Publications
Change search
Refine search result
12345 101 - 150 of 234
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 101.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Smith, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Crozet, Yves
    Laboratoire Aménagement, Économie, Transports.
    Link, Heike
    German Institute for Economic Research.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    How to liberalise rail passenger services?: Lessons from european experience2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the experience of Europe's three most liberalised railways - Sweden, Germany and Britain - in opening-up rail passenger services to competition by means of competitive tendering, and seeks to draw lessons for countries that are just starting the process, such as France. It also comments on experience of competition in the market in these and other countries (this form of competition has been taken furthest in other countries - notably Italy and the Czech Republic, as well as on a single route in Austria). The paper fills an important gap in the literature - that has so far focused on econometric modelling of the impact of rail reforms - by considering how competition can best be introduced in practice. This investigation is important and timely given the requirements of EU legislation (4th Railway Package)which will require competition to be introduced into passenger rail services (by 2020 for commercial services, and 2023 for public transport contracts) across the whole of the EU. It finds evidence that competitive tendering has helped increase demand for and reduce subsidies to the rail passenger sector, but that there are many decisions that have to be taken as to how it is to be implemented. Short gross cost contracts may work well for regional services where the tendering authority takes the lead in planning and marketing such services. If services where ticket revenue recovers a larger share of costs – “more commercial services” – are to be tendered, long net cost contracts may make more sense. An alternative is to leave them operated by the incumbent but with open access for competitors to enter the market. Two particular issues face countries starting on the liberalisation process. Firstly, if existing rolling stock is owned by the incumbent rather than the franchising authority or an independent company; that remains a major barrier to entry. The second is the position of existing staff. If new operators are required to take them on at existing wages and conditions; that is a barrier to improved efficiency, but for new operators to recruit their own staff may also be problematic, particularly where the pace of change is fast.

  • 102.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar: kunskapsläget avseende påverkan på ekosystemet i Sverige, betydelsen av var utsläppen sker samt kostnader för utsläpp från svensk sjöfart2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s second government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost2). In this study, we have estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact on the ecosystem and emissions from shipping.

    In the earlier study of air pollution in Samkost was concluded that a largely unexplored question was how much the transport sector contributes to secondary pollution and the impact these have on population exposure and impact on the ecosystem. It was found that this is an important issue because it is these pollutants that are the focus of the EU’s air quality policy. To carry out impact assessments of the proposals at EU level in this field, and to compare the results of different studies, it is important to clarify the pollution that has been the basis for the analysis.

    For this reason, the focus of Samkost2 on air pollution became how to perform calculations for the secondary pollutants. There was also a desire to gain more knowledge about the marginal costs of emissions from Swedish shipping, and on how impacts on ecosystems can be included in these calculations. To carry out these calculations required information in the form of dispersion modelling. Therefore, SMHI was commissioned to provide data on emissions at sea and their dispersion. Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and dispersion modelling involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Only emissions from Swedish shipping and not from the other modes were included. To get some information about geographical differences in the impact of emissions that occur in different places separate calculations for three different areas was conducted; Skagerrak and Kattegat, the Baltic Sea south of Åland and the Baltic Sea north of the Åland Islands. Specific effects, i.e. exposure, were only modelled for the population and not for different types of ecosystems.

  • 103.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Management by good intentions and best wishes: on sustainability, tourism and transport investment planning in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government, despite a possible value conflict with the ambitious Swedish climate mitigation objectives, has stated that tourism development is an important basis for economic growth, not least in rural areas. This paper explores how the Swedish policy making system, and ambitious environmental and traffic safety objectives, influence transport investment planning at the regional level. Our point of reference for evaluating the system is the work with good regulatory policy advocated by the OECD and used by the EU. The main finding is that the Swedish government and parliament lack a strategic “whole-of-government approach” to sustainable transport development. There are many principles and objectives with good intentions established at the national level that are incompatible in practice. The conflicts that follow are handed down to lower government levels to solve with best wishes. The problem with this type of management is the “tragedy of the commons.” Without clear guidance, individuals (and administrations) acting independently and rationally based on self-interests are likely to behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group (society).

    Making choices based on a more holistic assessment of impacts and benefits and costs could help to prevent this kind of outcome. However, from the data collected it appears that many investments are undertaken without being assessed due to the lack of government instructions on regulatory impact assessment. Other investments are undertaken despite having a negative net benefit. One reason for this is specific instructions given by the government that points to certain investments. Another reason seems to be the Vision Zero policy established by the parliament. In recent years this policy has been a strong driver of improvements of the road system. Seen from an environmental perspective, the unwanted consequence of the priorities made is that state roads become faster and safer and thereby a more attractive alternative to other travel modes. Seen from a regional development and tourism perspective, this may have diverted resources away from investments that would have yielded a greater benefit to the tourism industry in “rural” areas.

  • 104.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • 105.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • 106.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Fors, Heather Congdon
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Högskolen i Molde, Norge.
    Hammes, Johanna Jussila
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Politiska krav och tjänstemäns roll för analys av och beslut om styrmedel: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development implies that society’s limited resources should be used efficiently, taking into account the various impacts on society – social, economic and environmental. To achieve established societal goals efficiently, various aspects have to be accounted for in the design of policy measures. Within the EU a Regulatory Impact Assessment, where a cost-benefit analysis is included, needs to accompany all major regulatory initiatives. According to research and different policy assessment, Sweden lacks an established praxis regarding this type of analysis in the area of environmental policy but also in the field of energy and transport. The purpose of this project is to investigate how Sweden uses this type of information in the negotiations that take place within the EU regarding policy proposals but also investigate the reasons for use or non-use. The focus is on what role the organization and the bureaucrats play for the collection of this type of information.

    The overall conclusion that can be drawn from the three sub-studies included in the project, as well as the discussion at the closing seminar, is that this is not an established way of working in the Swedish government system. This can be explained by lack of competence, an established mistrust, management by objectives and lack of an institutional framework for when and how this type of broader impact assessment is to be conducted. At the closing seminar, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presented that it is now working on a guide to help officials to analyze at an early stage whether there is a need for regulation by society, to initiate the work by asking the question “What is the problem?”. We think that this is a step in the right direction, but we also see that the economists working out in government are often alone or very few and may therefore need different forms of support to develop the work on this kind of, often complex, analysis.

  • 107.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Regulating transport: The possible role of regulatory impact assessment in Swedish transport planningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By performing RIA, the risk of imposing a proposal that is inefficient or leads to sub-optimization is reduced. In the EU this approach to regulatory policy making was introduced in 2002 and it is a crucial component of the Better Regulation Agenda. However the practical implementation of this approach in Member States is varied; Sweden has not implemented the full RIA process. Currently there is a focus on the reduction of administrative burdens for businesses. This paper describes the present use of RIA and CBA in the Swedish planning context and discusses the reasons for and the consequences of current practices. Using the Swedish transport regulator as a case study, the paper considers the following aspects; i) the Swedish planning context and existing requirements regarding the use of RIA, ii) current focus of research regarding CBA for infrastructure investments in the Swedish transport sector and the need for greater focus on issues concerning regulation, iii) the difficulty to quantify and place monetary values on effects, which also increases when unique, complex and uncertain situations are assessed and iv) the need for the alignment of incentives at all levels and across agencies.

  • 108.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar från transporter i olika delar av Sverige: sammanfattning och slutsatser från arbetet med luftkvalitet i SAMKOST2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att genom några beräkningsexempel klargöra hur de externa kostnaderna för luftföroreningar varierar mellan transportslag och geografi i Sverige, samt att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som ligger bakom dessa skillnader. Syftet är också att sätta in dessa resultat i en internationell kontext för att beskriva hur den svenska situationen förhåller sig till den som råder i andra länder både när det gäller miljöproblemen som orsakas av utsläpp till luft men också arbetet med att utforma miljöarbetet baserat på denna kunskap. Det senare är viktigt för att kunna föra en diskussion om hur Sverige påverkas av och kan bidra till internationellt luftvårdsarbete, framförallt inom EU eftersom den största påverkan av utsläpp från transportsektorn i Sverige sker inom Europa. Vi har i arbetet med SAMKOST studerat effekter på såväl lokal som regional nivå utifrån den metodik som tillämpas inom EU där hälsoeffekter utvärderas baserat på marginella haltförändringar i det som kallas urban eller regional bakgrund. De underlag som tagits fram i SAMKOST-projekten skiljer sig därför från flertalet svenska studier som oftast bedömer effekterna av den totala halten utan hänsyn till källa eller åtgärd. De modelleringar som är grunden för beräkningarna har genomförts av SMHI vilket säkerställer att resultaten är jämförbara mellan de olika transportslagen.

  • 109.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Exhaust emissions and environmental classifications of cars: what indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium. We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: • differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass, • the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations.

  • 110.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Sportfiske och fisketurism för landsbygdens utveckling: Om intäktspotential, framgångsfaktorer och förvaltning av gemensamma naturresurser2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordbruksverket och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har gemensamt tagit fram en strategi för utvecklingen av svenskt fritidsfiske och fisketurism fram till 2020. Där anges ett antal mål varav i första hand två är anledningen till att denna studie initierats. Dessa två mål är:

    • Kunskapen är stor om fritidsfiskets och fisketurismens samhällsnytta och betydelse för stadsbefolkningen och för möjligheterna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden.
    • Kunskapsförsörjning om fritidsfiske och fisketurism utvecklas och samordnas av ansvariga myndigheter i syfte att förse berörda intressenter med kunskapsunderlag.

    Denna studie har genomförts på Jordbruksverkets uppdrag. Syftet har varit att beskriva den forskning som pågår och de kompletterande forskningsbehov som finns med utgångspunkt från det uppdrag Jordbruksverket har att främja utvecklingen av fritidsfisket och fisketurismen. Det har också ingått att kartlägga och presentera goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet och att utifrån dessa exempel beskriva vilket värde olika typer av sportfiske och fisketurism kan generera i olika typer av vatten. Det övergripande syftet är att identifiera och kommunicera framgångsfaktorer bakom lönsam fisketuristisk verksamhet och därigenom bidra till en utveckling av branschen och förutsättningarna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden. För att uppfylla detta syfte har också förutsättningarna för att bedriva sådan verksamhet undersökts. I studien har sex goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet i olika delar av landet fått beskriva sin verksamhet, dess förutsättningar och hinder.

  • 111.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Effektivitet i järnvägsunderhåll: vad vet vi?2015In: 2014/15:RFR3: Trafikutskottets offentliga utfrågning om järnvägens vägval, 2015, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 112.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Konkurrens på och om marknaden för persontrafik med tåg: svenska erfarenheter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A paper documenting the organisation of rail passenger services in England, Germany and Sweden was published in 2013; cf. Nash et al (2013). During 2016, the Centre for Regulation in Europe (CERRE) commissioned a follow-up study, examining the experience to date in these markets, and identifying lessons to be learned from them which may be applied to markets yet to undergo liberalization (such as France). The present paper was drafted to provide an update of Swedish data and this note has translated the text to make it available to a broader domestic audience. The final version, Liberalisation of Rail Passenger Services, is edited by Chris Nash and is available at http://www.cerre.eu/publications/liberalisation-passenger-rail-services.

  • 113.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Kvalitetsavgifter: problem och tänkbara lösningar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In July 2014, the government assigned VTI to support the National Traffic Administration (Trafikverket) in its task to further elaborate on the design of the Swedish Performance Scheme. This report concludes that the scheme in its current version does not have the qualities formulated in the relevant Commission Directive and the concomitant domestic legislation. Suggestions for the way to handle these shortcomings are formulated.

  • 114.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Sektortenkning eller helhetstenkning: Hvordan bör transportsektoren organiseres2015In: Ressursbruk i transportsektoren: noen mulige forbedringen / [ed] Jamed Odeck og Morten Welde, Trondheim: Ex ante akademisk forlag , 2015, p. 216-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2010 lades Vägverket och Banverket ner och i stället tillskapades Trafikverket. Den nya myndigheten har två huvuduppgifter; den ena är att ta fram ett underlag för de beslut regering och riksdag fattar om anslag och prioriteringar av medel för investeringar, drift och underhåll av landets infrastruktur; den andra att omvandla fattade beslut om anslagstilldelning till faktisk handling genom att upphandla de projekt och verksamheter som ska genomföras. Syftet med denna essä är att diskutera om övergången från två separata till en enda myndighet förbättrat effektiviteten i resursanvändningen. Det visar sig svårt att identifiera några sådana vinster. Genomgången pekar emellertid på att den sammanslagna verksamheten kan innebära förbättringar idet dagliga arbetet med att bygga och underhålla infrastruktur. Den övergång från egen regi till upphandling i konkurrens som skedde innan den nya myndighetens tillkomst skapade i sig effektivitetsvinster. En samordning av upphandlingar av underhåll och investeringar i vägar och järnvägar i en enda myndighet ger dessutom en öppning för att bättre följa upp den verksamhet som genomförs för att säkerställa kostnadseffektivitet. Uppföljningar av verksamhet i svensk offentlig sektor har en generellt låg prioritet, något som utgör en broms för möjligheten att utveckla verksamheten och att understödja innovationer.

  • 115.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Implementing Optimal Supply of Public Transport: The Choice between Tendering and Targeted Subsidies2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 21-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two approaches for providing public transport: competitive tendering and targeted subsidies. The subsidy option means that commercial operators charge a fare, and are paid by the public sector principal both per passenger and per bus in service. This is the case since quality (the number of buses) would otherwise be sub-optimal. Under full information, the tendering and targeted subsidies would establish the same welfare-maximising outcome, while subsidies typically are more expensive for taxpayers. The case for targeted subsidies is stronger under an asymmetric information framework.

  • 116.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Optimal supply of public transport: subsidising production or consumption or both?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two approaches for providing public transport: competitive tendering and vouchers. The functioning of tendering is well known. The voucher alternative means that commercial operators charge passengers a fare and are also paid by the public sector principal for each. The paper establishes that it is also necessary to subsidize quality, here referring to the number of busses. Under full information, the two approaches would result in the same welfare maximizing outcome. Vouchers may be more expensive for taxpayers. The case for vouchers is shown to be stronger under an asymmetric information framework.

  • 117.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Regress - en god idé i järnvägssektorn?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned to analyze the preconditions for, and possible consequences of introducing the possibility of regress in the railway industry. Regress refers to the possibility of anyone that is stricken by financial consequences of train delays caused by someone else, to reclaim these costs. Introducing a system of this nature would not increase costs to the industry but would transfer costs to the culpable party. To the extent that operators and the infrastructure holder adjusts the way in which activities are implemented, the risk for delays may shrink which in the long run may reduce prices and tariffs. A substantial part of the report is spent on the systems currently in place for registering delays and their consequences. It is demonstrated that the infrastructure holder runs a sophisticated system of this nature. The shortcomings of this system, which includes quality problems with registering the cause of delays and in particular shortcomings with respect to the possibility to register trains that are cancelled an/or rerouted, will most probably have to be rectified irrespective of the presence of a system with regress. The data collection system would then be appropriate also for handling regress. Most delays are small, resulting in limited consequences only for affected parties. The consequences of few major disturbances may however, be substantial, but it has not been feasible to make cost estimates of these costs.

  • 118.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader: SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting in 2013, VTI has been tasked with three government missions to improve knowledge about the traffic's socioeconomic costs. SAMKOST 3 has covered all modes of transport, but focus has been on maritime transport and aviation. The main purpose of the analysis is to improve the knowledge about the external costs of the traffic i.e. costs of accidents, congestion, noise, air pollution and climate impact. This final report summarizes the results of the sub-reports that have been prepared to meet the purpose. An important part of the analysis has been an in-depth discussion of the role of Sweden’s carbon dioxide tax on fuels to limit emissions.

  • 119.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    SAMKOST 2: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. A final report was submitted in December 2013 and shortly after, the government extended VTIs commission. The present report summarizes the results of the extended mission. In the same way as in SAMKOST 1, the taxation of fuel is substantially higher than the costs generated by passenger cars that use the road network. It is also concluded that heavy vehicles are charged less than the costs inflicted by using roads.

    Users of railway infrastructure are charged track user charges which are below marginal costs for using tracks.

    Estimates of the marginal costs emanating from merchant shipping include piloting, icebreaking and accident risks, all emanating from the activities of the Swedish Maritime Administration. A new study of emissions from shipping is part of the background work within SAMKOST 2. Overall, current levels of fees charged by the Swedish Maritime Administration is well below the industry’s costs.

    There are no indications that landings and take-offs at airports have consequences for the need for maintenance and renewal of runways. The marginal costs of aviation are primarily related to emissions and noise. Charges for national flights may be fairly close to marginal costs while costs for European and in particular inter-continental flights are substantially higher than the different types of charges levied. It is, however, important to emphasize that conclusions regarding shipping and in particular aviation are less certain than when the comparison concerns road and railway charges relative to marginal costs.

  • 120.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    SAMKOST: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task has been implemented by defining projects addressing all externalities of relevance for the assessment, i.e. infrastructure wear and tear, accident risks, emissions from the use of fossil fuel, noise as well as shortage of capacity. The overall assessment of marginal costs of road use is not far from the level in previous domestic studies. Behind this average, a new approach to estimate the costs to the infrastructure holder of heavy and light vehicles using roads, results in cost estimates that are higher than before. Other cost components, in particular the social costs for road accidents has however been reduced. Also the estimates of the costs originating from emissions and noise are lower than before. The marginal costs of railway services are now higher than before, in particular for freight trains. The single most important change also in the railway sector is the increase in costs for infrastructure wear and tear. These results represent national averages for roads and railways. A graphical representation of costs is also offered in order to address the degree of cost-level differences across the networks. It is obvious that costs for noise and emissions are higher the closer people live to traffic using the network. Clear differences with respect to maintenance costs are also observed, but overall this aspect of the results is not yet ready for providing the basis for a comprehensive policy discussion.

  • 121.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Arlandabanan: konsekvenser av förändrade strategier2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In year 2000, railway operations started between Arlanda airport and downtown Stockholm. The service is part of a PPP contract that includes construction and maintenance as well as service provision for a period of 45 years after the initiation of traffic. Patronage on the line is below expectations at the time of contract closure in 1993. There is therefore an ongoing discussion of whether it would be appropriate for the government to renegotiate the contract to change the preconditions for the service. Commissioned by Riksrevisionen, the Swedish National Audit Office, this memo addresses two aspects of a possible change of strategy:

     Which would the consequences be of a change of pricing strategy from the current targeting of the high end of the market? A 30 percent price reduction is considered.

     Is there enough track capacity to increase the number of departures during peak hours?

  • 122.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Trafikverket.
    Kostnadsanalyser av upphandlade kontrakt: två studier av investerings- och reinvesteringsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Agency’s mission includes continuously improving the productivity of operations. The main purpose of the report is to lay the groundwork for following up and further developing the activities carried out. For this purpose, the results of two studies are reported. The one compares costs in contract with invoiced final cost while the other analyses the cost of contracted maintenance costs.

    Finally, several minimum requirements are identified that must be placed on the information required to carry out systematic follow-up.

  • 123.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: Welfare maximization, political economy or both?2016In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 7, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares models for explaining the volume of transport investments in Swedish municipalities: 1 by the planned projects’ welfare consequences, 2. in terms of the district demand (the common pool) model, namely a municipality's share of the cost towards the investment and 3. electoral concerns and/or lobbying, as described by a swing voter model.

    We find that the welfare only hypothesis has little explanatory power. The district demand model explains the investment volume in rail projects, while the swing voter model explains road investment better. Lobbying does not seem to have any impact on the investment volume.

    Finally, we find that including a measure of the welfare in the political economy models greatly enhances the models’ explanatory power. Our main conclusion is that future analyses of what drives the allocation of resources for transport infrastructure should consider aspects related to both political economy, welfare, and the transport mode.

  • 124.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Aronsson, Martin
    SICS.
    Optimering och tidtabelläggning: slutrapportering av förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study has been to assess the potential for developing an optimization tool for time-tabling of railway traffic. The study is based on a 20-year-old paper that the authors of the pilot study co-authored. The subsequent papers published in this field of research provide a basis for considering the further development of the original model architecture. A crucial component in this is the rapid capacity improvement of computer capacity. A second issue has been to consider the possibilities to speed up the solution to the large and complex algorithms used for identifying an optimal solution.

    The mimeo demonstrates that the preconditions for improving the performance of the original model are very good. In three background papers, different dimensions of this potential are addressed. The description concludes by suggesting the design of a further test of the method on a shorter section of the national grid. Importantly, the test would be realized in parallel with the annual development of a new time-table for the coming year.

  • 125.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Erfarenheter av privat finansiering av offentlig infrastruktur2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A government committee has asked VTI to give an account of domestic and international experiences of private funding of public infrastructure investment under the Public Private Partnership (PPP) format. This report is based on a literature review focusing the development of the most recent 10-year period. The report confirms and strengthens previous conclusions on the subject: PPP projects are typically opened for traffic on time and at lower cost overruns than projects implemented under traditional types of contracts. There are, however, no comprehensive empirical ex post reviews identifying pros and cons of the PPP approach to infrastructure construction and maintenance.

  • 126.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Mapping railways maintenance contracts: the case of Netherlands, Finland and UK2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1988, Sweden was the first country in Europe to separate the ownership of railway infrastructure from traffic operations. Starting in 2002, maintenance has gradually been contracted out. Sweden, Finland and Holland – and previously England – have been in the European forefront regarding the use of competitive tendering of railway maintenance. The description of the situation in the countries indicate important similarities. All clients are trying to attract more contractors to place bids. At the same time, and very outspoken in Finland, the profitability on the market for rail maintenance is not high, making it different to attract new companies to enter the market. Another common aspect concerns the allocation of risk between the parties, indicating different emphasis on fixed price and unit price contracts. A related dimension is the tradeoff between tendering input or output.

  • 127.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Salomonsson, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Kostnadsöverskridande i Trafikverkets entreprenadkontrakt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Government has instructed the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) to promote productivity in the construction industry. VTI assists Trafikverket in this work. In this report, the differences that exist between the price set in the contract between Trafikverket and the construction company that has been commissioned to implement an activity and the final cost of the assignment are reported. 776 contracts relating to contracts in both the road and rail sectors and that comprises both investments and maintenance measures and which cost more than SEK 10 million are included in the material.

    Statistical tests show, among other things, that the risk of cost overruns is very large, and slightly higher for railway contract (94 per cent probability) than for road contracts (86 per cent). The cost overrun for road contracts (1,20) is significantly lower than for rail contracts (1,32).

  • 128.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Marginalkostnader för reinvesteringar i järnvägsanläggningar: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Reinvesteringar i järnvägsanläggningar påverkas av trafik och utgör därför en komponent i marginalkostnaden för nyttjandet av infrastrukturen. Tidigare studier har traditionellt fokuserat på reinvesteringskostnader i banöverbyggnad. I denna studie skattas separata marginalkostnader för reinvesteringar i Bana (banöverbyggnad, banunderbyggnad, bangårdar), El, Signal, Tele och Övriga anläggningar. Trots att slitage av exempelvis signal- och teleanläggningar inte torde variera med trafik, finner vi statistiskt signifikanta samband mellan trafik och reinvesteringar i samtliga anläggningar. En förklaring är att trafikökningen innebär en ökad störningskostnad, även i frånvaron av ett trafikberoende slitage, och därmed att reinvesteringen tidigareläggs. Analysen visar även att de skattade effekterna främst kommer från jämförelser mellan bandelar, vilket innebär en risk att de (delvis) är korrelationer och inte kausala samband mellan trafik och reinvesteringar. När marginalkostnaderna för anläggningsgrupperna läggs samman hamnar de på 0,0141 kr per bruttotonkilometer och 4,4520 kr per tågkilometer.

  • 129.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Tidtabelläggning: principer, tumregler och utfall2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Agency (Transportstyrelsen) has commissioned VTI to assist in deepening the understanding of the way in which existing railway infrastructure can be efficiently used. The assignment also includes giving advice to the agency’s regulatory tasks within the railway industry. This includes the oversight of the process from initial applications of train paths submitted by train operators to the The Swedish Traffic Agency’s (Trafikverket) subsequent decision about a train plan for the upcoming year and also the ad hoc process taking place from this time to each day of the timetable.

    The report comprises three separate mimeos. The first details the principles and rules-of-thumb used during the scheduling process. The second memorandum focuses one particular aspect of the conflicts in demand for track access, namely the need for access to the infrastructure for maintenance purposes and the consequent need to close down tracks for train operations during this period of time. The third and final mimeo seeks to assess the outcome of the process. In particular, a comparison is made between applications and final allocation of time table slots. Two measures of excess demand are used; the number of trains completely denied access and the adjustment of departure-arrival times relative to initial demand specification.

  • 130.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Svensson, Kristin
    Högskolan Dalarna .
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Energimyndigheten.
    Estimating the marginal costs of road wear2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a large set of data, including age, pavement type, traffic etc., on sections of the road network, this paper sets out to assess the marginal cost of using the road infrastructure. It suggests a strategy for identifying major differences in marginal costs across the road network, and provides evidence that not only heavy vehicles but also cars contribute to road quality deterioration. The hypothesis is that this is due to the widespread use of studded tires in countries with regular freeze-thaw cycles. No indication of deterioration due to time per se is found.

  • 131.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 132.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Barriers for Innovation in Road Construction: A Technical Consultant's Perspective2019In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2019, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical consultants develop visions into buildable designs. Despite having a large impact on a construction project, there is a lack of research into the consultant's potential contribution to innovations. The main measure to stimulate innovation in the construction sector is providing contractor with degrees of freedom through design-build contracting. This contracting form is not new, but there are still problems with the sector productivity. Consultants enter construction projects in the planning stage and set the framework for what the contactors, in the following phase, can build. This paper aims at identifying the consultants' incentives for innovations in road construction. Four barriers for consultants to preserve degrees of freedom in the planning process have been identified: the legislation, strive for concretion, fixed prices payment schemes and monetary bonuses on finishing the road plan obstruct innovation. Removing such barriers can both improve productivity and contribute to a more sustainable construction market.

  • 133.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Den svenska fordonsbesiktningen: regleringens existensberättigande och välfärdseffekter av reformen2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 5, p. 59-69Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Den 1 juni 2010 reformerades marknaden för fordonsbesiktningen genom att privata företag tilläts erbjuda dessa tjänster. Tre år efter reformen kan det konstateras att inte mycket har förändrats på marknaden, att det saknas en strukturerad uppföljning av reformens välfärdseffekter samt att förarbetena till reformen inte utredde den grundläggande frågan om fordonsbesiktningens existensberättigande. Föreliggande studie avser att granska reformen utifrån två perspektiv, dels välfärdsteoretiskt, dels hur den obligatoriska fordonsbesikt-ningen motiveras. Välfärdsförluster av reformen är svåra att finna. Därutöver dras slutsatsen att fordonsförordningen som reglerar fordonsbesiktningen även täcks av annan lagstiftning.

  • 134.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The balance of unbalanced bidding2015In: Procedia Economics and Finance, E-ISSN 2212-5671, Vol. 21, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on anecdotal evidence, claims are made that unbalanced bidding is a serious problem in the construction industry. This concept is based on a situation with a contractor being more informed than the client. The asymmetry in information can be used by the contactor to skew unit prices in the ex ante bid and in order to enhance the ex post profit. This is done by increasing the unit price of a quantity that is expected to go up and lower the unit price of a quantity expected to decrease. Research regarding unbalanced bidding has to a large extent focused on models to assists clients in detecting and contractors in optimising the skew. There is also theoretical literature on efficiency losses of unbalanced bidding. The latter models show that it is rational for an informed contractor to raise unit prices on relative underestimated quantities. However, empirical studies that capture the magnitude of the problem are lacking. This paper sets out to fill that void. The analysis is based on a unique dataset of 15 Swedish road investments and 2 795 observations. Data consist of ex ante unit prices and quantities that are related to the final (ex post) quantities. By looking for a positive correlation between these variables and controlling for other affecting variables, the hypothesis of unbalanced bidding can be empirically tested. Along earlier studies on US data, this paper, using more project specific control variables concluded that the effect is even smaller or non-existent.

  • 135.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Bröchner, Jan
    Chalmers.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Design-Build, Innovation, and Competition: The Role of Smaller Contractors2017In: ICCREM 2017: Project Management and Construction Technology - Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2017, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) , 2017, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design-build (DB) contracting can be used to promote innovation in the infrastructure sector. Alongside innovation, public clients often wish to encourage competition. At a first glance, these two ambitions could be conflicting. More risk on the contractors stemming from DB might not appeal to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as they, ceteris paribus, have a risk disadvantage compared to larger firms. The research question is how more DB contracting will affect competition from a SME perspective. A simple model is provided to show how DBB stimulates competition and DB encourages innovation. Supported by semi-structured SME interviews from Sweden, it is discussed how the hybrid version of a controlled DB contract is inferior to alternative contract designs. The controlled DB contract does not stimulate competition nor provide incentives for innovation.

  • 136.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Degrees of freedom in road construction2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One policy that is believed to increase the rate of innovation and the level of productivity is to move from Design-bid-build contracts (DBB) to Design-Build contracts (DB). A common view is that the latter provides the contractor more degrees of freedom to enable innovation. This hypothesis consists of two steps, first that DB actually has more degrees of freedom and secondly that more degrees of freedom leads to more innovation. This paper focuses on the first step and is based on a review of five road construction projects – two labelled DBB and three DB. It is demonstrated that there is a gap between the textbook definition of the two types of contracts and the actual design of the examples. The degrees of freedom for the contractor are restricted in both DB and DBB contracting and no significant difference in this dimension could be established. Based on this lack of difference in the five projects, the expectation of innovation for the labelled contracts cannot be settled. Some possible rational reasons for the client to restrict the degrees of freedom are also suggested.

  • 137.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Skew to win, not to profit: unbalanced bidding among informed bidders2019In: Journal of Public Procurement, ISSN 1535-0118, E-ISSN 2150-6930, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several sectors, especially the construction industry, use unit price contracting (UPC). This contracting form provides agents, ex ante, with estimated quantities of the work to be done. Competing agents then offer corresponding unit prices i.e. the bid is a price vectors, and most often the lowest vector sum is awarded the contract. This way of procuring is not only transparent but also entails a potential problem of unbalanced bidding. Unbalanced bidding occurs when an informed agent skews unit prices to win the ex ante bid. The concept is not new topic in research, but theoretical models from an economics perspective are not extensive.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper will focus on how competition among informed bidders will affect the optimal solution.

    Findings: It is shown that skewing is still a dominating strategy under competition. However, competition will decrease, but not necessarily eliminate, information rents.

    Originality/value: In this setting, unbalanced bidding could mainly be seen as a way to win the contract and not to extract information rents. Thus, it would not constitute an efficiency problem for the client.

  • 138.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Delay Fees in the Procurement of Construction Projects2019In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 53, p. 348-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests Delay Fees (DF) to handle temporary congestion during road works. The DF is paid by the contractor based on road users' loss of travel time due to construction. This decentralises the trade-off between construction costs and user time to the contractor, increasing social welfare. The contractor not only will account for user time during each single project, but also is incentivised to develop innovative construction techniques. Compared to other means in the literature for reducing temporary construction, the DF is more general in its focus on user time rather than lane closure.

  • 139.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lind, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Degrees of freedom and innovations in construction contracts2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 47, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DB (Design and build) and DBB (Design-bid-build) represent two different contracting forms in construction. The first provides the contractor degrees of freedom in design, which enables innovation. DBB is the safe and traditional contracting form, where the client is responsible for the design and the contractor builds accordingly.

    Using a case study approach of five Swedish road construction projects, the present paper compares these contracting forms in terms of innovation. In this, the client's labelling of a contract being DB or DBB is taken at face value. It is established that the actual degrees of freedom for the contractors are highly restricted and that no important difference can be seen between the contracting forms regarding innovation. This implies that it is no reason to expect more innovation simply by labelling contracts as DB. Rational explanations for the usage of DB-contracts with bounds on the degrees of freedom are also suggested. Policy implications for promoting innovation in infrastructure contracting finalise the study.

  • 140.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stimulera konkurrensen i anläggningssektorn: hur behandlas små och medelstora företag i våra grannländer?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish market for road construction and maintenance is often described as having a problem with sufficient competition. Similar countries have more dynamic markets with an adequate number of bidders on each contract, the argument goes. However, analysis often ends there, with little or no empirical underpinning.

    The aim of this report is to map competition in the road market in Norway, Denmark, England and Germany with quantitative data and comparing it to the Swedish case. A concentration ratio, the market share of the four largest firms in relation to the whole market, is used as a key indicator. This measurement is completed with a comparison between the analysed countries regarding market institutions and initiatives to strengthen competition. This discussion is based on interviews with representatives of the supplier side. The focus is on the possibility of more firms entering the market, especially small and medium sized enterprises (SME).

    The most notable result is that Sweden has a high concentration in the market for roads, compared to the other countries. In addition to the high degree of market concentration, the Swedish market composition remains the same throughout the investigated period. This is contrasted with England, which has the most concentrated market in the sample but where the composition of the four largest companies changes over the years. Weighing market concentration and market dynamics together, Sweden is found to have less competition than the other analyzed countries.

  • 141.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Empirical analysis of unbalanced bidding on Swedish roads2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on anecdotal evidence, claims are made that unbalanced bidding is a major problem in the construction industry. This concept refers to a sealed price auction setting with asymmetric information and unit prices, where information rents are extracted. Theoretical literature has shown that it is rational for an informed contractor to skew unit prices. However, empirical studies on the magnitude of the problem are lacking. As the first quantitative study based on European data, it is shown that unbalanced bidding exists, but in small magnitudes. The result is in line with earlier studies from the US.

  • 142.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Behov av statistik om godstågens tillförlitlighet: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the official statistics on rail traffic in Sweden only comprise passenger trains. The reliability of freight trains should also be included in the statistics. This leads to questions on which information should be included and how it should be described. This pre-study is a knowledge base of the necessary development of the official statistics in Sweden, and is centered on the users’ current and potential needs of statistics on freight train reliability.

    In this context, reliability is the ability of a transport system to follow the timetable, upon which users have organized their activities. A traffic disturbance, such as delays or cancelled trains, creates unreliability in the transport system, which should be characterized in more ways than the frequency of the disturbances in order to meet different users’ needs of statistics. To produce the necessary statistics, one must answer the following questions. Which units and variables should be included? Which domains should be included? Which statistical measures should be presented?

    This study shows that the relevant units are vehicles and traffic disturbances. The necessary variables are scheduled, arrived and cancelled vehicles, as well as vehicles that are adjustments/late changes of the timetable. Variables on timetable deviations for vehicles running on the network are also necessary. In this aspect, there are differences between passenger and freight trains as the latter group relatively often depart or arrive ahead of schedule, which is also important to capture with statistics.

  • 143.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Benchmarking in a publicly owned monopoly: estimating the dual-level cost efficiency of railway maintenance in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Contract design and performance of railway maintenance: effects of incentive intensity and performance incentive schemesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Contract design and performance of railway maintenance: Effects of incentive intensity and performance incentive schemes2019In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the effect of contract design on the performance of railway maintenance in Sweden, using a panel data set over the period 2003-2013. The effect of incentive intensity is estimated, showing that the power of incentive schemes improve performance as measured by the number of infrastructure failures. In addition, we show that the structure of the performance incentive schemes has resulted in a reallocation of effort from failures not causing train delays to failures causing train delays, with a substantial increase in the former type of failures. This signals a deteriorating asset condition, which highlights the need to consider the long-term effects of this incentive structure. Overall, this work shows that the design of the incentive structures has a large impact on the performance of maintenance, and that the estimated effects are important to consider when assessing contract designs within this field.

  • 146.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Estimating the Impact of Traffic on Rail Infrastructure Maintenance Costs The Importance of Axle Loads2019In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 53, p. 258-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we estimate the impact of axle loads on rail infrastructure maintenance costs. The results show that cost elasticities with respect to traffic increase with axle load. Using these elasticities, we calculate marginal costs for traffic that are differentiated with respect to the trains' average tonnage per axle. The results are relevant when setting track access charges in Europe as well as for railway cost studies in general, considering that the empirical evidence in this paper gives support to the engineering perspective - that is, axle loads are important to consider when assessing the damage caused by traffic.

  • 147.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Marginalkostnader för järnvägsunderhåll: trafikens påverkan på olika anläggningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del av banavgiften för nyttjandet av infrastrukturen består av kostnader för järnvägsunderhåll som uppstår som en direkt följd av tågtrafiken. Då nedbrytning och slitage av vissa järnvägsanläggningar och komponenter inte påverkas av trafik, kan det göras gällande att underhållskostnader för dessa inte bör ingå i en marginalkostnadsbaserad avgift. I denna studie skattar vi kostnadselasticiteter med en ekonometrisk metod för att undersöka om och hur trafik påverkar underhållskostnader för olika grupper av järnvägsanläggningar. Resultaten visar att det finns statistiskt signifikanta samband mellan trafik och underhållskostnader för anläggningsgrupperna Bana, El, Signal och Tele. En förklaring till sambanden för exempelvis signal- och teleanläggningar är att mer förebyggande underhåll genomförs för att upprätthålla en viss tillförlitlighet hos anläggningen när trafiken ökar och därmed undvika en ökad kostnad för inställda och försenade tåg – en kostnad som kan öka oavsett om mer trafik orsakar en ökad nedbrytning eller inte.

  • 148.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The impact of cumulative tonnes on track failures: an empirical approach2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis is often used in appraisal of rail infrastructure investments. A corresponding decision support is, however, not available for rail infrastructure maintenance and renewal. To for example decide whether to renew or continue to maintain an infrastructure asset, a relationship between cumulative traffic and infrastructure failures is required. This relationship is established in this paper, using an empirical (top-down) approach on Swedish data for years 2003 to 2016. It is shown that the average elasticity for track failures with respect to cumulative tonnes is 0.32, and that the elasticity varies for different levels of traffic and for different infrastructure characteristics. The results in this paper can for example be used to calculate the impact cumulative tonnes have on train delay costs, which together with a relationship between cumulative traffic and infrastructure maintenance costs are essential in an economic optimization of maintenance and renewal activities.

  • 149.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Boysen, Hans. E.
    KTH.
    Railway line capacity utilisation and its impact on maintenance costs2018In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse how railway maintenance costs are affected by different levels of railway line capacity utilisation. Previous studies have focused on the wear and tear of the infrastructure, while this paper shows that it is important to also acknowledge the heterogeneity of the maintenance production environment. Specifically, we estimate marginal maintenance costs for traffic using econometric methods on a panel dataset from Sweden and show that these costs increase with line capacity utilisation. The results are significant considering that current EU regulation (2015/909) states that track access charges can be based on marginal costs, with the aim of achieving an efficient use of available infrastructure capacity.

  • 150.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter med en kombitransport: beräkningar på järnvägsvagnen Flexiwaggon2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and the EU, there is a stated need to combine more freight transports on road with railway. The aim is to reduce emissions of climate gases, as well as noise and other external effects such as congestion, accidents and wear and tear of the road. New innovations and transport solutions can be necessary to increase the number of combined road and railway freight transports. The transport solution analyzed in this study is a new railway wagon that can transport trucks at the speed of 160 km/h. The purpose of the study is to calculate the economic effects the new railway wagon can generate if it is used on a route where rail can be a viable alternative to road transport. In this, the environment and energy effects are studied, as well as the commercial cost.

    To define the contestable market between transport modes in a certain situation can be a challenging task, as there are many – and often interacting – factors that determine the mode choice. However, the literature states that route distance and the characteristics of the goods being transported are crucial factors for mode choice, where examples of the characteristics of goods are its value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, and weight (these can to a large extent be captured by the type of good). Freight transport on rail are often considered to be a viable approach on distances over 300 kilometres. In this study, we use three project cases with the route distances 280, 420 and 670 kilometres. We assume that distinct groups of goods are transported, as this will have an impact on the calculations.

    The base cases (with the abbreviation JA in the study) comprises road transport carried out by trucks with a trailer. A major part of the distance in the project cases (abbreviated UA) is covered by trains on which the trucks have been loaded. There are no truck drivers on the train transport.

    The environment and energy effects (exclusive noise) are calculated using a tool provided by the Network for Transport Measures (NTM). Differences in carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter are presented, where the project cases have lower emissions than the base cases. Moreover, a lower amount of energy is consumed in the project cases compared to the base cases.

12345 101 - 150 of 234
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf