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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Bolling, Anne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Andersson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Validating speed and road surface realism in VTI driving simulator III2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya simulatormodeller för vibrationer, ljud och grafik har utvecklats och implementerats i VTI:S fordonssimulator III. Syftet med denna studie är att validera simulatorn med avseende på hastighet och återgivandet av olika vägyteparametrar. Tjugofyra försökspersoner deltog i studien. De fick köra en och samma rutt i såväl simulator III som på verklig väg. Tre vägavsnitt med olika kvalitet på vägytan, från mycket slät till ganska ojämn, ingick i försöket. Såväl den objektiva förarparametern hastighet som olika subjektiva parametrar avseende förarens uppfattning om vägytans egenskaper (jämnhet, tysthet, komfort) jämfördes. Ett vägavsnitt med skiftande hastighetsgränser var av speciellt intresse. Ingen signifikant skillnad kunde noteras mellan körning i simulator och på verklig väg vare sig avseende hastighet (på avsitt med konstant hastighetsgräns) eller gradering av jämnhet och tysthet. För sträckan med skiftande hastighetsgränser fanns dock en signifikant skillnad mellan hastigheten i bil jämfört med hastigheten i simulator, trots liknande hastighetsprofiler. Såväl accelerationerna som retardationerna var snabbare i simulatorn. Vägkomforten graderades högre i bil än i simulator, men i båda fallen var tendensen den att slätare vägar gav högre värdering av komforten. Dessa resultat indikerar absolut validitet för graderingen av jämnhet och tysthet och för det objektiva måttet hastighet, medan relativ validitet indikerades för såväl hastighet vid skylt för hastighetsändring som för gradering av komfort.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Betnér, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Eriksson, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition, 2015, s. 123-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Buffoni, Lena
    IDA, Linköping University.
    Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behavior in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, s. 131-139Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation, estimating parameters for the powertrain model, the choice of numeric solver, and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    A Moving Base Simulator Investigation of Effects of a Yaw Stability System Caused by a Side Impact2011Ingår i: Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, ISSN 1530-9827, E-ISSN 1944-7078, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 044501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate how an electronic stability control (ESC) system may aid the driver in a critical sideswipe accident. Another objective was to investigate the possibility of having a realistic simulation of a sideswipe accident in a large moving base simulator. The experiment can be divided into two parts. In part one, the driver is unaware of the sudden side impact and in part two, the side impact was repeated six times.

    The experiment was driven by 18 persons. With the ESC system active no driver lost control, while with the system inactive there were five drivers that lost control in part one. In part two, the ESC system showed to stabilize the vehicle faster, and the improvement in stabilization time was between 40% and 62%. It was also seen that 2% loss of control occurred with an ESC system active and 45% without.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing a driving simulator study, validity of the vehicle model for the intended driving task is of key importance; otherwise, the reliability of the study results might be jeopardized. In this paper a framework for real-time credibility assessment of the simulated longitudinal dynamics by a powertrain model in a moving base driving simulator is presented. The framework consists of the physical system model and a quality model which run in parallel in real time. The developed framework has been evaluated by offline simulations, as well as in real-time in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation results showed that the developed framework can accurately capture the validity of the powertrain model in different driving conditions and provide the credibility level of the simulation results to the simulator operator in real-time.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Freight train model for real-time simulation2017Ingår i: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 2: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to increse the freight transport capacity in Sweden, introduction of longer and heavier trains is investigated. To aid this investigation, a freight train simulator was designed and constructed. Here, the implemented freight train dynamics model is described, which includes slip control, a modular wagon model structrue and pneumatic brake system. Further, stable real-time performance of the implemented dynamics model is discussed.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example2018Ingår i: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 93-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator2016Ingår i: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, s. 99-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

    Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Parameterization Procedure of a Powertrain Model for a Driving Simulator2015Ingår i: Proceedings  of the 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulations.

    In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors. Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non-invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom höjda hastigheter för godståg finns möjligheter till en högre prioritering av trafikslaget hos tågtrafikledningen, vilket i sig är en kapacitetsvinst och bör ge upphov till bättre flöden och högre kapacitet på det svenska järnvägsnätet (framför allt på stambanorna). Simulatorer är ett effektivt och säkert sätt att undersöka effekter av förändringar på både förarbeteende och kapacitet.

    Syftet med det här projektet var att skapa kapacitetshöjande möjligheter och åtgärder genom att ta fram en loktågssimulator och undersöka möjliga användningsområden för denna. Målet med projektet var att få fram en loktågssimulator, bestående av ett lok och ett antal vagnar, som kan användas i studier för att öka kapaciteten genom till exempel optimerad hastighet, och därmed förändrade bromsprofiler, för loktåg. Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet.

    Projektet genomfördes i tre successiva etapper. I den första etappen genomfördes en förstudie med lokförare, operatörer och problemägare, som gav forskarna en förståelse för förarmiljön. Här samlades även in en del av det underlag som krävdes för utveckling av loktågsimulatorn. I den andra etappen utvecklades en simulator för loktåg (mjukvara och hårdvara). Etapp tre var en valideringsstudie tillsammans med lokförare.

    Ett förarbord av modellen Traxx köptes in från en tysk tillverkare. Fordonsmodellen utvecklades från en enstaka enhet, Reginamodell (motorvagnståg), till en kombination av flera enheter. Loktåget i simulatorn består av ett eller flera draglok samt ett antal vagnar med en total längd på maximalt 750 meter. Som draglok används ett lok av modellen Traxx. För varje enhet, lok och vagn, krävs data över enheten: längd, vikt, last, broms-, rull- och luftmotstånd. För lok tillkommer dessutom information om ljud, drivning, broms (återmatande elbroms samt konventionell pneumatisk broms (P-broms)), hyttutrustning med mera. För närvarande finns bansträckningen mellan Falköping–Jönköping–Forserum färdigmodellerad och kommer användas för loktågskörning med ATC. Modellen är konfigurerbar utifrån ett lok (Traxx) och i nuläget fyra olika vagnar. Dessa kan kopplas samman i olika kombinationer.

    Några användningsområden som diskuterades redan vid projektstart var dels de som naturligt kan kopplas till följder av längre och tyngre tåg, dels de idéer som uppkom som följd av den utrustning som köptes in. Vid Trafikverkets vintermöte genomfördes en workshop där ytterligare användningsområden diskuterades. Några av dessa handlar om utbildning,energieffektiv körning eller projektering. Utbildning och vissa typer av studier går att göra med den nu existerande loktågsmodellen, medan andra kräver antingen validering av parametrar eller viss vidareutveckling av modellen.

    Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, denna forskningsrapport och en produkt i form av en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet. Projektet har även levererat en nationell resurs i form av simulatormjukvara. Mjukvaran har lagt grunden för en kostnadseffektiv testverksamhet inom loktågsdomänen. En loktågssimulering (simulering av loktåg) har tagits fram, vilken kommer att vara värdefull som ett demonstrationsverktyg samt för utbildning, träning och projektering.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Nyberg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Öberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot2013Ingår i: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 169-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University.

    The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment.

    As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface.

    Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

  • 15.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE.
    Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, s. 206-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Bolling, Anne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    HiQ.
    Andersson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Blissing, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Svenska vägmarkeringsföreningen, SVMF.
    Driver acceptance and performance with LDW and rumble strips assistance in unintentional lane departures2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this ViP project the focus of investigation was whether drivers more readily accept either rumble strips or an in-vehicle lane departure warning system (LDW) in unintentional lane departure situations. The results show that acceptance was high for both alternatives, but while the drivers showed more satisfaction from using the LDW, they also showed more trust in the rumble strips. Twenty-four drivers drove the VTI driving simulator SIM III in car mode with simulated rumble strips in one drive and with a simulated Volvo LDW in another drive. A forced yaw motion of the vehicle induced the unintentional lane departures. The results showed no choice in favour of the LDW or the rumble strips, but a clear preference for having a function that warns for unintentional lane departure. Several participants thought it was good to have both types of warning in parallel. Although Response completion time was shorter with the rumble strips warning, there was no difference between the warning types, neither in Time to get car back in lane nor in Lane exceedence area. Thus, there were no major overall differences between the LDW and the rumble strips as measured in the present study. The conclusion is that the drivers’ acceptance, as well as performance, was high for both the rumble strips and the LDW. The positive opinion on the need for assistance systems in unintentional lane departure when drivers are directing their visual attention away from the road is thus further strengthened.

  • 17.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    et al.
    Interactive Institute.
    Andersson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    Interactive Institute.
    Advanced driving simulator to evaluate sound design strategies for intelligent transport systems2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Additional sound capabilities in visually advanced simulators may offer researchers and practitioners better resources to evaluate in-vehicle auditory signals and advanced auditory displays. In the first part of the present report, the implementation of a new audio system in the Scania truck cabin for the driving simulators II and III at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) is described.

    The new audio software is based on the Open Audio Library (OpenAL) implementation for the Macintosh Operating System OS X. It communicates with the existing simulator software using the Open Sound Control (OSC) standard. The remaining program code is open, which offers the possibility of adapting the audio system to future demands and specific needs of partners within the competence centre ViP (Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation).

    Another aim of the present project was to investigate the potential of urgent alarms to raise annoyance and negatively affect drivers’ subsequent responses to unrelated, critical events on the road. While performing a simulated driving task, truck drivers received two types of warnings that were designed to differ significantly in perceived urgency. Several times in the trial an unexpected event occurred just seconds after drivers were presented with an unrelated warning, and the drivers had to brake immediately to avoid a collision. The results indicate that acoustic characteristics and semantic meaning may impact the perceived annoyance of in-vehicle warnings. Furthermore, the participants who received a high-urgency warning braked significantly harder and tended to brake later than the drivers who received a low-urgency warning.

    The simulator study was also used to validate the reliability of the new audio system.

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