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  • 151.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    HiQ.
    Isaksson, Calle
    HiQ.
    Raisins: towards general usability and drivability for ViP platform resources2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original purpose of the Raisins project was to make an inventory of the gathered software resources of ViP as they appear at the ViPForge, analyse their usability for reuse and propose a technical roadmap. In addition to this an investigation of industrial needs was planned to grip prioritization and complementation demands from the industrial partners. During the start-up process the idea of a more visionary approach for the ViP simulation software came up as an alternative path to take. The Raisins project was divided into four separate activities; inventory and evaluation of existing resources at ViPForge, review of the report from the early ViP project “Industrial Needs”, workshops with each of the industrial partners, and finally an activity at HiQ to sketch an alternative software approach.

  • 152.
    Al-Madani, Hashim
    et al.
    Dept. of Civil & Arch. Eng., University of Bahrain.
    Al-Janahi, Abdul Rahman
    Dept. of Civil & Arch. Eng., University of Bahrain.
    Differences in traffic signs' recognition between drivers of different nations2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, p. 21-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers encounter tens of signs in their daily trips. While many signs are well recognized by the drivers, many others are not. This study examines drivers' identification of 28 warning and regulatory signs. The identification rate was standardized as per sign exposure rate. Differences between nationalities are then tested. Questionnaires including these signs were distributed to 9000 drivers in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Over 4850 responded back (54%). The questionnaire illustrated the tested signs in color along with four selection choices. In order to have just comparisons between the drivers of the various nationalities, their educational background is controlled. Three best-identified signs by the drivers included those indicating slippery road, closed to motor vehicles and road narrows from both sides. The three least identified are those indicating not waiting, turn left ahead and turn left. The findings also showed the existence of functional problems in many regulatory signs. In fact, only one third of the signs are equally understood by Arab, Asian and Westerner drivers. The drivers poorly identified most of the signs included in this group. Furthermore, both Arab and Asian drivers identified another one third of the signs significantly less than Westerners. The signs in this group are generally well identified by the drivers. Regulatory signs indicating symbolic pictures caused greater comprehension difficulties to the drivers in this group. Finally, two thirds of the signs are poorly identified by Arab drivers compared with westerners. Warning signs are over-represented in this group.

  • 153. Al-Madani, Hashim MN
    et al.
    Abdul Ghani, Ahmed AH
    Characteristics of drivers understanding of posted signs1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154. Al-Mansour, Abdullah I
    et al.
    Sharf, Essam A
    Al-Dawsary, Majed
    A study on the feasibility of using global positioning systems in the identification of traffic accident locations1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 155. Al-Masaeid, Hashem R
    Characteristics and cost of pedestrian accidents in Jordan2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 156. Al-Masaeid, Hashem R
    Effect of police enforcement on drivers' behaviour1998Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157. Al-Masaeid, Hashem R
    Effectiveness of road safety audit1998Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 158.
    Almgren, Martin
    et al.
    Trafikförvaltningen, SLL.
    Sylwan, Odd
    Tyréns.
    Kravställning och uppföljning av ljud- och vibrationskrav vid fordonsupphandling2013In: Transportforum 2013: Granskade artiklar / [ed] Blomqvist, Göran, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013, p. 98-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikförvaltningen (tidigare SL) har de senaste åren initierat och delvis genomfört tre större fordonsupphandlingar med långtgående krav på låga bullernivåer. De närliggande upphandlingarna har möjliggjort samordningsvinster, men även erfarenhetsutbyte från olika upphandlingsfaser. Erfarenheterna från upphandlingarna visar att väl underbyggda och realistiska krav betyder mycket för att uppnå goda resultat. De visar vidare att väl genomtänkta planer för löpande rapportering under projekten och påtryckningsmedel för att säkerställa kravefterlevnad också har stor betydelse. Artikeln belyser förhållanden som kan ha betydelse för kravutformning samt identifierade svårigheter och vunna erfarenheter från fordonsupphandlingar. Genomgången är tänkt att vara praktisk och lätt att tillämpa. Utformning av krav eller förslag på gränsvärden tas däremot inte upp i artikeln. Den förmedlar istället i första hand tänkesätt och användbara referenser.

  • 159. Almqvist, Sverker
    Speed limiter in a car: A tool for improved road safety1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 160. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Land use planning and transport investment appraisal2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 161. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    The impact of land use planning on Cost-Benefit Analysis rankings2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Almström, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The impact of travel costs and economic growth on cost-benefit analysis rankings2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a tool for selecting transport investments is often questioned. It is not unusual that politicians or others in the public debate argue that the outcome of a CBA completely rely on assumptions concerning a particular input factor, such as valuation of CO2 emissions or future fuel price. This paper explores whether the relative ranking of CBA outcomes are robust with respect to some key inputs in transport demand analysis driving cost, public transport fare and economic growth. We study six different infrastructure objects (three road and three rail objects) and four alternative assumptions on input factors compared to a reference scenario.

    The findings suggest that single input factors in a CBA, individually have a small impact on the ranking of the studied investments. In our model calculations we observe no change in rank between a road and a rail object.

  • 163. Alnervik, Jonna
    et al.
    Gullqvist, Jesper
    Gåverud, Hanna
    Antisladdsystem: förarens kunskap om antisladdsystem och hur de påverkas av systemet2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att ta reda på hur förares körsätt påverkas av att köra en bil med antisladdsystem och vilken kunskap de har om säkerhetssystemet. Denna rapport behandlar förarna till de bilar, typ Volvo S40, som har antisladdsystem. En enkät med 17 frågor har skickats ut till ett slumpat urval på 320 personer, 160 som har systemet och 160 som inte har det.

  • 164. Al-Omari, Bashar
    et al.
    Mahalingam, Gnani
    Pedestrian gap studies using NETSIM simulation2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 165.
    Als, Per
    et al.
    A2 A/S .
    Nielsen, Otto Anker
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU).
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jespersen, Per Homann
    Roskilde Universitet (RUC).
    Hvordan får vi mere og bedre kollektiv trafik för pengene?: Bud på fremtidens organisering af den kollektive trafik i Greater Copenhagen2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Region Hovedstaden har i sin regionale vækst- og udviklingsstrategi (ReVUS) sat nogle strategiske rammer for en grøn og innovativ metropol med høj vækst og livskvalitet. Et af de strategiske pejlemærker handler om ’Effektiv og bæredygtig mobilitet’.

    Hovedstadsområdet har i dag store trafikale udfordringer med kø på vejene samt trængsel i busser og tog. Udfordringerne vil kun vokse i de kommende år, hvor indbyg-gertallet forventes at stige med over 200.000. Der er behov for en sammenhængende planlægning, som kan medvirke til at reducere trængslen og dermed understøtte den økonomiske vækst og udvikling.

    Region Hovedstaden har taget initiativ til et arbejde, der skal skabe større sammenhæng i den kollektive trafik i den danske del af Greater Copenhagen. Hvis den kollektive trafik skal løfte en større del af trængselsudfordringen,skal der arbejdes på at udbygge kapaciteten, forbedre servicen og sikre en større sammenhæng på tværs af transportformerne. Køer på motorveje og trængsel i den kollektive transport er dyrt for samfundet.

    Til at understøtte arbejdet har Region Hovedstaden nedsat en ekspertgruppe, der med faglige briller kommer med sit bud på, hvilke udfordringer den kollektive trafik skal kunne imødekomme. Oplægget tager udgangspunkt i paraplyorganisationen Din Offentlige Transport (DOT), og hensigten er:

    • at påpege styrker og svagheder i den nuværende organisation
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man inden for den nu-værende lovgivning kan imødegå nogle af den kollek-tive trafiks udfordringer
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man med en ændret lovgivning yderligere kan forbedre den kollektive trafiks sammenhæng og attraktivitet

    Gruppen har ikke gennemført en ny, selvstændig analyse. Arbejdet bygger på eksisterende analyser og på den viden og erfaring, som gruppens medlemmer besidder.

  • 166. Alten, Karoline
    et al.
    Deix, Stefan
    Peelen, Willy
    Wessels, Jos
    Courage, Wim
    Ravnikar Turk, Mojca
    Skaric Palic, Sandra
    Acalin, Nina
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Asset service condition assessment methodology (ASCAM Project)2012In: EPAM 2012, Malmö, Sweden, 5–7 September: 4th European pavement and asset management conference, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012, , p. 12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating financial resources among different sub-assets of a country’s road infrastructure is a challenge that is highly dependent on the strategic priorities and organisational structure of the infrastructure operator. While some agencies in Europe deal with pavements, bridges, tunnels or road furniture completely independently, others find that they have one mutual budget that needs to be shared out among the different assets in a way that represents their respective need for maintenance. The criteria upon which such allocations are based may be political, empirical, or based on stakeholder/user interests. The goal of the project ASCAM – Asset Service Condition Assessment Methodology – was to develop a framework for cross-asset management that can be used to objectively assign a budget to certain assets. While previous research projects have already compiled lists of various key performance indicators, ASCAM aimed to find mutual indices such as an “end user service level” that could be used to judge all sub-assets on equal terms and thus compare their condition on the same scale.

    By looking at asset management in the ASCAM partner countries and other European road agencies, the best-practice in individual asset management was extracted to develop the framework and perform a proof-of-concept for the project. While other projects such as PROCROSS within the same ERA-NET call also worked on cross-asset management – but from a top-down approach – ASCAM’s bottom-up approach looked at the more technical aspects of evaluating infrastructure condition and making a budgetary assignment based on the current and predicted state of the assets.

  • 167. Aly, Mostafa Sabry
    et al.
    El-Araby, Khaled A
    Valuation of traffic accidents in Egypt1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 168. Aly, Sayed
    Vägverket sektion Yrkestrafik1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 169.
    Al-Yousifi, Adel
    University of Sunderland, Kuwait.
    Better signs for better road safety2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 46-55Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effectiveness of traffic signs, as described in the Vienna Convention, in sending information, warnings, and orders to drivers to create a safe driving environment. This study assumes traffic signs affects the driver's mind and consequently driving behaviour. Confusing traffic signs therefore increases traffic accidents and traffic disturbances. This paper hypothesises that: 1) Some symbols and signs are ambiguous and not easily understood; 2) Some symbols give a meaning different from design intentions; 3) Some symbols give more than one meaning; and 4) Some signs give drivers the impression they are allowed to take actions that are dangerous. The methodology used is based on field research, interviews, and surveys. Traffic signs and their usage were observed, documented, and photographed in 23 countries around the world. Drivers and other interested parties were interviewed. The survey included questions about sixteen traffic signs, which need review and reconsideration. The surveys were conducted at random to 6,000 drivers in England, France, Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Ukraine. Then the survey forms were numbered and entered into the computer using SPSS statistical analysis. The results of this basic statistical analysis validate the assumptions, e.g., that perceptions and understandings of some traffic signs are very low (29.07% in the case of A,7a sign), and that the ambiguity of such signs can give drivers wrong and dangerous information. This confirms the need to review and change certain signs in the context of the technological, geographical, social, and psychological developments of mankind, and to standardise traffic signs in view of increasing globalisation.

  • 170. Al-Yousifi, Adel Easa
    Investigation on traffic signs to improve road safety2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 171.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Drift och underhåll av grusvägar: litteraturstudie1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grusvägarna omfattar en väsentlig del av det svenska vägnätet. Det statliga vägnätet omfattar 98 015 km väg varav 22 136 km (22%) är grusvägar (1997). Förutom de statliga grusvägarna finns även ca 35000 km enskilda grusvägar med statsbidrag och ca 210 000 km skogsbilvägar.

    Föreliggande litteraturstudie ingår som en första del i doktorandprojektet "”Effektiva produktionsmetoder inom drift och underhåll av grusvägar”".

    Denna rapport behandlar drift och underhåll av grusvägar huvudsakligen med inriktning mot grusslitlagret under barmarksperioden. I Sverige och de nordiska länderna infaller denna period normalt mellan maj och oktober. Med begreppet ”Drift och underhåll av grusvägar” menas i denna rapport all verksamhet som berör skötsel av grusvägar så att vägen hålls i farbart skick. Litteraturstudien består av tio kapitel vars rubriker finns i följande avsnitt:

    Kapitel 1 "Inledning", kapitel 2 "Grundläggande begrepp", kapitel 3 "Allmänt om vägnätet", kapitel 4 "Nedbrytning av grusvägar", kapitel 5 "Tekniska krav på grusvägar i Sverige", kapitel 6 "Faktorer som påverkar underhållet av grusvägar", kapitel 7 "Metoder för drift och underhåll av grusvägar", kapitel 8 "Tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar", kapitel 9 "Planering och värdering av drift- och underhålls-åtgärder", kapitel 10 "Referenser", Kapitel 11 "Figur- och tabellförteckning".

  • 172.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Miljöeffekter av dammbindning av grusvägar1999Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Operation and maintenance of gravel roads: a literature study1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravel roads form a large percentage of the road network in Sweden. The public road network under the jurisdiction of the Swedish National Road Administration has a total length of some 98,000 kilometres. About 22,000 km of this network consists of gravel roads. In addition, there are about 74,000 kilometres of private road and 210,000 kilometres of forest roads. The report describes the present position in the operation and maintenance of gravel roads. It presents a comprehensive literature survey of current and recent national and international research. It deals only with summer maintenance and focuses primarily on roads surfaced with aggregate. The following areas are treated in the report: - Definitions and terms regarding the operation and maintenance of gravel roads.- General description of the Swedish road network. - Major factors causing deterioration of gravel roads. - Technical requirements for Swedish gravel roads. - Factors, which influence the operation and maintenance of gravel roads. - Operation and maintenance methods. - Condition assessment of gravel roads. - Planning and evaluation of operation and maintenance measures.

  • 174.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar: en sammanfattning av: On rating of gravel roads. Doctoral thesis at the Division of Highway Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till avhandlingen är att en metod for tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar utgör en viktig del av ett styrsystem som skall leda till effektivitet i underhållsverksamheter. Vägverket tillämpar en metod för tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar, förkortad VVMB 106, vilken tar hänsyn till jämnhet, löst grus samt damm. Representativa 100 m långa slumpvalda grusvägsdelsträckor används för själva bedömningen. Delsträckans tillstånd indelas i klass 1 (god), klass 2 (godtagbar) eller klass 3 (dålig). Tillståndet bedöms tillfredsställande om delsträckan placeras i klass 1 eller klass 2 avseende jämnhet och bundenhet, annars bedöms det otillfredsställande. Syftet med avhandlingen är dels att analysera VVMB 106 för att finna dess svagheter, dels att utveckla en ny och förbättrad metod.

  • 175.
    Amantini, Aladino (ed)
    et al.
    Kite.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Shinar, David
    BGU.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Initial plan of dissemination and use of results2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document contains the initial plan for using and disseminating knowledge and foreground developed within the ITERATE Project.

    The Deliverable contains five main Chapters and an Appendix.

    The first Chapter describes the purpose of the document, its structure, and introduces the other sections. Chapter 2 and 3 define the dissemination strategy of the ITERATE project and provide a classification of dissemination activities. For each type of dissemination action, the corresponding implementation approach is proposed. Then, for each type of dissemination activity, the actions already performed and those planned are described in some details. The dissemination materials already produced by the project and their usage are briefly described. Materials and products already completed, as well as planned, are described, even though a dedicated Deliverable is foreseen in the future that will contain copies of the actual products provided for dissemination purposes. The Exploitation plan is discussed in the last Chapter of the Deliverable. The two different natures and typology of partners , i.e., academic and industrial/consultancy, are considered. In particular, for each partner, a market and competition analysis is performed and the objectives and guidelines for subsequent exploitation of the results is preliminarily discussed. Finally, the appendix contains, for completeness, the Dissemination and Exploitation Questionnaire utilised to collect information among partners.

  • 176.
    Amato, Fulvio
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Cassee, Flemming R.
    Centre for Sustainability & Environmental Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Gehrig, Robert
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hafner, Wolfgang
    Department of Environmental Protection, Municipality of Klagenfurt on Lake Worthersee.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    University of Birmingham.
    Jozwicka, Magdalena
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    King's College London.
    Moreno, Teresa
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC.
    Prevot, Andre S. H.
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona.
    Querol, Xavier
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 275, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

  • 177. Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki
    The contribution of information design to road safety by improved data collection: A case study1998Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Andersen, Camilla Sloth
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Reinau, Kristian Hegner
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Agerholm, Niels
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    The relationship between road characteristics and speed collected from floating car data2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed is of great importance to the safety level of a road. Speed choice is strongly influenced by the road environment and the drivers’ assessment of safe speed level at a specific location. This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between speed and road characteristics and speed and driver characteristics. The analysis is based on big data on speed and driver characteristics combined with data on road characteristics on 49 secondary rural two-lane roads in Denmark. Data is modelled using multivariate linear regression. The results show a primarily influence from road and shoulder width, the extent of road markings and the section lengths on speed. Secondly, they also show the presence of woodland and intersections influencing speed as do gender, age of vehicle and time of day.

  • 179. Anderson, David A
    U.S. accelerated pavement testing facility1988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 180. Anderson, David A
    et al.
    Christensen Jr, Donald W
    Development of test methods for a performance-related bitumen specification1991Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 181.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Betnér, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

  • 182.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Eriksson, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA2015In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

  • 183.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Buffoni, Lena
    IDA, Linköping University.
    Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2016In: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behavior in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues.

  • 184.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 131-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation, estimating parameters for the powertrain model, the choice of numeric solver, and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

  • 185.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

  • 186.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Moving Base Simulator Investigation of Effects of a Yaw Stability System Caused by a Side Impact2011In: Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, ISSN 1530-9827, E-ISSN 1944-7078, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 044501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate how an electronic stability control (ESC) system may aid the driver in a critical sideswipe accident. Another objective was to investigate the possibility of having a realistic simulation of a sideswipe accident in a large moving base simulator. The experiment can be divided into two parts. In part one, the driver is unaware of the sudden side impact and in part two, the side impact was repeated six times.

    The experiment was driven by 18 persons. With the ESC system active no driver lost control, while with the system inactive there were five drivers that lost control in part one. In part two, the ESC system showed to stabilize the vehicle faster, and the improvement in stabilization time was between 40% and 62%. It was also seen that 2% loss of control occurred with an ESC system active and 45% without.

  • 187.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies2016In: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing a driving simulator study, validity of the vehicle model for the intended driving task is of key importance; otherwise, the reliability of the study results might be jeopardized. In this paper a framework for real-time credibility assessment of the simulated longitudinal dynamics by a powertrain model in a moving base driving simulator is presented. The framework consists of the physical system model and a quality model which run in parallel in real time. The developed framework has been evaluated by offline simulations, as well as in real-time in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation results showed that the developed framework can accurately capture the validity of the powertrain model in different driving conditions and provide the credibility level of the simulation results to the simulator operator in real-time.

  • 188.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Freight train model for real-time simulation2017In: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 2: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to increse the freight transport capacity in Sweden, introduction of longer and heavier trains is investigated. To aid this investigation, a freight train simulator was designed and constructed. Here, the implemented freight train dynamics model is described, which includes slip control, a modular wagon model structrue and pneumatic brake system. Further, stable real-time performance of the implemented dynamics model is discussed.

  • 189.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example2018In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

  • 190.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator2016In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

    Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 191.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Parameterization Procedure of a Powertrain Model for a Driving Simulator2015In: Proceedings  of the 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulations.

    In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors. Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non-invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 192.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 193.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nyberg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Öberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot2013In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University.

    The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment.

    As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface.

    Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    Swedish Transport Administration.
    Suicide And Accident Classification Method Used In Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2010 Sweden has been presenting statistics on suicides in road traffic separately from that on fatalities caused by accidents. To undertake this, a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by an accident or by a suicide. For more information, see abstract nr 180: “Suicide and accident classification methodology”.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    Swedish Transport Administration, Gothenburg.
    Fatalities in road traffic: a result of accidents or suicides2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most fatalities in road traffic are accidents, but some are suicides. The Swedish Parliament decided in 2010 to identify suicides in road traffic and separate them from fatalities caused by accidents. To undertake this task a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by accident or suicide. It can be difficult to assess whether a fatality is due to one or the other. Reporting statistics about suicides is a difficult task as the hidden cases are to be aware of. Vision Zero is the Swedish ethical standpoint against road accidents and it is based on the idea that any loss of life in traffic is unacceptable. No-one should be killed or permanently disabled because of road traffic. In-depth studies are made for all road fatalities in Sweden, since 1997 by investigators at the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). In each case information of the vehicle, the road and event, and the road user are collected. The aim of this study was to assess the number of road traffic suicides by studying fatality from three angles; the vehicle, the road and the road user. The main focus was to devise and undertake a psychosocial examination of the road user.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    Trafikverket.
    Suicide and accident classification methodology2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatalities in road traffic are not only due to accidents, some of them are suicides. Sweden has since 2010 described statistics on suicides in road traffic separately from fatalities caused by accidents. To implement this, a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by an accident or by a suicide.The work has been carried out in cooperation between The Swedish Transport Administration, The Swedish Transport Agency, The National Board of Forensic Medicine and Suicide Prevention Western Sweden.

  • 197.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    AB Previa/ARA miljö.
    Jacobson, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Persson, Bengt-Olle
    Peab Asfalt.
    Tillsatsmedel i asfalt: påverkan på arbetsmiljö och omgivning (2006-02-06). Slutrapport2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa tillsatsmedel upplevs idag som besvärliga för arbetsmiljön vid tillverkning och utläggning av asfaltmassa. Vidstående projekt som finansierats av SBUF och Peab Asfalt AB syftar till att ta fram relevanta fakta om tillsatsmedel och dess hälso- och miljöproblem. Projektet har dels inriktats som en förstudie av vad som hitintills har gjorts inom asfaltmiljöområdet både i Sverige och i utlandet, dels kompletterande fältmätningar vid asfaltläggning av polymermodifierad asfalt. Studien har utförts i samarbete mellan Peab Asfalt AB, VTI och Previa/ARA-miljö.

  • 198.
    Andersson, B-M
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, G
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighetsbegränsningars effekt på trafikolyckor. Jämförelse mellan hastighetsgränserna 130 och 110 km/h på motorvägar samt hastighetsgränserna 90 och 110 km/h på tvåfältsvägar1974Report (Other academic)
  • 199. Andersson, Cecilia
    Optimering av en linje i kollektivtrafik: examensarbete utfört i numerisk analys vid Tekniska högskolan i Linköping i samarbete med Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut och Nationalekonomiska institutionen på Stockholms universitet1998Report (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Andersson, Evert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Energiförbrukning och luftföroreningar av eldriven tågtrafik1995Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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