Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 151 - 200 of 480
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 151.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Nya bud: En ESO-rapport om auktioner och upphandling.2001Report (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys: En introduktion till mikroekonomin2008 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är en introduktion till den samhällsekonomiska mikroteorin och dess normativa del, välfärdsteorin. Författarna presenterar såväl klassiska teorier som nyare inslag som beteendeekonomi, spelteori och informationsekonomi. Boken visar även hur teorin kan användas för olika praktiska syften, t.ex. vid val av styrmedel, analys av konkurrensfrågor, upphandling och samhällsekonomisk lönsamhetsbedömning.

    Samhällsekonomisk teori och metod kan användas för att analysera många frågor. Denna teori utvecklades ursprungligen för att förklara marknaders funktion men används idag för att studera alla slags samhällsinstitutioner – t.ex. organisationer, lagar och avtalsformer. Med hjälp av samhällsekonomisk analys kan man både förklara dessa institutioner och hur väl de fungerar, i synnerhet deras effektivitet.

  • 153.
    Hylen, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Germany and the deregulation of its railways2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EU Member States have implemented EU rail legislation in various ways. Germany’s rail reform aimed at increasing rail transport and decreasing the sector’s public financial support. These objectives have generally been reached although opinions vary.

    Germany and Sweden have several common features; Regional authorities are responsible for regional services, often tendered out in competition. Entry on the commercial long-distance market has been very limited. Sweden has fully separated infrastructure and operations while Germany retains infrastructure within the Deutsche Bahn group. This project analyses various aspects of the German railway regulatory framework and draw conclusions for Sweden and in general.

    In Germany principles for capacity allocation and priorities in daily operations are uncertain and controversial. Framework agreements can only be signed for fixed five year periods or parts thereof and operators consider this too inflexible.

    Incentive or Bonus/Malus agreements between infrastructure managers and operators have been tried in both countries. Little money changes hands but all parties agree that this area needs to be developed.

    Access to maintenance facilities is regulated but some controversies exist. Rolling stock is an unregulated area but connected to capacity allocation – if a new entrant gets his capacity allocation too late he may not be able to acquire rolling stock in time for the start of operations.

  • 154.
    Hylén, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Kauppila, Jari
    International Transport Forum at the OECD.
    Chong, Edouard
    International Transport Forum at the OECD.
    Road haulage charges and taxes: summary analysis and data tables 1998-20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Transport Forum at the OECD has collected data on various taxes and charges levied on road haulage since 1998. The existing International Transport Forum database presents these results for selected years between 1998 and 2008. These data allow for comparison of road freight transport fiscal regimes in different countries in quantitative terms. They have also been used as core information in various international studies. Countries use them as a basis to study cost recovery of road infrastructure by relating all the various taxes and charges levied on transport activities to costs. The 2003 ECMT Report 'Reforming Transport Taxes' developed a methodology for making such comparisons, including in relation to the marginal costs of using infrastructure (infrastructure wear, congestion and environmental and safety externalities). The data can also be used to study the existence of possible discriminatory charges. The impact of charges on competitiveness in road haulage markets can be assessed with the data by modelling trips by Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) of different nationalities on standard hauls throughout Europe and by calculating appropriate indicators. The data have also been used in a recent study to compare the internationalisation of external effects of HGVs using a number of European freight corridors. This paper updates the database on heavy goods vehicle charges and taxes in Europe, with figures for 2012 on taxes and charges on vehicles, fuel and road use, including relevant information on rebates and exemptions. A short analysis of the level of charges and expected future developments is included. Data are collected for nearly 30 countries. A brief discussion of similar taxes and charges in the United States, Canada and Australia is included as well. The VTI library is the source for most of the information on these countries.

  • 155. Högberg, Martina
    Eco-driving?: a discrete choice experiment on valuation of car attributes2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    To elicit the value that car consumers place upon environmental concerns when purchasing a car, a certain type of Discrete Choice Modelling called Choice Experiment was used. The Choice Experiment includes the four car attributes safety, carbon dioxide emissions, acceleration and annual cost. The survey was sent to a random sample of 1500 people in Sweden between 25 and 50 years of age in October 2006. The data collected was incorporated in a binomial logit model from which the coefficients of the utility function for cars were estimated. Both the estimated values of Willingness to Pay and the Marginal Rates of Substitution gave indications that the private goods safety and acceleration are higher valued than a genuine public bad such as carbon dioxide emissions. The result also showed that the design of the Choice Experiment can have impact on the values obtained.

  • 156.
    Idar Angelov, Elisabet
    et al.
    WSP Analys & Strategi.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hantering av klimatvärdering i infrastrukturprojekt2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report studies the principles behind selecting a monetized value for CO2 emissions in cost-benefit analyses. It also aims at discussing the fundamental uncertainties associated with estimating a CO2 value. However, the report does not suggest a value. We argue that the value must derive from the existing and expected future policies geared towards the transport sector. These policies are partly based on the social cost estimates and climate research available. We describe this as a two-step procedure where the policy makers, in step one, let the available information influence their choice of policy design. In step two, the implemented policy results in shadow prices and these are the relevant prices to include in a project cost-benefit analysis. In the short run, we argue that a relevant interval for a CO2 value is between 0,20 and 2 SEK per kg CO2. The lower bound is based on the emission permit prices in the EU ETS and the upper originates from a SIKA-estimate. Moreover, we argue that the CO2 value in the analysis should evolve over time as it is probable that the climate policy will become stricter.

    Alternative URL: ht tp://fudinfo.trafikverket.se/fudinfoexternwebb/Publikationer/Publikationer_00100 1_001100/Publikation_001099/R692%20Hantering%20av%20klimatv%c3%a4rdering%20i%20i nfrastrukturobjekt.pdf

  • 157.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Prediktioner av andelen personer som går respektive cyklar till jobbet: resvaneundersökningar i kombination med geografiskt högupplösta registerdata2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has recently developed a tool (“GC-kalk”) for assessing investments in the infrastructure for walking and bicycling. These assessments are inter alia based on the number of individuals that walk or bicycle before the investment. This report uses the Swedish national travel survey combined with register based (administrative) data with high geographic resolution to generate predictions of the number of people walking or cycling to work in a small geographic area. The basic problem is that the register based material that includes the entire Swedish population and all work places does not include information about mode of transport for the journey to work. Therefore the travel survey is used to fill in this information. A main question of this report concerns the quality of predictions on mode choice that you get from a model estimated on a national travel survey. Therefore a set of models are evaluated by cross validation based on the so-called “bootstrap” method. This method also implies that the uncertainty in mode choice predictions that depend on the sample variation in the travel survey easily can be simulated for all individuals in the register based data. The results suggest that the quality of predictions derived from the model that gives the best predictions at the national level vary across different counties. The chosen model is also used to illustrate how predictions of the shares of individuals walking or bicycling to work in a small area can be generated. In addition, the report discusses how the uncertainty in individual predictions can be used to consider other available information when the number of persons walking or bicycling shall be assessed in a specific situation and in a specific origin-destination pair.

  • 158.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The trade off between time and money: is there a difference between real and hypothetical choices?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results from one experiment and one quasi-experiment used to investigate the potential problem of "hypothetical bias" in surveys involving an individual’s valuation of time. The experiment compares hypothetical and real choices regarding an offer to participate in a survey in exchange for money. The quasi-experiment compares hypothetical and real choices regarding two bus journeys, one fast and expensive and the other slow and cheap. In both of these experiments, real choices differ significantly from hypothetical ones. The paper estimates parametric distributions of the value of time by applying the general method of moments (GMM) estimator. Since the samples are relatively small a parametric bootstrap is used to obtain asymptotic refinement of statistical tests. The results in the experiment as well as in the quasi-experiment suggest a value of time which is higher when the choice is for real than when the choice is hypothetical. Assuming that the value of time distribution is exponential, real choices produce a mean value of time twice as large as the corresponding hypothetical value.

  • 159.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The value of commuting time in an empirical on-the-job search model: an application based on moments from two samples2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 19, p. 2827-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the Value of Commuting Time (VOCT) among Swedish males in an empirical on-the-job search model. It uses a large sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers. The sample lacks information on mode choice for the journey to work. We therefore estimate a mode choice model on another sample and use this model to link the administrative data to the relevant set of travel times, costs and distances. The VOCT is found to be 1.8 times the net hourly wage rate in the sample. The relatively high estimate results from a high VOCT among cohabiting men.

  • 160.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, Sweden.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The value of time from subjective data on life satisfaction and job satisfaction: an empirical assessment2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares estimates of the value of commuting time, working time and household working time from empirical models of subjective assessments of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, respectively, to the corresponding estimates obtained from an empirical search model of the labour market. The results indicate that all three variables produce rather high estimates of the value of commuting time. The results regarding the value of working time differ more between the different outcome variables and it is only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction. Perhaps less surprisingly, the estimate of the value of household working time is also only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction in contrast to the models of job satisfaction and job durations where it is insignificantly different from zero. This paper compares estimates of the value of commuting time, working time and household working time from empirical models of subjective assessments of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, respectively, to the corresponding estimates obtained from an empirical search model of the labour market. The results indicate that all three variables produce rather high estimates of the value of commuting time. The results regarding the value of working time differ more between the different outcome variables and it is only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction. Perhaps less surprisingly, the estimate of the value of household working time is also only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction in contrast to the models of job satisfaction and job durations where it is insignificantly different from zero.

  • 161.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Liss, Viktoria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Externa marginalkostnader för olyckor i vägtrafik: uppdaterade beräkningar för det statliga vägnätet i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents new estimates of the external marginal cost of accidents in the national road network in Sweden 2012. The researchers used a dataset where the accident database (Strada) is linked to the national road database for the years 2004–2012. The results are presented from a number of statistical models in which the researchers estimate the external marginal cost of accidents. The purpose of using several models is to test whether results from standard models are robust. In general, it seems that the results pertaining to light vehicles are quite robust across different models suggesting that the external marginal cost of traffic accidents is around 0 SEK per kilometre. The results for heavy vehicles appear less robust and while the main models suggest that the external marginal cost is around 0.25 SEK per kilometre, other models suggest that it may well be substantially lower.

  • 162.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An Experimental Comparison of Track Allocation Mechanisms in the Railway Industry2003In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 353-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of railway tracks is a scarce commodity that is, by nature, more complex than many other commodities. This paper presents results from a series of economic testbed experiments on the performance of different auctioning mechanisms for allocating track capacity between competing users. The auction mechanism will not only decide the price, it also serves to define the commodities (the particular departure–arrival time slots) demanded, and selects which of these are sold. Four combinations of pricing and stopping rules are compared. Realised allocations are very efficient for all four combinations and also generate approximately equal revenue. The research provides input for the process of re-regulating an industry undergoing profound institutional change.

  • 163.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An empirical on-the-job search model with preferences for relative earnings: how high is the value of commuting time?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the average value of commuting time (VoCT) in an empirical on-the-job search model. A large Swedish sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers is used to this end. The sample contains detailed information on the individuals' place of residence and place of work and it is combined with information on travel times and travel distances in the road network. We use two empirical models of the individuals' utility function: a basic model and an augmented model. The latter introduces a set of variables intended to capture the effect of interpersonal comparisons of earnings and commuting times in the individual's utility function and on the estimated VoCT. The basic model suggests the average VoCT to be as high as 232 Swedish kronor (SEK) per hour, which is about two and half times higher than the net hourly wage rate in the sample. If we discard the effect of interpersonal comparisons of earnings and commuting time on job switching, the augmented model instead suggests a value of time of 94 SEK, which is more or less equal to the net hourly wage rate in the sample.

  • 164.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Färdmedelsfördelningen i tätorter från samhällsekonomisk synpunkt1983Report (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Trafikanalys.
    Samhällsekonomiskt effektiva banavgifter för allokering av knapp spårkapacitet2013In: Transportforum 2013: Granskade artiklar / [ed] Blomqvist, Göran, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013, p. 36-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det första järnvägspaketet har omarbetats i den europeiska unionen och fastsällt en nytt direktiv, där banavgifter utgör en del. Samtidigt arbetar Trafikverket samtidigt med frågor om marginalkostnadsbaserade avgifter, finansierande avgifter och tilldelning av knapp bankapacitet. Den europeiska unionens direktiv ger inga tydliga riktlinjer för hur marginalkostnadsbaserade avgifter ska beräknas, speciellt beträffande kapacitetsbrist. Både EU: s direktiv och Trafikverket ignorerar väsentliga externa effekter som borde spela stor roll för fastställande av samhällsekonomiskt effektiva avgifter. Inledningsvis beskrivs kort hur EU: s direktiv ser på banavgifter samt några av Trafikverkets ståndpunkter. Med hjälp av en analytisk modell görs sedan ett försök att härled effektiva marginalkostnadsbaserade och finansierande avgifter, samt ges ett räkneexempel med tänkbart utfall av marginalkostnadsbaserade avgifter. Sådana skulle eventuellt kunna leda till grannlaga fördelningspolitiska överväganden.

  • 166.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Trafikanalys.
    Steg 2: åtgärder för ökad bankapacitet2013In: Transportforum 2013: Granskade artiklar / [ed] Blomqvist, Göran, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013, p. 50-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns flera sätt att försöka minska kapacitetsproblemen i det svenska järnvägsnätet. Här redovisas fyra fallstudier om tänkta så kallade steg-2 åtgärder för att öka kapaciteten i järnvägssystemet. Syftet är att uppskatta de samhällsekonomiska effekterna förutom de positiva effekterna av minskade föreningar i sig. Fallstudierna tyder på att det knappast är sannolikt att neddragning av tågtrafiken Stockholm-Göteborg och Stockholm-Malmö och ersätta denna utbudsminskning med flyg skulle vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt, främst beroende på SJ: s stora förluster. Däremot kan reduktion av pendeltågstrafik och komplettera denna utbudsminskning med busstrafik vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt. Skälet är att busstrafik ger ett tillkommande alternativ samt att vissa resenärer slipper byten.

  • 167.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Quality incentives and quality outcomes in procured public transport: Case study Stockholm2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gross contracts appear to be the most common contract form for procured public transport in Sweden and elsewhere. This contract form, it has been argued, gives weak incentives for operators to deliver the desired quality level. Therefore many procuring public transport authorities amend contracts with quality incentives. This paper examines how such quality incentives influence quality outcomes with focus on cancelled departures and delays. The main findings are that the introduction of quality incentives are correlated with both increases and decreases of measured quality outcomes. We hypothesise that the results are driven by underlying cost changes for achieving desired quality objectives that exceed the possible revenues from the incentives. In interviews with the Stockholm public transport authority (SL) and some operators, two central observations surface. The first is that there are causes for quality failures that are not solely the responsibility of operators and that these are therefore not fully reached by the incentives, and the second is that the operators believe that they have exhausted what they can do under the current contracts.

  • 168.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    KTH.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Quality incentives versus quality outcome in procured public transport: case study Stockholm2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gross contracts appear to be the most common contract form for procured public transport in Sweden and elsewhere. This contract form, it has been argued, gives weak incentives for operators to deliver the desired quality level. Therefore many procuring public transport authorities amend contracts with quality incentives. This paper is probably one of the first studies to examine how such quality incentives influence quality outcomes with focus on cancelled departures and delays. The main findings are that the introduction of quality incentives are correlated with both increases and decreases in measured quality outcomes. We do not think, however, that the incentives in themselves have negative effects but hypothesize that the results are driven by underlying cost changes for achieving desired quality objectives that exceed the possible revenues from the incentives. In interviews with the Stockholm public transport authority (SL) and some operators, two central observations surface. The first is that there are causes for quality failures that are not solely the responsibility of operators and that these are therefore not fully reached by the incentives, and the second is that the operators believe that they have exhausted what they can do under the current contracts.

  • 169.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    K2.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.
    Variationer i beläggning i tid och rum för tre tåglinjer norr om Mälaren2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att redovisa beläggningsvariationer i tid och rum för att bedöma om det finns potential för att omfördela vardagsresor från de högst belagda tiderna och delsträckorna till mindre belagda, utan respektive med förändrad prissättning. Därför har särskild vikt lagts på att identifiera beläggningsmönster under vardagar.

    Vi har fått data från SJ om antal resenärer på delsträckor och utbud i form av antal sittplatser, för tre månader under 2015 och 2016. Data beskriver antal resande per avgång i båda riktningar under alla dagar, för tåglinjerna Hallsberg - Stockholm C och Västerås - Stockholm C, samt för linjen Göteborg - Stockholm C, via Hallsberg. Såvitt vi vet har en så här detaljerad redovisning av beläggningsvariationer i tågtrafik inte tidigare gjorts för Sverige.

    Medelbeläggningar för alla avgångstider på varje delsträcka redovisas i form av tabeller och diagram.

    Resultaten är att beläggningarna varierar starkt mellan avgångar under vardagar och måttligt mellan dagar. Resandet är dessutom större i riktning från Västerås mot Stockholm på morgonen än i motsatt riktning och omvänt på eftermiddagen. Detta stämmer väl med statistik över pendling i Mälardalen enligt Mälardalsrådet och ÅF 2016.

    De betydande och regelbundet återkommande beläggnings- och efterfrågevariationerna torde kunna användas för att bedöma om det redan med dagens prisstruktur, utan prisförändringar, finns förbättringspotential genom förändringar av avgångstider och utbud per avgång. En sådan differentiering skulle kunna innebära kapacitetsbesparingar och förbättrad företags- och samhällsekonomiskt resultat, inklusive hänsyn till resenärernas upplevelse av resans standard. Resultaten torde också kunna användas för att analysera det samhällsekonomiska värdet, för resenärernas standard och för finansiellt utfall av ökad prisdifferentiering, för olika tider och för olika delsträckor. Då bör variation av beläggningsgrad och av antal resor över dagen beaktas simultant. Skälet är att kapaciteten för en avgång ofta behöver dimensioneras med tanke på sammanhängande omlopp. I en prissättningsstudie måste såväl utbud per avgång, som variation av beläggningsgrad och av antal resor över dagen beaktas simultant.

    Dessa resultat kan ha stor betydelse i beräkningar av vilken kapacitet som är optimal och vilken prissättning som bör tillämpas på olika avgångar.

     

  • 170.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    KJ Samhällsekonomi.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Halldin, Chris
    ÅF.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av förändrad frekvens och taxa för regionaltågstrafik i Mälardalen2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, both the supply of and the travel by regional trains increased significantly in Sweden. The impact of these increases has so far only to a limited extent been analysed with cost-benefit analysis. The purpose of this study is to use demand simulations to analyse the consequences of hypothetical changes in the frequencies and the tariffs, downwards and upwards, for two regional lines in Mälardalen: Västerås to Stockholm and Hallsberg to Stockholm. The impacts are described in terms of projected changes in demand, travelers 'benefit, income and costs of various modes of public transport, externalities, operators' finances (net revenue), government finance (government revenues minus costs) and the social net. The calculations show that it is financially worthwhile to reduce frequencies, but that an increase would lead to financial losses (of net revenue), and that both higher and lower tariffs would mean financial loss. The cost-benefit calculations show that, as for finances, it is beneficial to reduce frequencies but negative to increase them. Tariff increases lead to losses both financially and socially. The only policy for which the direction of the financial and cost-benefit outcomes are different is a tariff reduction. A tariff reduction is assessed to financially unprofitable, but is calculated to be socially beneficial.

  • 171.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Förslag till Nationell plan för transportsystemet 2014–2025: kvalitetsgranskning av underlaget med fokus på samhällsekonomi2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In June 2013, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) presented a proposal for a new plan for the development of the transport system between 2014 and 2025. This new national transport plan (NTP) was a result of a government commission received in December 2012. The agency Transport Analysis (Trafikanalys) has been commissioned by the government to review the proposal and the associated documents that form the basis for decision about the plan. VTI has assisted Trafikanalys in their review. VTI has mainly focused on the documents describing the so called overall impact assessment, including results from cost benefit analyses, for individual investments. VTI has also studied how the overall impact assessments for individual investments have been considered in the construction of the proposal for a new NTP. One important observation concerning the proposal for a new NTP is that descriptions and motivations for the overall priorities being made are absent. As a result, it is not possible to state whether or not the construction of the proposed NTP follows the given directions from the government. Further, VTI comes to the conclusion that the analyzed impact assessments for individual investments have had a small effect on the composition of the NTP. This is implied by the fact that the number of new investment measures that has been prioritized is extremely low. When it comes to the impact assessments and the cost benefit analyses for individual investments, VTI can see a development towards more comparable analyses by clearly stating used parameters, calculation values, etcetera, and by providing instructions on how to carry out the analyses and how to present the results, a development that is positive. However, despite these standardization efforts, VTI notes that the documentation varies between projects. Steps of the assessment are handled differently, for example there is a variation in how non-priced effects are handled in the analyses, and requested information is missing, for example requested information about which measures are not qualified for the analysis and if there exists any interdependence between the analyzed measure and other proposed measures in the NTP.

  • 172.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Interaction delay and marginal cost in Swedish bicycle traffic2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the method presented by Johansson (2018) to estimate a volume delay function and marginal cost for bicycle traffic on cycling paths separated from motorized traffic based on point measurements of speed and lateral positions from seven sites in Sweden. The results indicate that a quadratic volume – delay function fits the data well in the observed range of volumes, and that there are significant delays already at volumes far below the capacity due to the heterogeneity of the desired speed over the population. The total marginal cost of delay per unit flow is estimated to €9×10-5 h/km.

  • 173.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Luftfartens klimatpåverkande utsläpp  – differentierade marginalkostnader: En delrapport inom Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel has increased sharply over the past 30 years, and forecasts indicate that the rate of growth may last for decades to come. Estimates of how air traffic affects the climate and methods used to calculate marginal costs are therefore of importance. The methods should also allow for the study of different parts of the airline market since results may vary extensively depending on aircraft and engine type used.

    In this report, data from the Swedish Transport Agency comprising all air traffic movements to/from Swedish airports 2016 have been used to provide estimates of social costs for carbon dioxide emissions and costs related to non-CO2 emissions at high altitude. A method has been developed that makes it possible to calculate results for passenger traffic, freight flights and postal flights separately and to study differences between, for example, regular traffic, chartered flights and air taxi. The report incorporates results for domestic flights and flights from Sweden to airports within or outside the EU emissions trading system. Results for different Swedish airports and for a couple of routes are presented. Climate effects from flight movements with empty planes are also considered.

    The report presents results related to the vehicles, i.e. emissions per vehicle kilometre and per flight, and results related to passengers and cargo, i.e. per passenger- and tonne-kilometres and per passenger and loaded weight. The latter has not been analysed at same level of detail earlier.  

  • 174.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Internalisering av godstrafikens externa effekter – konsekvensanalyser med Samgodsmodellen: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned to review the current knowledge of social marginal costs for using the country’s national infrastructure, Government Decision N2017/01023/TS. As a part of this commission VTI is asked to assess the effects of a full internalisation of external costs within the transport sector.

    In this report the effects on freight transports of gods being traded within and to/from Sweden is assessed using the Swedish national freight flow model Samgods. The analysis includes calculating the appropriate levels of tax and/or fees needed for decisionmakers in the freight transport market to fully take in to account the external effects of traffic with different types of vehicles. In a second step the freight flow model is used to estimate effects on ton-kilometers transported on road, rail and sea respectively.

    Results show that the resulting change in relative costs for transporting with different modes of transport will increase ton-kilometers transported by sea. A full internalization of external cost will decrease ton-kilometer transported by rail and on road. The largest decrease being calculated for rail. To fully take account for external effects track fees in Sweden will have to be four times higher. In total we estimate a small but positive effect on the climate.

  • 175.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An Economic Analysis of Track Maintenance Costs2004In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs for maintaining different track units are analyzed using Swedish and Finnish railway data for the years 1994-1996 and 1997-1999, respectively. To derive insights on the logic of spending on track maintenance, the analysis is based on few a priori assumptions about underlying structures. We provide indications of scale economies in track maintenance with respect to traffic load and calculate a policy-relevant derivative value, i.e. the marginal cost of track use. The paper points to the type of data that has to be compiled in order to implement a recent Directive of the European Commission in a consistent way.

  • 176.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal cost estimation for level crossing accidents: evidence from the Swedish railways 2000-20082011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between train traffic and the accident risk for road users at level crossings. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk can be used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. Based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2008 on level crossing accidents, train volume and crossing characteristics, the marginal cost per train passage is estimated at SEK 1.13 (EUR 0.11) on average in 2008. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of warning device, road type and the traffic volume of the trains.

  • 177.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Samhällsekonomisk värdering av skillnader i luftföroreningar mellan miljöklass 1-diesel och europadiesel: beräkningar utifrån befintliga emissionsprovstudier från 2003–-20082011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish diesel market is dominated by a fuel quality that differs in several aspects from the fuel quality that is used in the rest of Europe. The Swedish fuel quality was introduced in 1991 as a fuel designed to reduce both regulated and unregulated emissions compared to the standard European diesel. Since then the gap between Swedish fuel and the standard European fuel quality has diminished as the European diesel has improved. This study examines the remaining differences in exhaust emissions between the two fuel qualities, and values the difference in emissions using the official Swedish values for air pollutants in the transport sector.

    Information on exhaust emissions from heavy duty diesel engines is taken from a literature study. The results show that the use of standard European diesel (EN590) instead of the Swedish fuel quality (MK1) gives rise to extra emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to a value of 10–19 öre (1–2 eurocent) per liter diesel for heavy vehicles meeting Euro IV or V requirements. For vehicles meeting only Euro III requirements the extra emissions of nitrogen oxides are valued to 19–29 öre (2–3 eurocent) per liter diesel. EN590 also gives rise to more emissions of particulate matter (PM). The valuation of particulate matter depends on the size of the population living in the area where the vehicle is driven. For a heavy vehicle meeting Euro IV or V requirements driven in a small town like Laholm the extra emissions from EN590 is valued to a maximum of 5 öre (0,5 eurocent) while the extra emissions from the same vehicle driven in the inner city of Stockholm is valued up to 52 öre (5 eurocent) per liter diesel. For vehicles only meeting Euro III requirements the extra cost from EN590 is even larger.

    Over time as old and dirty vehicles are replaced by new vehicles meeting harder emission requirements the advantage of MK1 over EN590 will diminish. For private cars the difference in emissions is also most probably smaller than between the heavy vehicles that are analyzed in this study due to lower emissions per liter diesel.

  • 178.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    WSP.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal cost estimation for level crossing accidents: evidence from the Swedish railways 2000-20122015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between train traffic and the accident risk for road users at level crossings. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk can be used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. Based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2012 on level crossing accidents, train volume and crossing characteristics, the marginal cost per train passage is estimated at SEK 1.28 (EUR 0.13) on average in 2012. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of protection device, road type and the traffic volume of the trains.

  • 179.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Trafikverket.
    Marginal costs for railway level crossing accidents in Sweden2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 83, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate accident risks and marginal costs for railway level crossings in Sweden. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk is used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. The estimations are based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2012 on level crossing accidents, train volume, and crossing characteristics. In this study we estimate the accidents risk for both motorized road traffic and vulnerable road users. As a proxy for road traffic flow we use three categories of road type, and to capture the influences of pedestrians and bicyclists we use information about the number of persons living nearby the level crossing. The results show that both protection device, road type, traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the level crossing have significant influence on the accident probability. The marginal cost per train passage regarding motor vehicle accidents is estimated at EUR 0.15 on average in 2012 (price level of 2017). The corresponding number for accidents with vulnerable road users excluding suicides is EUR 0.08 or including suicides EUR 0.50. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of protection device, road type, the traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the crossing.

  • 180.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    WSP.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Trafikverket.
    Marginal costs for railway level crossings in Sweden2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate accident risks and marginal costs for railway level crossings in Sweden. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk is used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. The estimations are based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2012 on level crossing accidents, train volume, and crossing characteristics. In this study we estimate the accidents risk for both motorized road traffic and vulnerable road users. As a proxy for road traffic flow we use three categories of road type, and to capture the influences of pedestrians and bicyclists we use information about the number of persons living nearby the level crossing. The results show that both protection device, road type, traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the level crossing have significant influences on the accident probability. The marginal cost per train passage regarding motor vehicle accidents is estimated at SEK 1.51 on average in 2012. The corresponding number for accidents with vulnerable road users excluding suicides is SEK 0.79 or including suicides SEK 5.02. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of protection device, road type, the traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the crossing.

  • 181.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Accident externality and vehicle size2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a two-vehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner. This mass externality can be internalized to reach a situation where the drivers choose vehicle mass based on the social optimum instead of a private optimum that ignores the negative effects that a large vehicle mass has on the injury risk in presumptive collision partners. Using a database including collision accidents in Sweden involving two passenger cars during five years, the influence of vehicle mass on the injuries and thereby the accident cost in both vehicles is explored. The database contains information on road infrastructure, vehicle characteristics including vehicle mass and characteristics of the occupants in the vehicles including their injuries. To get a measure of the accident cost the Swedish official economic valuation of slight injuries, severe injuries and fatalities are applied. In each accident the two involved vehicles are divided into the lighter vehicle and the heavier vehicle and the effect of weight is examined separately for the two groups. The accident cost that falls on the lighter vehicle increases with the mass of the heavier vehicle and decreases with own mass. Given that a vehicle is the heavier one in the crash, neither the own mass nor the mass of the lighter vehicle significantly affect the accident cost. The expected external accident cost is calculated and it is shown to increase rapidly with vehicle mass. The paper discusses different solutions to internalize this external accident cost and calculates a mass dependent multiplicative tax on the insurance premium in a no-fault insurance system.

  • 182.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    A biofuel mandate and a low carbon fuel standard with ‘double counting’2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     European Union’s (EU) energy legislation from 2009 is still being implemented in the Member States. We study analytically the Renewable Energy Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive’s provisions for the transport sector. The former Directive imposes a biofuel mandate and allows double counting of some biofuels. The latter Directive imposes a Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). We show that either the biofuel mandate or the LCFS is redundant. Double counting makes the biofuel mandate easier to fulfil but also depresses the price of biofuels. Production of the doubly counted biofuels increases nevertheless and production of the single-counted biofuels falls. Given the type of technical change studied, double counting spurs technical development of the doubly counted biofuels. The LCFS directs support towards those biofuels with lowest life-cycle carbon emissions. The redundant policy instrument, the biofuel mandate or the LCFS, only creates costs but no benefits and should be abolished. Double counting makes the biofuel mandate non-cost-efficient and should be reconsidered.

  • 183.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Biofuels production versus forestry in the presence of lobbies and technological change2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and use of biofuels, both for electricity and heat generation and for transportation, has grown over the past years. There are many reasons for this, among other climate change, energy security, high fossil fuel prices and rural development goals. Production of most types of biofuels requires land, however, thus competing for land both with agriculture and with forestry. For instance, Hyytiäinen et al. (2008) find for Finland that the production of biofuels (reed canary grass) is the most profitable use of arable land (compared to growing oats or pine trees), although only in the proximity of (at most 40 km from) a thermal power station. Lankoski and Ollikainen (2008), in turn find that production of reed canary grass in Finland, when the alternative is oats, is socially optimal even 100 km away from the power plant. In the tropics, not only fallow or unused agricultural land is used for biofuel production but also rainforest land has been converted, for instance, to palm oil plantations. This development is largely driven by policy measures, for instance, by the European Union's (EU) 20-20-20 target (a reduction of at least 20% in greenhouse gas emissions, and a 20% share of renewable energies in the EU's energy consumption by 2020), set by the European Council in March 2007.

  • 184.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Geographical aspects in the political economics of transport infrastructure funding in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Kvotplikt för biodrivmedel: högsta vinsten till specialintressen?2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I mars 2013 lade regeringen fram ett förslag till ett nytt system för att öka användningen av biodrivmedel. Man föreslår en kvot för bensin och två kvoter för dieselbränslen, utan någon koppling mellan kvoterna. Förslaget omfattar inte alla biodrivmedel. Denna artikel visar att regeringens förslag varken är kostnadseffektivt, teknikneutralt eller ekologiskt hållbart och diskuterar vem som är vinnare och förlorare av förslaget.  I artikeln skisseras även ett alternativt kostnadseffektivt system som bland annat möjliggör handel i biodrivmedelscertifikat.

  • 186.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nya regler för biodrivmedel gynnar mest producenter2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Felriktad politik. Regeringen inför en kvotplikt för att öka konsumtionen av biodrivmedel. Men systemet motverkar regeringens egna uppsatta mål. Dessutom kommer särskilda intressegrupper att gynnas medan skattebetalarna och vanliga bilister blir de stora förlorarna, skriver forskaren Johanna Jussila Hammes.

  • 187.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Path dependence: biofuels policy under uncertainty about greenhouse gas emissions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of uncertainty about the greenhouse gas emissions arising from the production of biofuels on trade policy, in the presence of lobby groups and two policy instruments, trade policy and biofuels mandates. We show that in the presence of biofuels mandates it would be optimal from a societal point of view to lower the trade tariff on biofuels when the emissions from their production are shown to be 'high' as compared to when they are believed to be 'low'. If the government is susceptible to lobbying, the tariff may be raised instead. We further show that at subsequent time periods, the biofuels sector's marginal lobbying effort will not fall compared to previous periods, and that consequently, its political contribution also does not fall. Finally we show how policy may be path dependent, i.e., that earlier tariff rates in part determine future tariff rates if the government is susceptible to lobbying and given that the domestic price of biofuels does not fall. The model can, e.g., shed light on why the EU does not lower the tariffs on Brazilian ethanol in the face of new information.

    Older version : http://swopec.hhs.se/vtiwps/abs/vtiwps2011_001.htm

  • 188.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Political economics or Keynesian demand-side policies: What determines transport infrastructure investment in Swedish municipalities?2015In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 51, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines investment in transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities according to the three National Transport Infrastructure Plans of 2004, 2010 and 2014. The plans cover 12 years each. The test of a swing voter model, combined with variables relevant to the Keynesian model of demand side policies, supports the proposition that there is less investment in municipalities with highly partisan electorates. The model seems to work better for road than for rail investments. Municipalities with a high density of voters at the ideological cut-point (middle of the ideological distribution) got more investment in the 2010 plan but not in the other plans. The impact of the elasticity of output on public service provision raised investment in road projects in sub-plan period 1 compared to later sub-plan periods. The tax elasticity of output may influence the volume of investment downward. The Plan for 2010–2021 seems to be the most politically determined of the plans considered here.

  • 189.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Styrmedelsinventering: delstudie inom SAMKOST2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report takes stock and describes policy instruments that affect the extent of the various externalities arising from transport; noise, impact on infrastructure (both planning new infrastructure and consumption phase), climate, air pollution, traffic safety, congestion and impact on water. The analysis of policy instruments covers all four transport modes: road, rail, maritime and air transport. The description begins with a review of related international agreements and EU regulations. It then discusses domestic policy measures. The point of departure in this discussion is whether a policy instrument affects the marginal cost of an activity or not.

    It is difficult to link a specific policy instruments to specific external effects, even though there is such a link in the instrument's design. The reason for this is that all policy instruments that affect the volume of traffic also by definition  influence all the externalities that arise. The report is nevertheless arranged so that every policy instrument is coupled to the external effect that it primarily aims at.

    The report also contains an overview of policy instruments in five neighboring countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, the UK and Germany. The international overview does not include an examination of the links between external effects and policy instruments but lists and describes the policy instruments on the basis of the transport mode they affect.

  • 190.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The political economy of infrastructure planning in Sweden2013In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 437-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study factors affecting the choice of projects to be included in the National Transport Infrastructure Plan for 2010-2021 in Sweden, controlling for the CBA results. The centre-right government tended to favour those counties that voted for it, and favour rail investments over road. We find no discrimination against the large cities of Gothenburg, Malmö and Stockholm. Finally, lobbying also matters; projects with co-financing from the local municipality(ies) have a greater probability of being included in the Plan. Industry lobbying has, at best, a borderline significant effect, and affects the probability of a project being included in the Plan positively.

  • 191.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Utformning av kvotpliktsystem för biodrivmedel2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU's renewables directive requires that the consumption of biofuels must increase. In a VTI report Johanna Jussila Hammes studies the design of a biofuels quota system and its cost effectiveness with the help of an analytic model on three different ways to formulate a quota.

    The quota system will be cost effective if trade in biofuels certificates is allowed. It is also possible to use biogas in order to increase the system's cost effectiveness.

    "Double counting" some biofuels will make it easier to reach the quota and lowers the consumer price of fuels, but will not provide any support for the doubly counted biofuels. Fuel quality requirements can reduce the cost effectiveness of the system. This may be helped if biofuels in high concentrations also can be counted towards the quota.

    De Gorter and Just (2009) show how a biofuels quota in conjunction with a tax rebate to biofuels constitutes a subvention to the consumption of all fuels. For this reason, we recommend that no tax rebate will be given to biofuels included in a quota system.

    Given that the number of firms in the fossil fuel and the biofuels sectors are about the same, and that the quota is not very strict, the quota system will reduce eventual market power. The same result applies to the biofuel certificate market, where trade in the certificates increases welfare even in the presence of market power.

    Johanna Jussila Hammes ends with a short literature overview of the direct and the indirect land use change, and of the effect of biofuels on the price of food.

  • 192.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Local government co-financing of the central government's transport infrastructure investment2019In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study two districts’ voluntary co-financing of a centrally provided public good, e.g., transport infrastructure. Outcomes are compared to a surplus-maximizing level of public good provision. We show that both co-financing and lobbying raise the amount of public good provided. Co-financing and lobbying are substitutes. Co-financing (or co-financing combined with lobbying) raises the provision of the public good to a higher level than lobbying alone. Co-financing can thus reduce rent-seeking. Finally, we show that under uncertainty about district type (high or low benefit), co-financing combined with lobbying can be used to find and retain a separating equilibrium.

  • 193.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Congdon Fors, Heather
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The influence of individual characteristics and institutional norms on bureaucrats’ use of CBA in environmental policy: a model and a choice experiment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists regularly criticize the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which has led to much focus being placed on investigating the possible biases related to its results. Recent research shows that CBA is not routinely done prior to environmental, energy, and climate policymaking in Sweden, and in countries where a CBA is made, the results have little influence on political decisions. This paper investigates obstacles to using CBA information with a focus on bureaucrats. We use empirical data from Sweden, where the ministries are small by international standards and hence government agencies have a sizeable influence on policymaking. We construct a theoretical model and then test the theoretical predictions with empirical data collected from five Swedish government agencies. The empirical results lend support both for the assertion that risk aversion concerning the environmental outcome, the bureaucrats’ environmental attitudes, and the cost of taking CBA information into account have a considerable impact on the probability of using information from a CBA. Hence risk averse and bureaucrats with strong environmental preferences are less likely and bureaucrats with low cost of doing a CBA more likely than other bureaucrats to use CBA information. Finally, a binding governmental budget constraint may positively influence a bureaucrat’s choice of undertaking a CBA. A tentative conclusion is therefore that it may be possible to increase the use of CBA by making the budgetary consequences of policies much clearer and demanding due consideration of costs.

  • 194.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: welfare maximization, political economy or both?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of transport infrastructure projects to include in the National Transport Infrastructure Plans in Sweden is often said to be motivated by the weighing of cost against social benefits. Examining the projects that are included in the Plans, it is clear, however, that not all projects have positive net present values, and are therefore more costly to build than the benefits they create. This paper studies alternative models that might explain the choice of projects. Two political economy models, the district demand and the swing voter with lobbying, are tested, and a model that accounts for the spatial distribution of the projects, as well as the possibility that priorities are based on welfare concerns, is estimated. No support is found for the political economy models. What explains investment volume is the existence of CBA results for a project, which may indicate that welfare benefits have an impact, as do the spatial spillovers from a project’s benefits and lobbying, especially by the municipalities concerned.

  • 195.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 20112016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the impact of increased public transport supply on private car use using micro data on individuals from 17 mid-sized cities in Sweden. The data is obtained from Swedish administrative registers (tax and odometer), which exists for all Swedish adults and cars, and information of public transport supply, namely bus kilometres supplied.

    In a description of the data we see that that the increase of private Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT) per inhabitant stagnate in the sample cities towards the end of the period 1997-2011. Our hypothesis is that changes in the supply of public transport is the main cause for this stagnation. The probability of owning a car and the demand functions for VKT are estimated. The principal finding is that private car use is reduced by increased supply of bus kilometres with an average elasticity ranging from -0.01 to -0.04. This effect is larger in peripheral areas and in larger cities. In small cities the effect is almost nil. We conclude that public transport has an effect on the private VKT of inhabitants but that the impact is relatively small and cannot be the main cause for the stagnating increase of private VKT per inhabitant in the sample cities.

  • 196.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Underlag till schabloner för DoU-kostnader i EVA och Vägverkets Effektsamband för nybyggnad och förbättring: sammanställning och analys2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A basis is presented for new models for maintenance and operation costs in the Swedish Road Administration’s guidelines (Effektsamband) and the programmes (EVA, Samkalk) for network and object planning. The development of models and the assumptions made are documented and described.

  • 197.
    Karlsson, Rune
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Trafikanalys.
    Söderbaum, Fredrik
    Trafikanalys.
    Ado, Abboud
    Trafikanalys.
    Larsson-Wijk, Pia
    SWECO.
    Christian Udin, Udin
    SWECO.
    Valideringsverktyg och valideringsdata till godsmodeller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with questions concerning validation of the Swedish national goods transportation model, Samgods. To some degree, also more general issues of validation are discussed. When developing transportation models it is essential to have independent data available that can be used for comparison, validation and calibration. The quality and availability of such data are obvious issues. It is a big advantage if these data cover many different aspects of the model results and are collected on a regular basis. In the report, a survey of data sources useful for validation purposes is presented. For each source of data, quality and availability is discussed. For statistical data, the method for collecting the data is described in some detail as well as uncertainties and access to the data that may be restricted due to privacy regulations. A special section in the report is devoted to investigating if present day intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide data for validation purposes. Once the compilation of validation data is completed, many problems remain concerning the validation. In particular, there is a matching problem between the model output data and validation data. The many different table formats and aggregation levels for the data add to the complexity of this problem. A similar, but easier, problem is to compare output data from different versions of Samgods. Within the project a computer program has been developed that can be used for matching such kinds of datasets. The program, as well as a user manual for it, is included in the report.

  • 198.
    Karlström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Is sick absence related to commuting travel time?: Swedish Evidence Based on the Generalized Propensity Score Estimator2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the effects of commuting time on sickness insurance utilization by applying a generalized propensity score estimator to a large sample of Swedish employees. We analyse the effect of commuting time both on the probability of using sickness insurance at all and on the probability that an individual on sick leave is on so-called partial sick leave rather than being completely absent from work. Insurance utilization is in both cases defined as being ill for more than 14 days. The results indicate, in general, that individuals do not use sickness insurance because of their commuting time. However, commuting time seems to increase the risk of being on sick leave among females with relatively low annual wage earnings. The results indicate, furthermore, a relatively weak and negative relationship between the probability of being on partial sick leave and commuting time in the group of individuals who have utilized sickness insurance. The latter result applies to both men and women.

  • 199.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    KTH.
    A demand model for domestic air travel in Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for domestic air travel in Sweden. Using national aggregated data on passenger quantities and fares, price elasticities of demand are estimated with an unbalanced, in terms of stationarity, yet well performing model. The analysis also includes estimates of cross-price elasticities for the main transport substitutes to air travel, rail and road. The robustness of the results is enforced by a primitive division of business and leisure travellers. The results indicate that aggregated demand flr domestic air travel in Sweden is fairly elastic (-0.84) in the short-run and more elastic (-1.13) in the long-run. The robustness test of the model show that leisere travellers, as defined in the data, are more sensitive to price changes than are business travellers. Furthermore, the cross price elasticity between rail and air travel is found to be 0.44.

  • 200.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Aviation and the EU ETS: lessons learned from previous emissions trading schemes2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing an emissions trading scheme requires in-depth knowledge about several aspects. This paper attempts to clarify some important design points of the forthcoming emissions trading scheme for aviation under the EU ETS. Five general key points of system design are acknowledged and comparisons are made to previous and current emission trading schemes. Above all, it is argued that initial allocations of emission permits and the trade barrier between the aviation sector and EU ETS need to be carefully examined.

1234567 151 - 200 of 480
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf