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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2016/20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm City has been working to reduce the impact of road dust through improved and specific street operations to reduce particulate levels in the air. Since its inception, effects on dust load and air quality have been investigated by VTI and SLB-analys at the Environmental Management in Stockholm. Specific measures have mainly included dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning with a Disa-Clean sweeper. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is maintained for the fourth year in a row in Stockholm, which is partly due to operational measures. Additional daytime dust binding could be shown to lower the daily average PM10 concentration by 6%, while blockwise CMA treatment could not be shown to have any clear effect. Road dust load, measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm), tend to have increased slightly compared to the previous season, especially in between the wheel tracks. The repaving of Folkungagatan has resulted in heavily increased dust load levels, but also lower PM10 levels than previous seasons. Evaluation of the possibilities for optimizing dust binding shows that several days with exceedances in autumn are missed, while several days in January are treated with CMA without an actual need to reach the limit value. Higher precision with forecast-based measures is needed to further optimize the efforts.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Optidrift: optimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift för bättre luftkvalitet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operation of streets and roads, in addition to accessibility and safety, also affects environmental aspects such as air quality. Measures such as sanding and salting affect the content of inhalable particles (PM10) in the air. On the other hand, operational measures that are made to reduce the suspension of particles in the spring can have an effect on the winter operation, because the salt solutions used also act as de- and anti-icing agents. The project has investigated the possibilities of optimizing street operations from these aspects, with a focus on air quality. In various activities, views and experiences were gathered about problem images and solutions from industry, road managers and practitioners. A road dust sampler, WDS II, was developed. Evaluations of the effect of different coil and cleaning variants on the road dust load showed that a positive effect of the methods requires that there is relatively much dust on the road surface. Optimization tests showed that good forecasting of dust binding is important for a good result. A criteria-based analysis showed that no optimization of the dust binding occurred during the project period. Overall, the project's original goal of being able to propose an optimized street operation in a district in Stockholm has not been achieved, mainly due to current operating contracts and of the high priority of the environmental quality objective (PM10) and accessibility in the city. On the other hand, Optidrift has identified success factors and problems with the street operation, resulting in increased knowledge about the street operations' effects on dust load and air quality, and developed useful evaluation methods and scenario analyzes useful in continued work on improving and optimizing winter and barge operations.

  • 5.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH.
    Non-Exhaust PM10 and Road Dust2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust PM10 is an issue in the urban environment linked to health issues. Emissions of non-exhaust PM10 is relatable to pavement properties. Also of importance is resuspension of road dust stored from surfaces. This depends on the traffic and metrological conditions. Given this, the purpose of the thesis was to give an overview limited to Sweden and the Nordic countries regarding non-exhaust PM10 emissions and road dust.

    The overview includes how particles are related to human health. Also included is the principle of how particles are emitted from road surface and tyre interaction, both directly and through resuspension of road dust. This thesis also includes an overview of how the use of studded tyres impact on asphalt surfacings and how the properties of the materials used impact on the abrasion wear. This is then linked to the emissions of non-exhaust particles. Further described is how measurements can be done of ambient particles and road dust, followed on two major models for road abrasion wear and non-exhaust PM prediction. Also included is how road operation, e.g. traction sanding and dust binding, influence the particle emissions together with other options to reduce the emissions through, e.g. limiting the use of studded tyres.

    One special issue discussed in this thesis is the lack of holistic view regarding the environmental problems in the urban environment with focus on particle emissions and road noise emissions, both from the road surface and tyre interaction. Currently the most problematic issue is prioritized and the resulting solution to that specific problem might increase other problems.

    This thesis shows that much knowledge is available regarding non-exhaust PM10 emissions and road dust, but also that several knowledge gaps exists. Several suggestions on further studies is given together with a brief overview on the continued work forward from this thesis.

    List of papers
    1. Calibration of the Swedish Studdded Tyre Abrasion Wear Prediction Model and the Implication for the NORTRIP Road Dust Emission Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration of the Swedish Studdded Tyre Abrasion Wear Prediction Model and the Implication for the NORTRIP Road Dust Emission Model
    2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Board 97th annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 2018Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of rut development due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and which had been found to work well. However, since it has not been validated since 2007, during which traffic as well as road and tyre design have developed, the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. Also, since the prediction model is used in the NORTRIP (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission) emission model, a natural question is how a change in the wear model will affect the emission model. In this paper, two versions of the abrasion model are compared to measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate the validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP is briefly investigated. The paper first describes the abrasion models and their calibration, as well as the test sections for calibration. Both versions of the model, as expected, overestimated the wear and an update was suggested. It was also found that NORTRIP is indicatively affected by overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington, D.C.: , 2018
    Keywords
    Rutting (wheel), Studded tyre, Forecast, Mathematical model, Wear, Calibration, Emission
    National Category
    Civil Engineering
    Research subject
    30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12782 (URN)
    Conference
    Transportation Research Board annual meeting
    Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Texture influence on road dust load
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Texture influence on road dust load
    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Transportation and Air Pollution Conferens, 2017, p. 14-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the connection between pavement texture and the maximum dust load retention at a low speed. One of the main sources of PM (Particulate Matter) in the urban environment is the traffic. Traffic contributes not only to exhaust emissions, but also to direct emission from abrasion wear of pavements, tyres and brakes as well as emission from suspension of available road dust on the road surface. This dust is partially stored in the road surface macro texture. Dust accumulate on the surface due to several different mechanisms and transport phenomena’s. Examples of transport mechanisms affecting the road dust load and thus the storage in the texture include precipitation, evaporation, turbulence from traffic, wetting of the road surface binding particles to it, sanding and crushing of the sand etc.

    Keywords
    Surface texture, Particulate matter, Dust, Macrotexture
    National Category
    Infrastructure Engineering
    Research subject
    10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment; 30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12783 (URN)9783905594676 (ISBN)
    Conference
    TAP - Transportation and Air Pollution
    Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Texture influence on road dust load2017In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Transportation and Air Pollution Conferens, 2017, p. 14-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the connection between pavement texture and the maximum dust load retention at a low speed. One of the main sources of PM (Particulate Matter) in the urban environment is the traffic. Traffic contributes not only to exhaust emissions, but also to direct emission from abrasion wear of pavements, tyres and brakes as well as emission from suspension of available road dust on the road surface. This dust is partially stored in the road surface macro texture. Dust accumulate on the surface due to several different mechanisms and transport phenomena’s. Examples of transport mechanisms affecting the road dust load and thus the storage in the texture include precipitation, evaporation, turbulence from traffic, wetting of the road surface binding particles to it, sanding and crushing of the sand etc.

  • 7.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wet Dust Sampler: a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 8.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. KTH.
    Calibration of the Swedish Studdded Tyre Abrasion Wear Prediction Model and the Implication for the NORTRIP Road Dust Emission Model2018In: Transportation Research Board 97th annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of rut development due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and which had been found to work well. However, since it has not been validated since 2007, during which traffic as well as road and tyre design have developed, the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. Also, since the prediction model is used in the NORTRIP (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission) emission model, a natural question is how a change in the wear model will affect the emission model. In this paper, two versions of the abrasion model are compared to measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate the validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP is briefly investigated. The paper first describes the abrasion models and their calibration, as well as the test sections for calibration. Both versions of the model, as expected, overestimated the wear and an update was suggested. It was also found that NORTRIP is indicatively affected by overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the emissions.

  • 9.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Calibration of the Swedish studded tyre abrasion wear prediction model with implication for the NORTRIP road dust emission model2019In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of road abrasion wear due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and has been found to work well. However, it has not been validated since 2007, and since then road surfaces and tyre design have developed, and the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. The abrasion wear model is used in the NORTRIP emission model (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission modelling), and the effect of a recalibrated abrasion wear model on the emission model is shown. In this paper, the abrasion wear model is compared to full-scale field measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate its validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. It is concluded that the model overestimates the wear and an update is suggested. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP emission predictions is briefly investigated. There were also indications that NORTRIP is affected by the abrasion model overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the particle emissions.

  • 10.
    Vieira, Tiago
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study2019In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results

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