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  • 101.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits captured in an appraisal of a railway investment are determined by what timetables the analyst assumes in the scenarios with and without the investment. Without an explicit, objective and verifiable principle for which timetables to assume, the appraisal outcome is virtually arbitrary. This means that appraisals of railway investments cannot be compared to each other, and opens the door for strategic behaviour by stakeholders conducting seemingly objective cost-benefit analysis. We explain and illustrate the nature and extent of the problem, discuss possible timetable construction principles, and show that current practice is likely to exaggerate appraisal benefits.

  • 104.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH.
    Fler bussar i Stockholm bättre än nytt spårvägsnät2011In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 105. Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Odeck, James
    Welde, Morten
    Does benefit/cost-efficiency influence transport investment decisions?2015In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 377-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore how benefit-cost efficiency and electoral support affect road investment decisions in Sweden and Norway. In Norway, neither benefits nor costs seem to affect project selection. In Sweden, civil servants’ decisions are strongly affected by projects’ benefit-cost ratios, with a stronger effect for more expensive projects, while politicians’ decisions are only weakly affected, and only for small projects. In both countries, governments tend to favour investments in regions where they enjoy strong local electoral support. Using cost efficiency as a final selection criterion seems to filter out many inefficient projects already at an early stage of the planning process. We argue that even if political decisionmakers are apparently mostly governed by other concerns than cost efficiency, civil servants at the administrations should not shy away from preparing efficient project suggestions for decisionmakers to choose from.

  • 106.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The unexpected "yes!": Explanatory factors behind the positive attitudes to congestion charges in Stockholm2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 636-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several authors have argued that acceptability for road pricing is likely to increase with familiarity. The experiences in Stockholm, where a trial period with congestion charges changed the public opinion from negative to positive, support this hypothesis. Analysing acceptability and attitudes in Stockholm allows us to study a situation where the population is in fact familiar with congestion charges, and explore what the decisive factors for acceptability are in such a situation. By analysing a survey collected after the referendum and the subsequent reintroduction of the charges, we analyse the prerequisites to achieve acceptability given that the public is familiar with congestion charges.

    As expected, low car dependence and good transit supply are associated with high acceptability. But the two most important factors turn out to be beliefs about the charges' effectiveness, and general environmental attitudes. The importance of beliefs and perceptions of the effects of the charges underscores the importance of both careful system design and careful evaluation and results communication. The strong connection between environmental concerns and positive attitudes to congestion charges underscores the importance of considering and “marketing” the charges' environmental effects. In Stockholm, the politicians' decision to “re-label” the congestion charges to “environmental charges” and emphasising their positive effects on air quality may very well have had a positive impact on acceptability.

  • 107.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category and several spatial dimensions.

    All the analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but just barely regressive if the absolutely highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the variation within income groups is substantial; the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups.

    The two most important geographical distinctions are between rural and urban areas (including even small towns), and between central cities and satellites/suburbs; these spatial dimensions matter much more for distributional effects than for example whether an area is remote or sparsely populated.

  • 108.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases2018In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 15, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category, and spatial dimensions. The analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups. We also study revenue recycling schemes; when these are included, the combined effect of tax and recycling is progressive. Considering geographical differences; rural areas carry a larger burden of fuel and vehicle taxes than urban areas, and satellites/suburbs carry a larger burden than central cities. However, rural areas are affected remarkably similar regardless of where in the country they are located.

  • 109.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMA.
    Gullne, Ulf
    SMA.
    Lindvall, Johny
    SMA.
    Karvonen, Tapio
    CMS.
    Saurama, Antti
    CMS.
    Göthe-Lundgren, Maud
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Allocation of infrastructure cost in the maritime sector2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable consists in principle of two parts; one part with a review of the literature around maritime infrastructure cost with a focus on fairways (section 3), pilotage (section 4) and ports (section 5) and another part with an in-depth study on the Baltic icebreaking fleet (section 6). Our main conclusion from the first part is that all these parts of the infrastructure (fairways, pilotage and ports) show significant economies of scale. A long run marginal cost pricing strategy will never recover the cost and a short run pricing strategy (including user costs) will have problems with cost recovery if the capacity utilisation is low. The pricing strategies observed seem to use numerous forms of two part tariffs and "Ramsey" pricing solutions to solve the cost recovery issue of the sector. The consequence of all these (small) deviations from marginal cost pricing should probably be further analysed. The second part deals with icebreaking and notes that icebreaking in open water is not charged for by any EU Member State. Still the case study reported in this paper shows that the operation is characterised by considerable marginal costs. Finally, a relevant question to address is to what extent there are justifications for European or international legislation on maritime charging in the light of economic theory. Obviously, it is useful to address different parts of the maritime infrastructure separately.

  • 110.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Lingegard, Sofia
    KTH.
    Borg, Lena
    KTH.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Procurement of Railway Infrastructure Projects: A European Benchmarking Study2017In: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2476-3055, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This benchmarking study compares how railway investments are procured in five European countries: Sweden, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. In total, 19 procurement managers and project managers were interviewed. This study compares the national rail clients' procurement strategies regarding: delivery system, reward system, contractor selection, and collaboration model. Historically, these clients have used in-house production. The first step towards a gradually increased usage of the market was to outsource the construction activities while keeping the design and development competence in-house. All five countries have mainly used Design-Bid-Build contracts in their initial outsourcing. However, the last few years there is a discernible trend in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands and the UK towards allocating more design and development responsibilities to contractors (i.e. Design-Build contracts) and increasing the strategic focus on cooperation. The UK and the Netherlands are forerunners in this trend that can be viewed as a third step in the transition towards a market oriented railway sector. Norway and Sweden is in the middle of this transition, whereas Germany has not initiated this change. The transition towards a gradually increased usage of the market has two main dimensions; degree of cooperation and degree of contractor freedom, which differs among the countries. The UK and Sweden focus on increasing both these dimensions, while The Netherlands and Norway mostly focus on increasing the degree of contractor freedom. Germany still limits both dimensions by performing design and development in-house and letting contractors compete for construction work in Design-Bid-Build contracts. Due to historical and cultural reasons, Deutsche Bahn in Germany is very hesitant to engage in collaboration with external suppliers; focusing on competition is considered more appropriate and less controversial.

  • 111.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vart är vi på väg?: Systemfel i transportpolitiken2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 112.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Asymmetric information on risky behaviour: Evidence from the automobile insurance market2014In: Geneva papers on risk and insurance. Issues and practice, ISSN 1018-5895, E-ISSN 1468-0440, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 104-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the Swedish automobile insurance market by accounting for policyholders' private information on risky behaviour in terms of major and minor traffic violations. Two approaches are used: A positive correlation test and a test where private information is used explicitly. The results show that there is a positive correlation, which is not affected when including private information in the regression, that policyholders with private information on risky behaviour are less likely to purchase full coverage, and that speeders follow a varying pattern. The conclusion is that it is favourable to use private information explicitly when asymmetric information is considered, rather than base the conclusion solely on the correlation test.

  • 113.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yarmuchamedov, Sherzod
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Hur väl fungerar försäkringsbranschen?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 7p. 40-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk teori visar hur försäkringssystem kan bidra till ökad välfärd. Men den visar också att det finns gränser för hur mycket trygghet vi kan eller bör skaffa oss genom försäkringar. Med unika mikrodata undersöker vi i denna artikel ett antal frågeställningar om försäkringsmarknadens effektivitet. Resultaten har betydelse för förståelsen av hur informationsasymmetrier hanteras av försäkringsbranschen, samt underlag för vissa policyrekommendationer när det gäller trafiksäkerhet och fordonsförsäkringar.

  • 114.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i regelgivningsarbetet: Avrapportering av inledande delprojekt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportstyrelsen genomför konsekvensutredningar bland annat avseende förslag till förändringar i föreskrifter, framställan till regelförändringar och som en del i regeringsuppdrag. Myndigheten har under senare år identifierat ett behov av att vidga innehållet i konsekvensutredningarna för att kunna bedöma om nya och förändrade regleringar bidrar till en transport-försörjning som är samhällsekonomiskt effektiv. Ett utvecklingsarbete har pågått sedan myndigheten bildades 2009.

    Inom ramen för ett pågående forskningsprojekt genomfört av Centrum för Transportstudier (CTS) – Samhällsekonomisk analys av regleringar – studeras effekterna av de förändringar som genomförts. Syftet är att analysera de problem som uppkommer i det praktiska arbetet med genomförandet av konsekvensanalyser av samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och att, baserat på resultaten, utveckla en mer generell metodik för hur arbetet ska genomföras och vad som bör ingå i den samhällsekonomiska analysen.

  • 115.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH.
    Weibull, Jörgen
    KTH.
    A note on the invariance of the distribution of the maximum2018In: Journal of Mathematical Economics, ISSN 0304-4068, E-ISSN 1873-1538, Vol. 74, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many models in economics involve discrete choices where a decision-maker selects the best alternative from a finite set. Viewing the array of values of the alternatives as a random vector, the decision-maker draws a realization and chooses the alternative with the highest value. The analyst is then interested in the choice probabilities and in the value of the best alternative. The random vector has the invariance property if the distribution of the value of a specific alternative, conditional on that alternative being chosen, is the same, regardless of which alternative is considered. This note shows that the invariance property holds if and only if the marginal distributions of the random components are positive powers of each other, even when allowing for quite general statistical dependence among the random components. We illustrate the analytical power of the invariance property by way of examples.

  • 116.
    Fölster, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Climate Policy to Defeat the Green Paradox2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide emissions have accelerated since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. This discouraging development may partly be blamed on accelerating world growth and on lags in policy instruments. However, it also raises serious question concerning whether policies to reduce CO(2) emissions are as effective as generally assumed. In recent years, a considerable number of studies have identified various feedback mechanisms of climate policies that often erode, and occasionally reinforce, their effectiveness. These studies generally focus on a few feedback mechanisms at a time, without capturing the entire effect. Partial accounting of policy feedbacks is common in many climate scenarios. The IPCC, for example, only accounts for direct leakage and rebound effects. This article attempts to map the aggregate effects of different types of climate policy feedback mechanisms in a cohesive framework. Controlling feedback effects is essential if the policy measures are to make any difference on a global level. A general conclusion is that aggregate policy feedback mechanisms tend to make current climate policies much less effective than is generally assumed. In fact, various policy measures involve a definite risk of 'backfiring' and actually increasing CO(2) emissions. This risk is particularly pronounced once effects of climate policies on the pace of innovation in climate technology are considered. To stand any chance of controlling carbon emissions, it is imperative that feedback mechanisms are integrated into emission scenarios, targets for emission reduction and implementation of climate policy. In many cases, this will reduce the scope for subsidies to renewable energy sources, but increase the scope for other measures such as schemes to return carbon dioxide to the ground and to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases from wetlands and oceans. A framework that incorporates policy feedback effects necessitates rethinking the design of the national and regional emission targets. This leads us to a new way of formulating emission targets that include feedback effects, the global impact target. Once the full climate policy feedback mechanisms are accounted for, there are probably only three main routes in climate policy that stand a chance of mitigating global warming: (a) returning carbon to the ground, (b) technological leaps in zero-emission energy technology that make it profitable to leave much carbon in the ground even in Annex II countries and (c) international agreements that make it more profitable to leave carbon in the ground or in forests.

  • 117.
    Gospic, Katarina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Sundberg, Marcus
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Maeder, Johanna
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Altruism costs-the cheap signal from amygdala2014In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1325-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people state their willingness to pay for something, the amount usually differs from the behavior in a real purchase situation. The discrepancy between a hypothetical answer and the real act is called hypothetical bias. We investigated neural processes of hypothetical bias regarding monetary donations to public goods using fMRI with the hypothesis that amygdala codes for real costs. Real decisions activated amygdala more than hypothetical decisions. This was observed for both accepted and rejected proposals. The more the subjects accepted real donation proposals the greater was the activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex-a region known to control amygdala but also neural processing of the cost-benefit difference. The presentation of a charitable donation goal evoked an insula activity that predicted the later decision to donate. In conclusion, we have identified the neural mechanisms underlying real donation behavior, compatible with theories on hypothetical bias. Our findings imply that the emotional system has an important role in real decision making as it signals what kind of immediate cost and reward an outcome is associated with.

  • 118.
    Grahn, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Voorneveld, Mark
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Population Monotonic Allocation Schemes in Bankruptcy Games2001In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 109, no 1-4, p. 315-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The USA Bankruptcy Code legislates the bankruptcy of firms. Any allocation mechanism that is legal according to the Bankruptcy Code is necessarily population monotonic. Bankruptcy rules yielding a population monotonic allocation scheme in the associated bankruptcy game are characterized by efficiency, reasonability (each claimant receives a nonnegative amount not exceeding his claim), and the thieve property. The thieve property for bankruptcy problems entails that if a claimant manages to escape with his claim, the amount allocated to each remaining claimant is not larger than his share in the original problem. Many bankruptcy rules studied in the literature are efficient, reasonable, self-consistent, and monotonic. Rules satisfying these axioms are shown to yield population monotonic allocation schemes.

  • 119.
    Grahn-Voorneveld, Sofia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sharing costs in Swedish road ownership associations2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Usually transport systems, and roads in particular, are viewed as public goods. However, this is not always the case. In Sweden a large part of the road system is privately owned. Most of these privately owned roads are rural roads used by farmers and summer cottage owners, or used for forest transport. The roads are mainly provided by ownership associations. The motivation of this paper is the practical problem of how such an ownership association can dicide the costs for the road netword among the members in a "fair" way. The problem is treated from a game theoretical point of view, making use of the Shapley value. This means that the problem is associated with a game – a mathematical representation of the conflict situation. The Shapley value is a very important solution concept for cooperative games, like tha game in this case. For games corresponding to this specific type of problems, it is shown that the Shapley value has excellent properties, such as being an element of the core, and being very easy to compute.

  • 120.
    Grahn-Voorneveld, Sofia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sharing profit in parallel and serial transport networks2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the incentives for different countries to cooperate concerning pricing in transport systems, and how to handle the profit from such cooperation. Two types of simple networks with congestion are considered; one with parallel links, and one serial network with a number of consecutive links. The owner of each link tolls the traffic using the link. First the incentives for cooperative behavior among the countries are studied, and shown to be considerable. This is done by using non-cooperative game theory. Second, cooperative game theory is used to analyse solution concepts for allocating the resources raised from cooperation.

  • 121.
    Grahn-Voorneveld, Sofia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The effects of  decentralized capacity decisions for congested self-financed roads2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 56, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the differences between centralized and decentralized decisions for capacity and road user charges on a congested self-financed road with local, national and international traffic. Road user charges are allowed only to cover the costs for providing the road with a specific capacity, and to cover external costs caused by traffic.

    The road is either provided by the nation, or else this responsibility is decentralized to the community.The results of this paper show that it can matter significantly on what level such a decision is made. A decentralized decision leads to a total wellfare loss, and there is both a national and international interest for not decentralizing such decisions

  • 122.
    Grahn-Voorneveld, Sofia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The inefficiency of marginal cost pricing on roads2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic principle of road pricing is that a road toll should equal the marginal cost imposed by an additional user, since this will lead to efficient use of the transport facility. However, when the road is used by traffic both from the road providing region as well as by traffic from another region, the supplied road standard is likely to be too low, since the consumer surplus of the users from outside the region is not taken into account. This can be solved by letting an authority level higher than the road supplier use taxes and earmarked transactions to raise the road standard. (In Europe we see this done in the Trans European Network). To do this the higher authority needs very detailed information about the road and the users on local level. Further raising taxes and transactions also involve costs that can be substantial. Another problem is that transactions of this type it is hard to separate from other political interference. This paper analyzes how a limited toll on top of the marginal cost can serve the purpose of solving this problem locally, without involving a higher authority.

  • 123.
    Gustafsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Den svenska marknaden för godstransporter på järnväg: En analys av dominerande ställning2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish rail freight market was deregulated in 1996. This granted private and public firms access to the tracks and enabled competition with the former state-owned monopoly Statens Järnvägar (SJ). SJ separated the freight business in 2001, to the separate but still state-owned company Green Cargo. Competition on the rail freight market has been strengthened gradually and Green Cargo has gone from a monopoly position to an average market share of 55 percent. The company's market shares vary in the different sub-markets. Green Cargo is dominant in some sub-markets, but not all. Dominant companies in a market can be problematic and are regulated in the Swedish Competition Act “konkurrenslagen” (SFS 2008: 579). Importantly, it is not illegal to be dominant, but it is the abuse of a dominant position that is regulated. Assessment of possible abuse of a dominant position, consists of three chronological steps. Initially (1) the relevant market is defined, in order to then (2) calculate the company’s market share and whether it sustains a dominant position and (3) assess whether the dominant operator has abused its dominant position. This report aims to implement the first two steps concerning the freight transport market. The overall question is whether rail freight should be regarded as a common market. The analysis is carried out in two parts. The first is a traditional competition analysis driven by competition law (SFS 2008: 579), while the other is limited to rail transport alone, which is justified on the basis of the EU directive SERA (Single European Railway Area) and the Railway Act “järnvägslagen” (SFS 2004: 519). The traditional competition analysis begins with defining relevant markets according to the Competition Act, and the existence of dominant players in these markets is examined. The second analysis is based on the Railway Act and includes only rail freight transport. The dominance issue is assessed in this second part, by calculating market shares for the given market: block trains, single wagon load trains, combined trains and ore trains on the Malmbanan in Northern Sweden. In the second part of the study, which is based on the Swedish Railway Act, the markets are given as block trains, single wagon load trains, combined trains and ore trains on the Malmbanan. Given these markets, the market shares for Green Cargo are calculated using available data on tonkm and assumptions. Green Cargo is found to be dominant on single wagon load trains where they are alone, but also on block trains where they are estimated to have a market share above 50 percent. There are several companies with a significant market share in combined trains, and none of them is dominant. At the Malmbanan, Luossavaara–Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) manages its own transport and is dominant. The study shows that the Swedish rail freight market should not be seen as a uniform market. In the traditional competition analysis, three relevant markets are defined. Green Cargo is found to be dominant in the market for heavy freight transport in large volumes to or from industries in the Swedish inland where competition from other modes of transport is missing. In the market for medium-heavy goods transport within Sweden, Green Cargo is not dominant, as there is competition from other types of traffic. Defining the markets to include only rail transport, Green Cargo is dominated by two of four markets; system trains and cargo transports. However, a dominant position does not per se mean there is imperfect competition.

  • 124.
    Hans, Lind
    et al.
    KTH, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The Explanation of Incomplete Contracts in Mainstream Contract Theory: A Critique of the Distinction between "Observable" and "Verifiable"2011In: Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, ISSN 1349-4961, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 279-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream contract theory often makes a distinction between things that are observable by the contracting parties but not verifiable by a third party. This distinction has, e.g. been used to explain why contracts are incomplete in some dimensions and claimed to provide the foundations of incomplete contract theory.

    This article sets out to scrutinize the assumption and argues that if something is observable by the parties, the parties can ex ante, without prohibitive costs, make these features verifiable by a third party. This implies that the distinction between observable and verifiable cannot be a fundamental explanation for incomplete contracts. Ex post it can be difficult to verify statements by a third party, but then it must be explained why the parties had not ex ante taken measures to make it possible to verify ex post. A number of such explanations are discussed in the paper. The arguments put forward are based on two detailed examples and also supported by important theories from the philosophy of language, which underline that concepts must be related to something observable in order to be learnt.

  • 125.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Metodologiska perspektiv på konstnads-nyttoanalys2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom samhällsekonomiska analyser utgör kostnad-nyttoanalys (CBA) ofta en viktig funktion och detta gäller särskilt vid dagens transportpolitiska beslutsfattande. Samtidigt är det en metod som är i centrum för en del diskussioner. Följande uppsats avser att analysera dessa diskussioner ur ett ekonomisk metodologiskt perspektiv. Tre arenor kommer att beaktas: filosofers kritik, den inomdisciplinära debatten bland nationalekonomer samt den svenska samhällsdebatten. I huvudsak nås slutsatsen att det är blandad kvalité i såväl kritik mot CBA som dess försvar. Den filosofiska kritiken måste inhämtas även om den inte slår fullt mot CBA som samhällsekonomisk metod. CBA-anhängare är medvetna om delar av problematiken och jobbar med det, främst kring värderingsstudier. Dock kan detta prioriteras ännu mer framöver. I den svenska samhällsdebatten förs det fram kritik som inte når fram. Allt detta sammantaget tillsammans med avsaknaden av alternativ innebär att CBA får ses som lämplig i nuläget. Framtida forskning bör särskilt utreda interaktionen mellan CBA och beteendeekonomi samt lyckoforskning. Det är också lämpligt att betrakta CBA utifrån vilken funktion det har inom ett beslutsunderlag. Särskilt intressant är då att vidare studera Vägverkets "samlad effektbedömning".

  • 126.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svenska flygplatser och marginalkostnadsprissättning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Swedish Civil Aviation Authority. The aim is to update the knowledge regarding the price relevant costs of aviation. We distinguish between marginal costs caused by airport activities and those caused by the external effects of pollution and noise. The review shows that vital data is missing regarding the activities and effects of aviation in order to perform solid marginal cost calculations. In the report we have calculated approximative values for two types of airplanes. Marginal costs related to airport services are divided into those related to passenger services and those related to congestion services. We conclude that the Swedish charges are at least twice as high as marginal costs. We do, however, lack any estimation of the congestion-related marginal costs. Regarding the external effects, today's charges concerning the landing and take-off cycle are sufficient although partly mischarged since they only reflect NOx-emissions. Moreover it should be examined if emissions during flying should be charged or not. The conclusion of this report is that more research is needed in this area. This concerns studies dealing with Swedish airports as well as making cost data publicly available.

  • 127.
    Hansson, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Kollektivtrafikens finanser1983Report (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Stockholm University.
    A new Swedish Railroad Policy: Separation of Infrastructure and Traffic Production1991In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 153-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1988 the Swedish nationalized railway company was separated into two separate entities, the Swedish State Railways in charge of running rail transport and the National Rail Administration, responsible for investment in and maintenance of rail infrastructure. This paper describes institutional aspects of this new railway policy. It also specifies methodological and practical problems in the computation of social marginal costs for using rail as well as road infrastructure. It is furthermore made likely that present fuel charges on road vehicles, but not the new rail use charges, are insufficient to cover costs for infrastructure use.

  • 129.
    Hansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Bypassing public procurement regulation: a study of rationality in local decision making2011In: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 368-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using private contractors through procurement is common in most public sector areas. Despite the benefits of procurement, officials are sometimes tempted to circumvent procurement regulations. The aim of this article is to examine the strategies used by local governmental decisionmakers to bypass procurement regulations and to analyze the rationality underlying these officials' actions. Interviews, court documents, municipal documents, and newspaper articles describing the actions of Swedish municipal officials concerning special transport service (STS) procurements were collected and analyzed. In a case in which rural municipalities lost regular taxi services after STS procurement, we demonstrate how decisions were driven by pressure from the public and local interest groups, making municipal officials deviate from procurement regulations in striving to secure the existence of regular taxi services. One outcome was that local businesses were given preferential treatment, violating regulations and reducing economic efficiency.

  • 130.
    Hansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Longva, Frode
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo .
    Contracting accountability in network governance structures2014In: Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management/Emerald, ISSN 1176-6093, E-ISSN 1758-7654, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 92-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how accountability is expressed in contractual arrangements found in network governance structures that provide public transport services and to raise discussion of how to understand contracting accountability in network governance contexts. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is rooted in two research traditions: contracting studies and studies of accountability in government/governance contexts. Content analysis is used in examining contracts from two cases. These contracts are of five types: contracts between public organizations, contracts within a public organization, contracts between public organizations and private firms, and contracts between political parties within a municipality and contracts within a network. Various contracting approaches are identified within these types. Findings - The paper concludes that the contractsà functions differ between the cases. The first case did not have an overall contract that defined the network, relying on different two-party contracts instead. In the other case, an incentive-based contract was used to link the organizations. From an accountability perspective, the latter contracting structure clarifies the roles and responsibilities of the actors and increases the possibility of accountability to citizens. Originality/value - The paper brings new insights to the field of contracting and accountability by focusing on the role of contracts in network governance structures, taking account of various accountability relationships. It also contributes new theoretical categories usable when analysing contracting accountability in a network context.

  • 131.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal costs for road maintenance and operation: a cost function approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using observational data covering the whole Swedish national road network for the period 1998-2002, this paper estimates a set of maintenance and operation cost functions. It is found that costs for all operation and maintenance measures increase with traffic intensity, with two exceptions; total operation and winter operation measures are fixed cost activities. All other operation and maintenance measures have short run elasticities in the range 0.25-0.60. The impact of an additional vehicle is generally manifested in extra maintenance and operation costs, not only while the vehicle is using the road, but later on as well. Point estimates of long run cost elasticities are higher than one in general.

  • 132.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginalkostnader för drift och underhåll av det nationella vägnätet: skattningar med data från 2004-–20092012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using observed costs for operation and maintenance of the Swedish national road network, together with information about the amount of traffic and a description about the road network for the period 2004–-2009 cost functions are estimated. From these functions cost elasticity is derived and marginal costs are computed. The results of the estimations from these years are in this study compared to analyses of a similar but older dataset covering the years 1998–-2002. The results are reasonably consistent in some cases while in other cases differences are found between the two datasets. Given the limited amount of empirical results about these issues, the differences are not strikingly large. No obvious contradictions between analyses based on the older and newer dataset are found. Our view is that results from the two datasets in some sense confirm each other, although more data is required to establish more precise estimates of cost elasticity and marginal costs. From the analyses performed in this study the marginal costs can be estimated within an interval corresponding to 5–30 percent of the average costs.

    Our estimates show that marginal costs for operation and maintenance of the national road network are lower than the average costs (all elasticity is in the range 0.31–0.85). The cost increase in paved road maintenance resulting from an extra truck kilometer is about

    0.21–0.32 Swedish crowns. For gravel roads the corresponding marginal cost is about

    1.65–2.72 Swedish crowns. For operation measures the marginal cost is 0 Swedish crowns on paved roads and 0.15–0.24 Swedish crowns per vehicle kilometer on gravel roads. The per vehicle kilometer cost for winter maintenance is estimated to 0.01–0.02 Swedish crowns.

  • 133.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The marginal cost for pavement renewal: a duration analysis approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The wear and tear of an extra vehicle that uses a road results in advancement of future repavements. This increases the present value cost of these repavements, which is interpreted as the marginal cost. Using a large data set covering all pavement renewals on the Swedish national road network since the 1950s, deterioration elasticities that express the relation between traffic intensity and the pavement lifetime are estimated and are then used to compute marginal costs. The elasticities for heavy goods vehicles and passenger cars are found to be small and marginal costs are accordingly low.

  • 134.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Travel behaviour and land use in the information society: Literature review and problem discussion2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to review literature relevant for studies about the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on transportation. The review will be used as a starting point for a research project at Swedish national road and transport research institute (VTI) and the department of economics, Uppsala university. To the relevant literature belongs of course empirical studies. But for the planned research it is maybe even more important to find suitable theoretical models. Therefore a quite comprehensive literature review of activity based transport research is included as well. Finally the report contains a brief description of data sources to be used in the project.

  • 135.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Estimating the economic lifetime of roads using road replacement data2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the economic lifetime of roads in Sweden using a data over kilometres of new roads together with a "centrality" index constructed from population statistics. The relation between economic lifetime and centrality is performed by poisson regression. It is shown that roads in more central parts of the country and in parts more affected by population changes (increase) generally have shorter economic lifetimes. The analysis shows economic lifetimes of Swedish roads to be between 25 and 111 years, with the majority of the economic lifetimes in the upper part of this range (above 70 years).

  • 136.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av rundvirkestransporter med 90-tonslastbilar: delprojekt inom Sammodalitetsprojektet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to make a cost benefit analysis, showing how costs for truck transports of round wood would change if vehicles with a total weight of 90 tonnes were used instead of the 60-tonne vehicles that are currently in use. The analysis has two parts. First, costs per vehicle kilometre are presented for both vehicle sizes. This gives a good general view but does not take into account the various conditions with regard to road type, etcetera, that affect costs. Neither does it take into account that the amount of vehicle kilometres associated with round wood transports changes if larger vehicles are allowed. Therefore a scenario analysis is also performed. The basis for this analysis is simulations using the Swedish transport and logistics system Samgods. Flow estimates from Samgods are combined with road attribute data from the national road database (NVDB) to compute the total transport cost, including externalities. In these computations road type and other situation specific factors are taken into account. The scenario analysis is summarized by the total annual cost for road transports of round wood in Sweden. Due to the simulations the amount of vehicle kilometres are reduced by 21 percent if 60-tonne vehicles are replace by 90-tonne vehicles, given that the capacity of bridges is left without regard. In socioeconomic terms this equals cost reduction of 4 per cent of 163 million Swedish crowns annually. It should be kept in mind, though, that costs for improving bridge capacity, which is required for this scenario to be realized, are not included in the analysis. When 90-tonne vehicles are not allowed to pass bridges with limited bearing capacity, larger vehicles do not generally improve efficiency. There are however some important round wood transport routes where larger vehicles are possible to use without any measures to improve bridges.

  • 137.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Marginalkostnadsskattningar för buss och lätt lastbil: buller, trafiksäkerhet och vägslitage2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to estimate marginal costs for noise, traffic safety and road wear and tear for buses and light trucks. The noise costs are computed using the Nord 2000 model together with values from ASEK 5. Marginal costs for traffic safety are estimated using accident information from STRADA, together with a distribution showing the shares of traffic in urban and non-urban areas and values from ASEK 5. The marginal costs for road wear and tear are computed by an adjustment of costs for average weighted vehicles from ASEK 5. The adjustment is based on the number of equivalent standard axle loadings. For buses the number of standard axles is computed using information from the road traffic registry. The number of standard axles on light trucks is computed using the maximum total weight of that vehicle category. The marginal cost for noise is differentiated between roads with various traffic load and roads with differently populated surroundings.

  • 138.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    KTH.
    Pricing principles, efficiency concepts and incentive models in Swedish transport infrastructure policy2013In: Transportforum 2013: granskade artiklar / [ed] Blomqvist, Göran, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013, p. 22-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the shift of the Swedish government’s policies for the financing through taxation, fees and prices paid for the use of roads and railroads from 1945 until the 2010s is discussed. It is argued that the shift from a full-cost coverage principle to a short term social marginal cost principle can be seen in the light of the controversy between a Coasean and a Pigovian perspective. The Coasean perspective furthers an institutional view where organizations and dynamic development matters while the Pigovian perspective furthers a welfare economic equilibrium view where organizations are less focused. It is argued that the shift in policies coincided with less interest and focus on the organizational perspective and incentives for organizational efficiency, which can be seen in the public documents from the time. The government seems to have been guided by a market failure stance since the 1970s which has motivated growing intervention, following a market-economy stance in the first 25 years after the nationalization of roads and railroads. A current opening in transport infrastructure policies with more room for alternative financing, user charges and fees might, even though also consistent with short term social marginal cost principles, signal a revival of a perspective more in line with the Coasean view.

  • 139.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    TØI.
    Coordination in the transport sector2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    De puniske krige2012In: 40 år for grøn velfærd / [ed] Axel Bendtsen, Ulf Joel Jensen, Jesper Himmelstrup, Miljøministeriet , 2012, p. 30-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Da Miljøministeriet blev født i 1971, delte det minister med Ministeriet for Offentlige arbejder – senere Trafikministeriet (og i dag Transportministeriet). To år senere fik de to ministeriet hver deres øverste politiske chef – og helt fra de tidlige år har samspillet mellem de to ministerier med mange fælles dagsordner i perioder været særdeles konfliktfyldt. Seniorforsker Claus Hedegaard Sørensen fra DTU giver her – på baggrund af interviews med nøglemedarbejdere i begge ministerier – sin version af et knudret samarbejde.

  • 141.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Roskilde University.
    Hvordan foregår trafikpolitiske beslutninger i hovedstaden?2003In: TØF-indsigt, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    TØI .
    Ravlum, Inger-Anne
    TØI .
    Politikerne har liten tillit til regnestykkene2005In: Samferdsel, ISSN 0332-8988, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Det store flertallet av samferdselskomiteens medlemmer har ikke tillit til flere av de virkningsberegningene som etatene skal styre etter ved gjennomføring av Nasjonal transportplan. Samtidig er flere representanter i tvil om det er mulig å nå målene i transportpolitikken. Til sammen bidrar dette til å sette et stort spørsmålstegn ved selve styringssystemet i transportpolitikken.

    Hvert 4. år behandler Stortinget nasjonale transportplaner som regjeringen har lagt frem. På begynnelsen av 1990-tallet foreslo et regjeringsoppnevnt utvalg at planene fremover skulle være dominert av mål- og resultatstyring. Forslaget var – og er – helt i overensstemmelse med tidens krav. Forslaget fikk støtte fra regjering og storting.

  • 143.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    TØI.
    Ravlum, Inger-Anne
    TØI.
    Politikernes behandling af Nasjonal transportplan2005In: Plan : Tidsskrift for samfunnsplanlegging, byplan og regional utvikling, ISSN 0805-083X, E-ISSN 1504-3045, no 5, p. 36-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lindberg-Collin, Mats
    Trafikförvaltningen/AB SL.
    Lindahl, Anders
    KTH, Avdelningen för Transportvetenskap.
    Lindström, Gustaf
    KTH, Avdelningen för Transportvetenskap.
    Löwenberg, Kristina
    Trafikförvaltningen/AB SL.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    KTH, Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Pettersson, Lars
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Innovationsupphandling och implementering av komplexa signalsystem: arbetsprocesser och verktyg2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim in this project was to identify problems and needs associated with innovative signal system procurement procedures. The project was based on the client organisation’s ability to achieve the goals of functionality, time and budget. A literature review and a number of workshops, with subsequent structured analysis, were carried out. All rail traffic is subject to some form of control system and safety standard. Signal systems constitute the main part of this control system. From a systems perspective, infrastructure level signal systems are complex, technically advanced systems that require inter-disciplinary consideration. At sub and individual levels, signal systems and traffic control objects are usually not that complicated. Combining many sub-systems and integrating them into infrastructure systems creates a complex structure and becomes an abstract, non-visual creation. In order to be able to understand the complexity of these systems, and move towards a more manageable way of identifying the requirements needed for effective and innovative signal system development, an analysis of signal systems was carried out from a process perspective point of view. Requirements were analysed from two theoretical perspectives, Integrated Product Development (IPD) and Systems Engineering (SE). Both contain descriptions of how product development actors should be involved in terms of roles and responsibilities. Analysis of the workshop results identified a number of problem areas that need to be addressed if future signal system development is to be implemented in a better way. Several problem areas were also identified through the IPD and SE theoretical descriptions but these need to be adapted to suit individual client organisations.

  • 145.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Liss, Viktoria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Cykelturism och effekter på lokal, regional och nationell nivå: En litteraturgenomgång samt fallstudie på cykelturister i Varberg och på Gotland2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development efforts. The starting point for this study is the preconditions for development of bicycle tourism by public spending on bicycle trails in Sweden. This study discusses the methods of estimating a bicycle tourism effect within the socio-economic analysis framework. Secondly, the method of estimating the economic contribution of bicycle tourism is exemplified by data gathered in two specific destinations in Sweden, Varberg and Gotland. Finally a stated choice scenario is used to estimate the willingness to pay for changes in key variables of importance for the tourist’s choice of bicycle destination. Questions asked in this study are: how large are the benefits from bicycle tourism and who gains from a developed bicycle trail network? One finding from the study is that inbound bicycle tourism gives rise to mostly regional effects. A bicycle tourism effect on national level only occurs in cases where a tourist chooses a destination within Sweden instead of going abroad thanks to a new or developed bicycle trail. New incoming bicycle tourism is always a net contribution to the national bicycle tourism effect. The findings from the study of bicycle tourism in Varberg and Gotland are that there is a vast difference in the economic contribution of bicycle tourists. The range for the guest night spending is 466 SEK – 1,233 SEK depending on region and type of visitor. The conclusion is that it is important to not only having knowledge about total number of tourists but also about tourist type. Hence, the size of the bicycle tourism effect varies depending on type of bicycle visitor to the destination. Finally, the findings from the stated choice experiment are that longer bicycle trails are preferred above shorter and that there seems to be a willingness to pay of about 0.5 SEK per kilometer to increase the length of the bicycle trail. The conclusion is that it is not only factors attached to the specific bicycle trail, like length and signage, that makes a trail attractive, but also factors like the tourism industry’s size and structure, like quality of lodging and restaurants, that is of importance for a bicycle tourist’s destination choice.

  • 146.
    Hofko, Bernhard
    et al.
    TUV-ISTU.
    Blab, Ronald
    TUV-ISTU.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Deliverable D7. outline of a new empirical road damage experiment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency as well as sustainability regarding road infrastructure can only be achieved when construction and maintenance also work efficiently and sustainably. Therefore a deeper knowledge of the complex material-vehicle-environment interaction is needed to develop an improved relationship between pavement deterioration and material, environment and vehicle parameters. In order to create an enhanced rule for this interaction, it is necessary to combine comprehensive material testing with statistical, analytical and numerical methods that have been developed in the last 50 years. This can only be achieved if the research is done on a European level by EURODEX, a EUuropean ROad Damage EXperiment. Results from this experiment will lead to an improved pavement performance and deterioration model that can be used for various means. On the one hand it will be a strong tool for a fair and sustainable transport pricing on European roads, on the other hand it can be used to make pavement design and construction as well as maintenance more efficient and economic. This report of deliverable D7, Outline of a new empirical Road Damage Experiment, gives a preliminary design and layout for EURODEX. Therefore an inventory of European ALT facilities is provided, the most important factors for pavement deterioration, distress and performance are described and guidelines for common data acquisition, data storage and retrieval are given. Furthermore a strategic plan for EURODEX has been developed within this WP. Basic information on pavement engineering and a detailed analysis of pavement deterioration factors, pavement distress, as well as current modelling of pavement performance and methods of maintenance and reconstruction are given in Appendix A.

  • 147.
    Holt, Charles
    et al.
    University of Virginia.
    Myers, Erica
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Markus, Wråke
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute.
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Resources for the Future.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Teaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment2010In: International Review of Economic Education, ISSN 1477-3880, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an individual choice experiment that can be used to teach students how to correctly account for opportunity costs in production decisions. Students play the role of producers that require a fuel input and an emissions permit for production. Given fixed market prices, they make production quantity decisions based on their costs. Permits have a constant price throughout the experiment.

    In one treatment, students have to purchase both a fuel input and an emissions permit for each production unit. In a second treatment, they receive permits for free and any unused permits are sold on their behalf at the permit price. If students correctly incorporate opportunity costs, they will have the same supply function in both treatments. This experiment motivates classroom discussion of opportunity costs and emission permit allocation under cap and trade schemes. The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) provides a relevant example for classroom discussion, as industry earned significant 'windfall profits' from free allocation of emissions permits in the early phases of the program.

  • 148.
    Howard, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Marklund, Johan
    Lunds Universitet.
    Tan, Tarkan
    Eindhoven University of Technolog.
    Reijnen, Ingrid
    Gordian Logistic Experts.
    Inventory control in a spare parts distribution system with emergency stocks and pipeline information2015In: Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, ISSN 1523-4614, E-ISSN 1526-5498, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 142-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by collaboration with a global spare parts service provider, we consider a two-echelon inventory system with multiple local warehouses, a so-called support warehouse, and a central warehouse with ample capacity. In case of stock-outs, the local warehouses can receive emergency shipments from the support warehouse or the central warehouse at an extra cost.

    Our focus is on using information on orders in the replenishment pipeline, i.e., pipeline information, to achieve cost-efficient policies for requesting emergency shipments. We introduce a policy where the request for an emergency shipment is based on the time until an outstanding order will reach the stock point considered. The goal is to determine how long one should wait for stock in the replenishment pipeline before requesting an emergency shipment, and the cost effects of using pipeline information in this manner. The analysis utilizes results from queuing theory and provides a decomposition technique for optimizing the policy parameters that reduces the complex multiechelon problem to more manageable single-echelon problems. The performance of our policy indicates that there can be a significant benefit in using pipeline information.

  • 149.
    Hultcrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pay-as-you-speed: an economic field-experiment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a vehicle-fleet experiment with an economic incentive for keeping within speed limits using a speed-alert device. A traffic insurance scheme was simulated with a monthly bonus during two months reduced by a non-linear speeding penalty. Participants were randomly assigned into four treatment and two control groups. A third control group consists of drivers who had the device and were monitored, but did not participate. We find that participating drivers reduced severe speeding during the first month, but in the second, after having received feedback reports with an account of earned payments, only those given a penalty changed behaviour.

  • 150.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Accident cost, speed and vehicle mass externalities, and insurance2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) automobile insurance enables insurers to charge the vehicle owner per mile instead of a pre-set number of miles per year. PAYD is offered to motorists on an optional basis, i.e., they can also choose a conventional scheme. PAYD insurance builds on the improved possibilities brought by new in-vehicle technologies for measuring distance driven. However, there is a range of other risk factors that could be supervised, some of which are already used by the insurance industry. For instance, one Swedish insurance provider charges a lower premium to vehicles that have an alco-lock installed to make it impossible to use the vehicle for an intoxicated driver. In this report, we summarize some work we have done on how to incorporate two of the most important risk factors; vehicle mass and speed. The possibility to differentiate insurance premiums according to various risk factors raises questions on the interaction between vehicle insurance schemes and taxes. Distance driven, speeding and vehicle mass are in many countries subject to taxation (for instance gasoline tax for distance, speeding tickets for speed and vehicle tax for vehicle mass). We will briefly discuss how a PAYD scheme with a speeding penalty (this will here be called Pay As You Speed, PAYS) can be combined with taxes to implement a Pigou taxation of road accident externalities. We summarize results from a vehicle-fleet experiment with a PAYS insurance incentive for keeping within speed limits using a speed-alert device. The PAYS scheme was simulated with a monthly bonus to participants during two months reduced by a non-linear speeding penalty. We analyse this “mass externality” using a database including collision accidents in Sweden involving two passenger cars during five years. Finally, we discuss different solutions to internalization of this external accident cost. We calculate a mass dependent multiplicative tax on the insurance premium in a no-fault insurance system.

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