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  • 1.
    Abdallah, Clement Kamil
    et al.
    Pan African University, Algeria; Ghana Integrated Water, Ghana.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    Lund University, Sweden; The Centre for Sustainable Visions, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of water used for vegetable irrigation in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, article id 5314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses water quality that is used for vegetable irrigation in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. A mixed-method of research design was employed in this study to collect and analyze the data based on survey instruments. The paper found that Escherichia coli (E. coli) that is usually used as an indicator of water contamination and heavy metals exist in all taken water samples. The mean concentrations of nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate were recorded as 0.022 mg/l to 5.98 mg/l for ammonia, 1.06 mg/l to 7.52 mg/l for nitrate, 0.031 mg/l to 0.056 mg/l for nitrate and 0.037 mg/l to 0.069 mg/l for phosphate. E. coli and Total Coliforms levels for Sanghani, Kamina and Waterworks from the laboratory analysis were recorded as 3.2x10(3) CFU 100 m/l and 5.5x10(2) CFU 100 m/l, 4.0x10(3) CFU 100 m/l and 1x10(2) CFU 100 m/l, and 2.1x10(3) CFU 100 m/l and 4.6x10(2) CFU 100 m/l respectively. To conclude, based on the measured parameters, water used for irrigation in the Tamale Metropolitan is polluted and may cause potential health risks. Therefore, farmers, traders and consumers need to apply further safety measures to make the vegetables safe.

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  • 2.
    Almasalmeh, O
    et al.
    Technische Universität Berlin Campus El-Gouna, Egypt.
    Saleh, Ahmed Adel
    National Water Research Center, Egypt.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A.
    The Centre for Sustainable Visions, Sweden.
    Soil erosion and sediment transport modelling using hydrological models and remote sensing techniques in Wadi Billi, Egypt2021In: Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, ISSN 2363-6203, E-ISSN 2363-6211, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling soil erosion and sediment transport are vital to assess the impact of the flash floods. However, limited research works have studied sediment transport, especially in Egypt. This paper employs the HEC-HMS lumped hydrological model to predict the sediment load due to the flood event of 9th March 2014 in Wadi Billi, Egypt. The Modified USLE model has been used to calculate the total upland erosion, while Laursen-Copeland has been used to simulate load streams' sediment transport potential. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been applied over Landsat 8 image captured on 20th February 2014 using ArcMap 10.5 to determine the vegetation cover based on its spectral footprint. The resulted sedigraph showed accumulation of more than five thousand tons of sediments at the Wadi's outlet. The results are crucial to design a suitable stormwater management system to protect the downstream urban area and to use flood water for groundwater recharge.

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  • 3.
    Berrezel, Y. A.
    et al.
    Department of Hydraulics, University of Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Abdelbaki, C.
    Department of Hydraulics, University of Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Rouissat, B.
    Department of Hydraulics, University of Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Boumaaza, T.
    Oran Water and Sanitation Company, Algeria.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Decision support system for the management of water distribution networks a case study of Tourville, Algeria2023In: Larhyss Journal, ISSN 1112-3680, Vol. 2023, no 54, p. 7-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of the current situation of water distribution networks (WDNs) is based on many alternatives that are technically feasible and implemented by decision makers. Taking the WDN of Tourville city as a case study, this paper combines a set of decision support systems (DSSs), including geographic information systems (GISs), multicriteria analysis and hydraulic simulation models, to establish a multicriteria decision-making aid method for the renovation and rehabilitation of water distribution networks. This combination creates an expert management system based on multicriteria decision making that strengthens the optimization of the management of water distribution networks in terms of renovation and rehabilitation. After dividing the water distribution network into three emergency levels, it was concluded that 26% of the network is in urgent need of rehabilitation.

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  • 4.
    Bwambale, Joash
    et al.
    Abou Bekr Belkaid Univ Tlemcen, Pan African Univ, Inst Water & Energy Sci, BP 119, Tilimsen 13000, Algeria.;Busitema Univ, Tororo 236, Uganda..
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Modelling the impact of climate change on maize yield in Victoria Nile Sub-basin, Uganda2022In: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture is the backbone of Uganda's economy, with about 24.9% contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) as per the Uganda National Household Survey 2016/17. Agricultural productivity (yield per hectare) is still low due to the high dependence on rain-fed subsistence farming. Climate change is expected to further reduce the yield per hectare. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the potential impact of climate change on maize yield in the Victoria Nile Sub-basin using the AquaCrop model. It further assesses the possible adaptation measures to climate change. The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) data downloaded from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) was used to simulate maize yield in the near future (2021-2040), mid future (2041-2070) and late future (2071-2099). Results show that maize yield is likely to reduce by as high as 1-10%, 2-42% and 1-39% in the near, mid and late futures, respectively, depending on the agro-ecological zone. This decline in maize yield can have a significant impact on regional food security as well as socio-economic well-being since maize is a staple crop. The study also shows that improving soil fertility has no significant impact on maize yield under climate change. However, a combined application of supplementary irrigation and shifting the planting dates is a promising strategy to maintain food security and socio-economic development. This study presents important findings and adaptation strategies that policymakers and other stakeholders such as farmers can implement to abate the effects of climate change on crop production.

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  • 5.
    Cosmas, Nwedeh Chukwuemeka
    et al.
    African Development Bank, Cote d'Ivoire.
    Chitedze, Isaac
    Mzuzu University, Malawi.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    Lund University, Sweden.
    An econometric analysis of the macroeconomic determinants of carbon dioxide emissions in Nigeria2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 675, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined an econometric analysis of the macroeconomic determinants of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in Nigeria, covering the periods between 1981 and 2016, employing both linear and non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL & NARDL) models. The time series data used were sourced from the database of the World Bank Development Indicators, 2016 and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2017 edition. The main macroeconomic variables driving CO2 emissions in Nigeria were considered. The time series properties of the data were examined using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root tests for stationarity, and it was found that all the variables were first differenced stationary, except financial development and population density that were stationary at the level form. The finding from environment-economic relationship refutes the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and found N-shaped relationship in Nigeria. Overall changes in GDP per capita showed strong magnitudes of impacts on CO2 emission and GDP per capita bi-directionally granger caused energy consumption, which reversely caused increase in CO2 emission. Trend analyses revealed that emission fell from 0.64 metric tons between 2005 and 2010 to 0.52 metric tons between 2011 and 2016. Based on these results, a concerted effort of Ministry of finance in partnership with the ministry of environment in strengthening green bond issuance, subsidies and incentives to encourage the competitiveness of renewable energy technologies is paramount. The government must also initiate carbon tax for polluting industries and increase energy supply to stimulate industrial production since increase in energy consumption exhibited negative relationship with CO2 emissions.

  • 6.
    Durodola, Oludare Sunday
    et al.
    Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences, Algeria; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A
    Lund University, Sweden; The Centre for Sustainable Visions, Sweden .
    Modelling Maize Yield and Water Requirements under Different Climate Change Scenarios2020In: Climate, E-ISSN 2225-1154, Vol. 8, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    African countries such as Nigeria are anticipated to be more susceptible to the impacts of climate change due to large dependence on rainfed agriculture and to several uncertainties in the responses of crop production to climate change. The impacts of climate change on crop water requirements (CWR), irrigation water requirements (IWR), yields and crop water productivity (CWP) of rainfed maize in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria were evaluated for a baseline period (1986-2015) and future projection period (2021-2099) under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. For the baseline period, there is no significant trend within the variables studied. However, IWR is projected to increase significantly by up to 140% in the future period, while yield might likely decline under both scenarios up to -12%. This study shows that in the future periods, supplemental irrigation has little impact in improving yields, but an increase in soil fertility can improve yields and CWP by up to 80% in 2099. This paper offers useful information on suitable adaptation measures which could be implemented by stakeholders and policymakers to counterbalance the effects of climate change on crop production.

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  • 7.
    Ebitu, L
    et al.
    Busitema University, Uganda.
    Avery, H
    b Lund University, Sweden.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    The Centre for Sustainable Visions, Sweden.
    Enyetu, J
    Busitema University, Uganda.
    Citizen science for sustainable agriculture - A systematic literature review2021In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers as volunteers in research could potentially provide a rich resource for exploring sustainable agricultural research questions. To discern emerging patterns in citizen science-based studies on topics with relevance for sustainable agriculture and reveal salient challenges and opportunities for conducting such studies, we conducted a literature review of 27 articles from the period 2004-2019 of 250 publications screened from Google Scholar. These articles were thematically grouped under the topics: Soil health, climate adaptation, pest/pathogen monitoring, invasive species, inputs and outputs and pollination. Participants' characteristics, motivations, study design and project outcomes in the reviewed articles were summarized and discussed. Both observational and experimental studies were represented in the articles, while emerging trends point towards field experimentation and 'Large-N' trials by lay farmers. Crowdsourcing lends itself to projects where the main role of the public is local visual observations and reporting, such as in pest/pathogen monitoring. Challenges included methodological issues such as validation procedures, but above all motivation, recruitment, and retention of volunteers. Despite the importance of participatory approaches for deeper citizen involvement for sustainability transitions and for the quality of knowledge outcomes, the role of citizens was overall restricted to data collection. Several of the methodologies proposed would be difficult to implement in low-income countries, and relatively few studies pertained to agricultural concerns of the global South. To lend value to farmers' time, we recommend projects relevant to livelihoods, health issues or local farming problems, accompanied by well structured data feedback protocols, routing study results back to farmers.

  • 8.
    Gathagu, John
    et al.
    Pan African University, Algeria.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    Pan African University, Algeria; Lund University, Sweden.
    Sang, Joseph
    Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya.
    Effectiveness of Contour Farming and Filter Strips on Ecosystem Services2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The failing ecosystem services in Thika-Chania catchment is manifested in the deterioration of water quality, sedimentation of reservoirs, and subsequent increase in water treatment costs due to high turbidity. The services can be restored by implementing relevant soil and water conservation practices to enhance flow regulation and control sediment yield. The impacts of contour farming and filter strips on water and sediment yield were evaluated using Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT), Texas A&M University, USA. Sediment calibration and validation was achieved using data obtained from a bathymetric survey. Model parameters were adjusted to simulate the conservation impacts of contour farming and filter strips. Results indicated the average annual sediment yield as 22 t/ha at the outlet of the catchment and average annual surface runoff of 202 mm. The simulation results showed that filter strips of 5 m width would reduce the average annual sediment yield from the catchment by 54%. The efficacy of filter strips in reducing sediment yield was observed to increase with increasing filter width. Three-meter filter strips and contour farming reduced the average annual sediment yield at catchment outlet by 46% and 36%, respectively. It was concluded that the implementation of contour farming and filters strips reduced sediments by 63% from the base value. Water yield at the sub-basin level was only influenced by contour farming. The total water yield at the catchment outlet experienced no significant change.

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  • 9.
    Isundwa, Kasiti Felix
    et al.
    Pan African University, Algeria.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A.
    Pan African University, Algeria; Lund University, Sweden.
    The potential for water stewardship partnership in Kenya2019In: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 12, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water resources face risks due to water use stress and water scarcity. Collective and integrated actions by different institutions and stakeholders are needed to reduce future water risks. This paper aimed to assess the potential for a water stewardship partnership in River Nzoia Basin to reduce future water risks facing the ecosystem, agriculture, and other sectors by quantifying water risks and mapping stakeholders for a water stewardship partnership in the basin. Water risks were quantified using indicators from remote sensing platforms and secondary sources. Stakeholder mapping was conducted using stakeholder analysis, while stakeholders' views were collected using questionnaires. The results showed that there is a high fluctuation in the vegetation cover and primary productivity in the basin pointing to a degradation and deforestation. It was also noted that there is an increase in the frequency and severity of drought and high evapotranspiration rates in some parts of the basin due to the low vegetation cover. Combining the results indicated an increase in water risk between 2000 and 2014 in different parts of the basin at a different magnitude of risks. The conducted interviews found that the basin lacked a stewardship program. However, there was a potential for a successful stewardship partnership among stakeholders as most of the stakeholders showed their ability to play a role in the stewardship program. The paper showed a need to form a water stewardship program at the basin to tackle drought, deforestation, and land degradation. The proposed water stewardship program should be built on commitment, transparency, and inclusivity.

  • 10.
    Jama, Abdinur Ali
    et al.
    Pan African University, Algeria; Somali Water Development and Research Consulting Firm, Somalia.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A
    Pan African University, Algeria; Lund University.
    Water Services Sustainability: Institutional Arrangements and Shared Responsibilities2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor water services in developing countries after national conflict as a result of institutional setups and devastating infrastructures. This study assesses how institutional arrangements have affected the poor water services in Somalia, through thematic analyses. The huge gap in the literature about Somalia highlights the significant need of such research works and the originality of this paper. For this paper, different stakeholders were interviewed from seven zones of the city of Garowe. The results show that public private partnerships (PPP) play a vital role in providing drinking water. The results show that the institutions involved in the water sector in Puntland are not well organized. Roles and responsibilities were unclear, and different governmental institutions criticized each other for deliberately taking over others' responsibilities, leading to poor and over-priced domestic water quality. Most consumers cannot afford a drinking water supply to their homes, so they are forced to walk long distances and queue for a long time in order to access water. Our analysis shows that it will be difficult for Somalia to achieve Sustainable Development Goal six (SDG 6) (target one) under the current institutional arrangements. Institutional reforms are recommended in the water sector in order to achieve SDG 6 (Target one), and to ensure safe drinking water in Puntland by 2030.

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  • 11. Mourad, Khaldoon
    A water compact for sustainable water management2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 7339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water sector in Somalia is fragmented and needs coordination to establish a functioning water governance system. Therefore, commitments from all affected stakeholders are needed to support water resources development in Somalia. This paper proposed a water compact for Somalia that can address all water sector challenges to approach sustainability. The paper starts by analyzing water sector stakeholders in Somalia, describing their missions and relationship with the compact, categorizing all selected stakeholders based on their power and interest, and identifying key stakeholders. Based on the outcome from the national workshop and the literature, a water compact was proposed highlighting possible actions to solve the identified challenges. The compact covered four thematic areas: water governance, water use and services, water resilience, and integrated water resources management, which were discussed by all engaged stakeholders in a national workshop. The water compact will ensure sustainable water resources management. The paper highlighted the need for engaging the local media and the local people to get the much needed and valued feedback for possible interventions. © 2020 by the author.

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  • 12.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Post-conflict development, reviewing the water sector in Somalia2022In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Somali post-conflict development faces many challenges that affect the sustainability of the water sector. This paper reviews and analyses the post-conflict development activities in the water sector through local communications and reviewing published materials and databases from international players in Somalia, funding agencies and financial tracking service. The paper has shown that there has been great attention and support given to the country during its post-conflict development. However, most of these initiatives and projects have focused on emerging issues such as tackling food security and water, sanitation and hygiene services. The paper also shows that the continuous funding of emerging issues in Somalia has reduced its long-term sustainability of the water sector and limited its national and long-term benefits but has increased corruption due to increase the gap between actors and local people. Therefore, new transparent cooperative initiatives are needed based on transparent involvement and coordination among donors, local authorities and implementers to improve and develop the water sector and the livelihood in Somalia through a solid water governance system. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 13.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Berndtsson, Justyna C
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Berndtsson, Ronny
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria2011In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 92, no 10, p. 2447-2453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water.

  • 14.
    Mourad, Khaldoon A
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyyed Hasan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Avery, Helen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Role of Citizen Science in Sustainable Agriculture2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 24, article id 10375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers know much more than we think, and they are keen to improve their knowledge in order to improve their farms and increase their income. On the other hand, decision-makers, organizations, and researchers are increasing their use of citizen volunteers to strengthen their outcomes, enhance project implementation, and approach ecosystem sustainability. This paper assesses the role of citizen science relating to agricultural practices and covers citizen science literature on agriculture and farmers' participation during the period 2007-2019. The literature was examined for the role of citizen science in supporting sustainable agriculture activities, pointing to opportunities, challenges, and recommendations. The study identified the following gaps: insufficient attention to (1) long-term capacity building and dialogue between academics and farming communities; (2) developing countries in the global South and smallholders; (3) agriculture trading and marketing; (4) the rationales of selecting target groups; (5) contributing to accelerated sustainability transitions. The main aim of the research projects reviewed in this study tended to focus on the research outcomes from an academic perspective, not sustainable solutions in practice or sustainability in general. More research is needed to address these gaps and to widen the benefits of citizen science in sustainable agricultural practices.

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  • 15.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Assessing flooding and possible adaptation measures using remote sensing data and hydrological modeling in Sweden2022In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 38, article id 100464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Europe is experiencing more frequent and greater floods compared to the last 500 years due to climate change among other factors. This has increased the associated risks, especially in urban areas, which poses a great challenge to all stakeholders. To protect traffic networks from possible floods, this paper uses QGIS, remote sensing data, and HEC-HMS model to assess flooding events and possible adaptation measures. Two case studies have been taken; 1) a 60-mm rainstorm that occurred in 2012 on a main road in the Northern part of Sweden (NB)); and 2) a 35-mm rainstorm that occurred in 2019 in the Southern part of Gothenburg (GO). The resulting flood hydrographs show that the peak reached are 0.5 m3/s and 3.8 m3/s in GO and NB, respectively. To adapt to these flood events, four adaptation measures were assessed namely afforestation, permeable pavements & green roofs, multi-use detention basins and culvert installation considering food production, biodiversity, prosperity, and the environment. The study has shown that afforestation is an effective flood risk mitigation measure to handle both moderate and extreme rain events. Well-maintained permeable surfaces and green roofs are effective in reducing flooding due to moderate rainfall, but not in reducing the impacts of extreme rainfall events. Well-designed multi-functional detention basins are good flood protection measures, however, if they are not well-maintained, their efficiency may be reduced by up to 90 %. Culverts are effective for frequent and limited rain events but extreme rain events may even increase flood risk and thereby contribute to damaging the infrastructure.

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  • 16. Rajosoa, Andrianirina Sedera
    et al.
    Abdelbaki, Chérifa
    Mourad, Khaldoon A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Water assessment in transboundary river basins: the case of the Medjerda River Basin2021In: Sustainable Water Resources Management, ISSN 2363-5037, Vol. 7, no 6, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water resources in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region) face over-exploitation and over-pollution due to population growth, climate change and the lack of advanced water governance approaches. These challenges become more serious in transboundary river basins and may lead to conflict between riparian countries. The main objective of this paper is to assess water resources and needs at the Medjerda River Basin (MRB), shared by Tunisia and Algeria using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system between 2020 and 2050. Four scenarios were built to assess the current and future status of the water supply and demands in both countries. The results show that water demands, and shortages are increasing, and some demand sites will face real water scarcity in the future due to climate change and development practices. Therefore, new allocation and management plans should be examined at the regional level based on real collaboration among all stakeholders.

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  • 17.
    Yomo, Mawulolo
    et al.
    Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences Including Climate Change, Algeria.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences Including Climate Change, Algeria; Lund University, Sweden.
    Gnazou, Masamaeya D. T.
    Université de Lomé, Togo.
    Examining Water Security in the Challenging Environment in Togo, West Africa2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water shortages across the globe have increased due to climate change among other factors with negative impacts expected at the river basin level. Anticipating these impacts will help experts act in a timely manner to avoid a future water crisis. As part of addressing the future water shortage impacts on the Togolese community, this paper assessed water security in the context of the global environmental change in the Oti River Basin taking Oti Nord sub-basin (ONSB) as a case study. Key informants’ interviews were done with staff from governmental institutions, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations, and private operators. The Improved Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model (IFCEM) was used for assessing water security (WS). A basin level WS evaluation system including five subcomponents (external environment security, water resources security, water-society security, water economic security, and water-environment security) and 23 indicators related to climate, socio-economy, water availability, and consumption were constructed. The results showed that the water level is very insecure in the sub-basin for the assessed years (2010, 2015, and 2025) with the year 2025 being the worst (expected a decrease of water security by 20% and 1% in 2025 compared to the years 2015 and 2010, respectively). This insecurity is found to be the result of many factors including technical, institutional, juridical, environmental, socio-cultural, hydrogeological, and demographical factors. However, managerial factors such as institutional instability, the inadequacies in water and related sector evolution, and the absence of de-centralized water management structures, the non-operationalization of management organs/financial instruments, and culture (i.e., taboos and bylaws) are found to be key to the study area. The paper concluded that the operationalization of management organs/financial instruments may enable the application of adopted water policies and regulations, which may lead to a sound and coordinated management of the available water resources since this will enable the government’s self-investment in clean water provision, data acquisition (potential water available and the estimation of economic driven potential water needs, which are key for any sound development), and a stimulated joined effort from the existing institutions. In addition, the establishment of a sound waste management system and awareness raising, and educative activities regarding water pollution will be of great benefit for this cause. 

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