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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Comparison of eye tracking systems with one and three cameras2011In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using eye movements to determine the state of a car driver it is important that the eye tracker is robust, unobtrusive, inexpensive and fully automatic. The objectives of this study are to compare the performance of a one-camera system with a three-camera system and to investigate if the accuracy and availability of the one-camera system is sufficient to monitor driver state. Data from 53 subjects were evaluated and the results indicate that there is not much difference between a single-camera system and a multi-camera system as long as the driver is looking straight ahead. However, with more peripheral gaze directions, the larger coverage that is provided by the additional cameras works in favour of the multi-camera system. © ACM 2010.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ivarsson, Erik
    SmartEye.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rydbeck, Bosse
    SmartEye.
    Viström, Matias
    Saab Automobile.
    Performance of a one-camera and a three-camera system2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving and operating a vehicle is to a great extent a visual task. In driver behaviour studies it is therefore important to be able to measure where the driver is looking. Today this can be done unobtrusively and remotely in real-time with camera based eye tracking. The most common remote eye tracking systems use multiple cameras in order to give satisfactory results. However, promising results using only one camera has recently emerged on the market. The main objective of this study is to compare eye tracking systems with one and three cameras, respectively, during various measurement conditions.

    A total of 53 participants were enrolled in the study. Data from the two eye trackers were acquired and analysed in terms of availability, accuracy and precision. The results indicate that both availability and accuracy are affected by many different factors. The most important factors are the number of cameras that is used and the angular distance from straight ahead. In the central region (straight ahead) both one-camera and three-camera systems have a high degree of accuracy and availability, but with increasing distance from the central region, the results deteriorate. This effect falls harder upon the one-camera system. Interestingly, there were no significant effects when wearing glasses in either availability or accuracy. There was however an interaction effect between distance and glasses.

    Advantages with a one-camera system are that it is cheaper, easier to operate and easier to install in a vehicle. A multi-camera system will, on the other hand, provide higher availability and accuracy for areas that are far from the road centre. A one-camera system is thus mostly suitable for in-vehicle applications such as systems that warn drivers for sleepiness or distraction while multi-camera solutions are preferable for research purposes.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Measuring driver impairments: Sleepiness, distraction, and workload2012In: IEEE Pulse, ISSN 2154-2287, Vol. 3, no 2, 22-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow was falling heavily when Sarah was driving on a slippery road to her cousin’s country cottage. It was dark outside, and the visibility was poor. She had planned to arrive before sunset, but the rental service had made a mistake, and it took hours before she got her rental car at the airport. It was past midnight now, and after a long day of traveling, Sarah was starting to get sleepy.

    Fortunately, there were only 15 km to go, but her eyelids were starting to feel heavy. To stay awake, she put her favorite CD on, turned up the volume, and started to sing along. This seemed to help a little -good- only 10 km to go. This was when Sarah’s phone started ringing, and she awkwardly tried to find the mute button for the car stereo while answering the phone. As she looked up again, she barely caught a glimpse of the red brake lights of the car in front of her as she smashed into it.

  • 4. Aigner-Breuss, Eva
    et al.
    Pilgerstorfer, Monika
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Ferrarini, Chiara
    Montanari, Roberto
    Wacowska, Justyna
    Jankowska, Dagmara
    Diederichs, Frederik
    Pauzie, Annie
    Comparison and analysis of user and stakeholder needs across different countries2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current deliverable aims at presenting the results of the analysis of stakeholder needs, in order to have support for selecting the most relevant use cases. For the identification of user requirements of all stakeholders relevant to school transportation different methods were used:

    - Focus groups with representatives of one user or stakeholder group

    - Workshops with different stakeholders

    - 2 questionnaire surveys (Questionaire A: Road Experts, Questionaire B: children, parents and bus drivers)

    Problems and needs in the following areas were subject of discussions, interviews and questionnaires:

    - Behaviour of road users counteracting with school buses

    - Behaviour of pupils on the school bus and while entering and exiting the same

    - Design of bus stops

    - Protection of pupils on the school bus

    - Condition of school buses

    - Education of school bus drivers

    - Education of pupils concerning school transportation

    - Information flow

    - Route to/from school

    - Special needs of children with disabilities

    Results show that the organisation of school transport varies between countries and even within a country. Stakeholders underline the importance of consistent regulations and clear responsibilities as a basis for a safe way to school by bus.

  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköpings unuversitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköpings högskola.
    Piloting smart safe school bus: exploration of security gains from implementation of a driver support system, additional technical equipment and intelligent bus stops2010In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, no 3, 157-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines, hazard detection and child security gains from a driver support system integrated with intelligent bus stops and additional technical equipment.

    Methods: In total, 130 children with transmitters were using two specially equipped busses and bus stops. Speed of oncoming and overtaking cars, implementation of routines, the possibilities to discover potential hazards and experienced stress in the children were analysed by speed measurements, diary notes, questionnaires and focus group interviews.

    Results: This pilot study exploration showed that the speeds of other road users were reduced at one of two bus stops. The driver support system was frequently used in all its parts and was considered useful by the bus drivers. It also raised the level of routines and allowed the drivers to survey the children. Children reported feeling more secure with the system running and experienced less stress as a consequence of it.

    Conclusion: This pilot study shows that the evaluated systems may have the ability to reduce speed of other road users, raise the level of routines and make children feel more secure. Further studies are needed that apply a holistic approach on school transportation safety and security.

  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    CERTH/HIT.
    Project presentation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a European research project carried out by research institutes, universities and industry in order to enhance safety for children on their daily way to school. SAFEWAY2SCHOOL aims to design, develop, integrate and evaluate technologies for providing a holistic and safe transportation service for children, from their home door to the school door and vice versa, encompassing tools, services and training for all key actors in the relevant transportation chain. These include optimal route planning and rerouting for school buses to maximize safety, on-board safety applications (i.e. for speed control and seat belts), "intelligent" bus stops, effective warning and information systems for bus drivers, children, parents and the surrounding traffic; as well as training schemes for all actors. The project innovative systems, services and training schemes will be tested in 4 sites Europewide, including North (Sweden), Central (Austria), South (Italy) and Eastern (Poland) Europe; to evaluate their usability, efficiency, user acceptance and market viability; taking into account the very different children's transportation to/from school systems across the different European regions as well as key cultural and socio-economic aspects.

  • 7.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thornthwaite, Sian
    STC Ltd., Derby, UK.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Is European school transport safe?: the need for a "door-to-door" perspective2011In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 3, no 2, 75-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To identify and establish the number and aetiology behind children being killed or injured during school transport from a door-to-door perspective by using experience from Sweden and the UK.

    Methods Available crash data were analysed. Results In total, 361 children in Sweden during 1994–2001, i.e. 24% of the 1,515 identified children aged 6–16 who were injured or killed were identified in 256 school transport events. The predominant reason for being killed or injured when travelling on school transportation was when children were outside the bus (74%), either when passing the bus to cross the street, running in front of the bus (21%) or behind the bus (30%). Contrary to the general belief that children older than 12 are mature enough to handle traffic, more than 50% of the fatal injuries in Sweden affected children aged 13–16. Similar results were found in the UK. The afternoon school journeys, pedestrians after alighting from the bus, and those in situations that deviated from their normal routine were found to be particularly vulnerable.

    Conclusions The travel chain perspective/or door to door perspective offers a promising approach for understanding school transport risks and for identifying effective countermeasures; including around bus stops and on the way to/from the bus stop. Data collection needs to be revised to reflect this approach.

  • 8.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Polet, Philippe
    UNIVAL.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Dimgård, Markus
    MTOP.
    Selection of operator support systems across modes2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable provides an outline of the process involved in task 2.2 of the ITERATE project forselecting an appropriate set of hypotheses to be tested inWorkpackages 3 (Experimental design andscenario specification), and 4 (Experimental studies).During a workshop with all partners involved in the project, hypotheses were formulated for thethree main system functionalities outlined in D2.1: those that support speed management (SpeedManagement), systems that support system object detection and avoidance (Collision Avoidance)and those that monitor operator state (Operator State). In formulating these hypotheses, partnerswere encouraged to consider systematically the effect of operator state and different operatorgroups on interaction with these three systems. To allow succinct formulation of hypotheses, fouroperator based parameters which are thought to affect operator behaviour with the system, wereidentified: sensation-seeking, hazard perception, fatigue and (high and low) task demand. Informulating hypotheses, partnerswere encouraged to consider the whole process linking a cause toan effect, with a clear mechanism that would link the two.

  • 9.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Pichon, Marianne
    UNIVAL.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Specification of test procedures for the simulator experiments2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Deliverable 3.1 of Workpackage 3, we discuss the methodology developed and applied in the European ITERATEproject (IT for Error Remediation And Trapping Emergencies). This methodology has as its objective to design experiments that will provide data to seed the ITERATE model. In the ITERATE project a high-level theoretical model of vehicle operator behaviour has been developed in Workpackage 1, specifying the factors that play a role in the influence of innovative support systems on vehicle operation in potentially dangerous situations. Themodel isapplicable for different surface transport modes: road vehicles, rail transport and ships. Themodel will be calibrated by experiments investigating how the different factors interact. One hundred and sixty car drivers and 160 train drivers in five countries will drive with a static driving simulator, and 64 drivers (both train and car) with full motion simulators. Finally an executable simulation model will be constructed with the aim to predict the effects of support systems on operator behaviour and risk.

  • 10.
    Börsbo, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    CERTH/HIT.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ferrarini, Chiara
    Unimore.
    Pilgerstorfer, Monika
    KfV.
    Jankowska, Dagmara
    ITS.
    Wacowskaslezak, Justyna
    ITS.
    Pilot plans2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current Deliverable outlines the actual planning for the execution of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL Pilots and is prepared in the context of WP7: “Verification Pilots evaluation” and specifically A7.1: “Evaluation Framework”. Pilots are experiments with users, which aim to contribute to the overall evaluation of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system. Pilots are an integral part of the final implementation of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system. Thus, it is important that Pilots are organised to cover all needs across SAFEWAY2SCHOOL subsystems or units, different users, different environments, etc. To this end, the aim of this Deliverable is to organise the Pilots of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL project in an optimal way with respect to the overall project objectives. The Pilot plan Deliverable should be considered as a living document, since minor changes may occur until the actual realisation of the Pilots. The aim of this document is to lay the foundation for the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system evaluation. It covers what should be measured, broken down into the responsibilities of each pilot site, including the German simulator site. The document also provides a theoretical background to the pilot site testing, i.e., why should the appointed variables be measured. Lastly, it covers how each of the variables should be measured, also broken down into the responsibilities of each pilot site, including the German simulator site. The current Deliverable presents in detail the evaluation plans that have been developed in the context of the SAFEWAYSCHOOL project for the evaluation of the system under development.

  • 11.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kettwich, Carmen
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction.2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 5, 469-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards on driving performance and driver behavior is available. The Swedish Transport Administration recently approved the installation of 12 electronic billboards for a trial period along a 3-lane motorway with heavy traffic running through central Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these electronic billboards on visual behavior and driving performance.

    METHOD: A total of 41 drivers were recruited to drive an instrumented vehicle passing 4 of the electronic billboards during day and night conditions. A driver was considered visually distracted when looking at a billboard continuously for more than 2 s or if the driver looked away from the road for a high percentage of time. Dependent variables were eye-tracking measures and driving performance measures.

    RESULTS: The visual behavior data showed that drivers had a significantly longer dwell time, a greater number of fixations, and longer maximum fixation duration when driving past an electronic billboard compared to other signs on the same road stretches. No differences were found for the factors day/night, and no effect was found for the driving behavior data.

    CONCLUSION: Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.

  • 12.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elderly transportation and society: design, mobility and education2009In: Proceedings of the 4th Japanese-Nordic Symposium of Traffic Psychology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Volvo Cars .
    Safe mobility for elderly drivers: Considerations based on expert and self-assessment2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 66, 104-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further understand the needs of the growing population of elderly drivers and create solutions for safe mobility it is important to understand the driving scenarios and aspects in day to day traffic that may be of challenge for this group. More so, individual differences in how drivers perceive their own driving ability may have an effect on how individuals limit their mobility and/or increase their exposure to risk situations, with a potential negative effect on safety.

    In this study two sets of assessments have been used in order to identify scenarios and aspects needing consideration in creating safe mobility for elderly drivers; an expert assessment using on-road driving together with assessments through semi structured in-depth interviews. This combination also enables categorisation of the drivers, comparing their own perception of their driving performance with the expert assessment based on actual on-road driving.

    Four different categories of drivers were identified: adequate (positive), over, under and adequate (negative) estimators. A number of important aspects were identified in the study. Adapting speed to the situation and driving too fast, especially on straight roads in the city, is one aspect. Seeking the attention of other road users at intersections and roundabouts is another important consideration identified. Awareness of difficulties related to speed adaptation and attention was low amongst all the driver categories. However, a difference in attitude was seen in the categories with a more humble and acceptant attitude amongst the adequate and under estimator groups, as compared to the over estimators suggesting that the aspect of attitudes is another important factor for consideration.

  • 14.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Selander, Helena
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Driving Characteristics of Older Drivers and Their Relationship to the Useful Field of View Test2017In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 63, no 2, 180-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain the mobility of older people in later life, it is essential to sustain their autonomy; however, driving is a complex task, requiring a large range of visual, psychomotor and cognitive abilities. Subsequently, a key issue is to measure and evaluate the fitness to drive of older drivers. Several methods have been proposed, among them the useful field of view (UFOV) test.

    The present study aimed to identify driving characteristics in older drivers and the relationship between the UFOV test and the on-road driving results. A total of 80 drivers aged 70 years or older performed both the UFOV test and the on-road driving assessment. The ‘B On-Road' (Behaviour On-Road) protocol was used for the fitness-to-drive assessment.

    ‘Driving too fast' was the item reported most often during the on-road assessment, followed by problems with the manual gearbox and ‘attention to signs, road lines and traffic lights'. Overall, the results showed that the older the driver, the more errors were reported during the on-road driving assessment, as well as the slower the performance on the UFOV test. A significant relationship between the total number of on-road errors, as measured by the B On-Road protocol, and the UFOV 3, which stresses the capacity of selective attention, was found.The recommendation is still to use on-road driving assessment to fully assess fitness to drive for older drivers whose ability to drive requires assessment. However, to supplement this, the UFOV test, in particular the UFOV 3, is a valuable complement in selecting those drivers requiring to be assessed.

  • 15.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Curtin University of Technology, Jönköpings Universitet, Linköpings Universitet, La Trobe University.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University of Technology.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 2, 127-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and accept the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system and act in accordance with its instructions. Methods: Fourteen children with cognitive disabilities and a control group of 23 children were shown five videos of scenarios involving journeys to and from school. During the first viewing visual scanning patterns were recorded with an eye tracking device. After a second viewing the participant was asked ten questions per scenario. Five questions addressed what the children saw on the video, and the remaining five what they would need to know and/or do within the scenario. Additional ratings of trust, likability, acceptability and usability were also collected. Results: Very few differences were found in the visual scanning patterns of children with disabilities compared to children who participated in the control group. Of the 50 questions regarding what children saw or needed to know and/or do, only one significant difference between groups was found. No significant differences were found regarding self-reported ratings of trust, acceptability or usability of the system. Despite some significant differences across five of the 11 likability aspects, ratings were consistently high for both groups. Conclusions: Children with cognitive disabilities proved that the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system is as useful for them as it was for children in the control group. However, a valid estimation of the full utility of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL requires in situ testing of the system with these children. © 2013 The Author(s).

  • 16.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Challenging situations, self-reported driving habits and capacity among older drivers (70+) in Sweden: a questionnaire study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the survey study in Sweden was to investigate health issues, driving habits and use of a car. The researchers were also interested in which traffic situations were judged as difficult or dangerous, avoidance strategies adopted for such situations, type of car used, equipment (ADAS systems) and its frequency of use. Respondents were asked to report any accidents in the previous two years, and to self-estimate their cognitive functioning and driving ability. Target population: Persons born in 1941 or earlier (aged 70 years or more in the year 2011), living in the county of Västra Götaland in Sweden, holder of a driving licence for category B, passenger car and still driving. This resulted in a target group comprising 1,362 active drivers. The overall picture of an older driver emerging from this study is one who enjoys car driving, uses the car often and is not particularly occupied by thoughts about stopping driving. Possible bias in this picture of older drivers may be due to the fact that those most interested in car driving were also those most interested in the study and thus in answering the questionnaire. There are several “truths” about older drivers reported in the literature that are questionable in the light of the present study. It is sometimes said that older people drive old cars, but this phenomenon is not supported by the questionnaire data in our study. The changes in driving behaviour often attributed to ageing drivers, e.g. driving more slowly, less frequently and over shorter distances, are applicable in the case of about one-third of the drivers in the present study. Analyses of this study confirm that health status is not the only reason someone stops driving; being less confident/apprehensive in the context of car driving may result in driving cessation. Findings indicate that preventive action, such as retraining sessions or developing driver assistance systems, will have to be taken into account if the risk associated with certain situations is to be reduced.

  • 17.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Pettersson, John
    VEHCO.
    UPPÅT: uppföljning av åkeriers trafiksäkerhetsarbete2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field operational test including eleven hauliers was carried out to study whether truck drivers speed and seatbelt usage could be improved using ITS including an ISA-function, an advanced seatbelt warning and a logging function that allows the monitoring of driving behaviour. Three different warning and monitoring strategies have been studied: voluntary use and monitoring of behaviour, voluntary use and monitoring of behaviour in addition to a bonus, and a predefined user interface and monitoring of behaviour. The aim was to see how well the monitoring worked in changing behaviour and to see whether the effect was improved further by using either the carrot or stick. The results showed that it was primarily the predefined user interface that had an effect. There were also signs that the bonus had an effect but the effect was small and limited in time. The predefined interface however had a large effect; reducing the average speed on 90 km/h roads from around 78 km/h to 74 km/h. The downside of this system was that it had the lowest acceptance. However, the drivers were quite positive to have their driving monitored and did not see it as a problem that their managers or colleagues could see how they where driving. The conclusion is that the technology is mature to be used on a larger scale, both the drivers and the hauliers are susceptible to the technology but lack the motivation to use it.

  • 18.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sagberg, Fridulv
    TØI.
    Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden: studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous situations for older drivers and older drivers' accident involvement and visual behaviour in complex traffic situations have been studied in the reported research project. Three main methods have been used: 1) a thorough accident analysis of police reported accidents in Norway, 2) a literature study on existing research on older drivers' behaviour (i.e. cognitive aspects on car driving) and accident involvement, and 3) experimental studies comprising visual and perception tests accomplished in Norway and Sweden and a field study on the road, accomplished in Sweden. In the experimental study and in the field study it was found significantly more individual differences among the older than among the younger drivers in the samples from Norway and Sweden. From in depth analyses of fatal crashes in Norway during the years 2005-2007 it was found that tiredness was the most often suspected cause of the accident among the group aged 35-55 years (28 %) and the second most often suspected cause in the group aged 75+ (19 %). Illness could be the cause of the accident twice as often among the older drivers (28 %) as in the younger control group (14 %). Concerning suicide, the situation could be the reverse with more deliberate actions among the younger (11 %) compared to the older drivers (6 %)

  • 19.
    Levin, Lena (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äldre i transportsystemet: mobilitet, design och träningsproblematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generally, more elderly will be travelling and be out on the roads as active road-users in the future. Research exists on the travelling habits of the elderly; but more in-depth knowledge on the elderly's preferences as license-holders, drivers, road-users and actors in public transport is required. The aim of this report is to give an overview of previous research as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly as actors within the transport system. The work has a clear multidisciplinary approach, with knowledge from social science, behavioural science and technical research on transport and the elderly. However, the main weight lays on social science and behavioural science issues. The report is divided into eleven chapters: 1) contains a short background, purpose and method questions; 2) discusses the project's scientific and social relevance; 3) provides theoretical background and theoretical concepts; 4) mentions previous research on the elderly as car drivers; 5) is a chapter on license-less vehicles; 6) discusses traffic and road design for the elderly; 7) discusses the elderly as pedestrians and bicycle road-users; 8) is about the elderly in public transport and 9) is about the training of elderly drivers. Chapter 10) consists of a final discussion and chapter 11) summarises point by point the need for research on issues which have come to light in the report

  • 20.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for the evaluation of traffic safety effects of Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In today's vehicles, active safety systems are introduced addressing a large variety of safety issues such as providing optimal stability control, braking effect, preventing spin and rollover, as well as collision avoidance, to mention just a few. In this study a literature review was performed in order to establish how the traffic safety performances of active safety systems with focus on Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are assessed. The areas covered were statistical evaluation, testing and driver behaviour. The literature review showed that in particular statistical methods, based on odds ratios, had been used in order to evaluate the traffic safety effect. In order to evaluate the effect of ESC in physical testing there are several test methods described in this report. Estimations of driver behaviour effects have been carried out by surveys among vehicle owners. Experiments performed in field or in simulator have also been found in the literature. From EU projects a variety of measures and test methods are available for assessment of driver behavioural effects.

  • 21.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for evaluation of Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 72, 341-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how different delineator post configurations affect driver speed in night-time traffic. In addition, the potential speed effect of introducing a secondary task was investigated. The study was carried out in a car simulator on a road stretch including straight road sections as well as curves with different radii. Fourteen drivers participated in the study and the results show that absence of delineator posts leads to reduced speed. However, provided that there are delineator posts continuously present along the road, the overall driver speed is basically the same, regardless of the spacing between the delineator posts. The results also imply that to reduce driver speed in curves with small radius, using more compact spacing of posts in these curves as compared to in curves with a larger radius, could be a potential strategy. Additionally, the speed reducing effect of a secondary task was only prevailing where the task was initiated.

  • 23.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ansvar och roller vid skolskjutsning: en fördjupad analys genom gruppdiskussioner2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to increase knowledge about different actors' (municipality, school, bus driver/contractor and parents) view of their role in relation to school transport. The present study aims to create a more detailed description about the perception of responsibility for school transport of children, especially in situations where shared responsibility is possible. Results of the study intends to provide a starting point for guidance on what to consider in order to ensure a clear division of responsibilities between actors. The study was conducted in the form of focus group discussions with bus drivers, school staff, officers of the municipality and parents in an area in northern part of Sweden. If the topics discussed are summarized from a more general perspective it can be noted that there is a need for increased communication between the stakeholders, in order to ensure a clear understanding of who takes responsibility for what. This is evident both in the planning of the school bus transport and during the realisation of the transport. The result shows that if the different elements involved - from door to door - are broken down into who is formally responsible and who themselves feel that they take responsibility, there is a difference in these pictures. It is also noted that there are tasks where no one felt that they took responsibility.

  • 24.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Older drivers’ needs for safety and comfort systems in their cars: a focus group study in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus group study with a total of 63 older drivers (70 years or older) in two rounds was conducted to identify needs and means for transportation as a passenger car driver. The aim was to understand attitudes to and use of advanced driver assistance technologies. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible differences between drivers in terms of correct assessment of own driving performance. All 63 participants had previously participated in an on-road driving assessment followed by an interview. The on-road assessment was done using a standardized protocol (expert assessment). The result was then compared to the driver’s subjective assessment of driving performance. It was found that experience of assistive technology was highly variable, from low technology systems to advanced automatic systems. However, there was a general interest in assistance systems among the participants. Most of them found the systems positive if they could improve safety. Those who were skeptical pointed to expected necessity to learn to use them, cost and need for repair.

  • 25.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine attitudes among older adults in Sweden as regards a possible legislation for medical assessment at license renewal depending on their health status (vision and hearing) and gender.

    Methods: A questionnaire study measuring attitudes towards medical assessments at license renewal and an examination of vision, hearing, and cognitive abilities was conducted by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. 109 participants older than 60 years participated in the study (58 women, 51 men). They were categorized into four groups according to their health status: (1) without any visual or hearing impairment, (2) visual impairment, (3) hearing impairment, and (4) visual and hearing impairment. All data collection was performed in a driving assessment situation.

    Results: The answers showed positive attitudes towards recurring vision test (94% positive) and recurring medical assessments (93% positive). A majority wanted to include tests of visual acuity, contrast vision, and visual field. The most common choice was a starting point of 70 years and an interval of 2–3 years. Gender effects showing that woman were more positive towards some assessment and shorter time intervals between them was revealed. No significant effect of hearing or vision decline was found. Better results on cognitive tests was associated with positive attitudes towards medical testing.

    Conclusions: The participants were positive towards medical assessments at license renewal, indicating that there is an acceptance in the population for such legislation. Even short intervals such as every two or three years were accepted.

  • 26.
    Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter, Göteborg.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Volvo Cars.
    On road driving assessment in Sweden: results from the SafeMove project2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present on-road study is part of a major research project, Safe Mobility for Older Drivers – SAFE MOVE, carried out between Sweden and France in collaboration. 42 participants were recruited to perform an on-road driving. The aim was to identify the cognitive and driving ability of the drivers from the cohort and to match it with their own assessment of ability. The project also aimed to identify difficulties encountered in traffic, both the type of behaviour and in which traffic scenarios they encountered the difficulties. The participants drove for 45 minutes in many different traffic environments. Two more people were present in the vehicle; a driving instructor who was responsible for safety (dual controls) and gave directions to follow throughout the route and an occupational therapist who observed and assessed the driving by means of the B On-road protocol. They also underwent a cognitive screening. Results showed that the behaviour which were found challenging for the drivers were related to speed adaptation, driving too fast for the situation, and lack of visual attention to other road users at intersections. All drivers had a visual acuity level required for holding a driving license in Sweden.

1 - 26 of 26
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