introduction of longer and heavier trucks, given a constant amount of goods, reduces the number of heavy trucks on the road network.

  • 234.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE.
    Skoglund, Tor
    Sweco Society AB.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The Human-Tech Matrix: A Socio-Technical Approach to Evaluation of Automated Transport Systems2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 876, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated transport system has the potential to improve traffic safety and flow, but also to the accessibility and comfort for users of the transport system. Realizing the positive effects with automated transport is about shaping regulatory, organizational and technical systems. Here, appropriate evaluation enables steering efforts in the desired direction. The overall aim of this study was to develop a methodological framework that could identify effects of an automated transport system, and outline methods and metrics for evaluation of these effects. We propose a tentative case-based methodology to define measures of the effects of an automated transport system that will give key stakeholders new possibilities to evaluate research and development projects and efforts connected to automation of the transport system, and thereby manage these in a human-centered direction.

  • 235.
    Andersson, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter på trafiksäkerheten av olika åtgärder på väg E4 i Södermanlands län (D-E4)1978Report (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Andersson, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kemisk halkbekämpning: Effekt på trafikolyckor1978Report (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Andersson, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lokal hastighetsbegränsning: Effekt på olyckor1982Report (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Andersson, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Olycksanalys och effektberäkningsmetoder avseende förbättringsåtgärder inom D-E4-projektet1978Report (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Andersson, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekt av smärre väg- och trafiktekniska åtgärder. Inventering av åtgärder1977Report (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Andersson, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekten av stopplikt: EMMA-rapport 41982Report (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Andersson, K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, G
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Modeller för beskrivning av samband mellan olyckor och vägens geometriska utformning1978Report (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Salusjärvi, Markku
    Statens Tekniska Forskningscentral, Finland.
    Effekt på trafikolyckor av rekommenderad och påkallad användning av varselljus i Finland1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to investigate, on the basis of Finnish statistics, the effect of daytime vehicle lighting, "running lights", on road accidents.

    The relevance to this road safety precaution of Finnish figures concerning accidents occuring on the national road network and reported to the police is connected with the fact that various measures have been taken to increase the use of running lights in Finland outside urban areas during the winter period and that these measures have resulted in a very high frequency of use.

    The conclusion is that although the analysis of the effect on accidents of the use of running lights is hampered by other precautions and by variations in external conditions, the results obtained from the Finnish statistics strongly indicate that the use of running lights do a great deal to reduce accidents.

  • 243.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Fixed effects estimation of marginal railway infrastructure costs in Sweden2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New railway legislation in Sweden has increased the need for transparent access charges on the Swedish railway network. We estimate cost functions for infrastructure operation, maintenance and renewal in the Swedish national railway network, using unobserved effects models and calculate marginal costs for railway infrastructure wear and tear. We find evidence of unobserved fixed effects at a track section level for infrastructure operation and maintenance costs. The estimated weighted average marginal infrastructure operation cost is SEK 0.12 per train kilometre and the estimated marginal maintenance cost is SEK 0.0073 per gross tonne kilometre. Altogether, the results indicate that the current charge for railway infrastructure wear and tear in Sweden is below marginal cost.

  • 244.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal cost of railway infrastructure wear and tear for freight and passenger trains in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse maintenance cost data for Swedish railway infrastructure in relation to traffic volumes and network characteristics, and separate the cost impact from passenger and freight trains. Lines with mixed passenger and freight traffic, and dedicated freight lines are analysed separately using both log-linear and Box-Cox regression models. We find that for mixed lines, the Box-Cox specification is preferred, while a log-linear model is chosen in the case of dedicated freight lines. The cost elasticity with respect to output is found to be higher for passenger trains than for freight trains. From a marginal cost pricing perspective, freight trains are currently over-charged, while passenger trains are under-charged.

  • 245.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway infrastructure costs in a dynamic context2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic aspects of railway infrastructure operation and maintenance costs in Sweden are explored. Econometric cost functions are estimated to check the robustness of previous marginal cost estimates by introducing lags and leads of both dependent and independent variables. We find support for a forward-looking behaviour within the Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) as both infrastructure operation and maintenance costs are reduced prior to a major renewal. There are also indications of both lagged traffic and costs affecting the cost structure, but these results are more uncertain due to limitations in data.

  • 246.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway renewal costs: a survival data approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 500 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes.

  • 247.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Rail cost allocation for Europe: Annex 1A. Marginal cost of railway infrastructure wear and tear for freight and passenger trains in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse maintenance cost data for Swedish railway infrastructure in relation to traffic volumes and other characteristics, and separate the cost impact from passenger and freight trains. Lines with mixed passenger and freight traffic, and dedicated freight lines are analysed separately using both log-linear and Box-Cox regression models. We find that for mixed lines, the Box-Cox specification is preferred, while a log-linear model is chosen in the case of dedicated freight lines. The cost elasticity with respect to output is found to be higher for passenger trains than for freight trains. From a marginal cost pricing perspective, freight trains are currently paying too much, while passenger trains should be charged more. An adjusted pricing scheme based on these results would still lead to higher revenues than today if total demand is unaffected.

  • 248.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: a survival data approach2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for aggregate freight and passenger trains is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 249.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: A survival data approach2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 87, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for total tonnage is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 250.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Strategi för utveckling av en samhällsekonomisk analysmodell för drift, underhåll och reinvestering av väg- och järnvägsinfrastruktur2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to make structured decisions about the optimal funding for operation, maintenance and renewal of roads and railways is currently limited. This creates significant risks that the funds are used in an inefficient manner. It is therefore important that the Swedish Transport Administration develops a transparent model for decision support in this field. VTI has undertaken a review of the state of knowledge in various areas required to bring about an economic analysis of operation, maintenance and renewal. The review shows that there are good prospects to produce a decision basis within a relatively short time. This makes it possible to answer at least some of the issues formulated. The review indicates that there are great opportunities to move forward both in road and railway areas. Five specific projects have been suggested, of which three are short term and two are long term. The aim in the long run is to make transparent and structured decisions on funding needed from an economic perspective on various road and railway sections.

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