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  • 1.
    Amador, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, Sweden; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    A Survey on Remote Operation of Road Vehicles2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 130135-130154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of remote operation has been proposed as a bridge towards driverless mobility by providing human assistance remotely when an automated driving system finds a situation that is ambiguous and requires input from a remote operator. The remote operation of road vehicles has also been proposed as a way to enable drivers to operate vehicles from safer and more comfortable locations. While commercial solutions for remote operation exist, remaining challenges are being tackled by the research community, who is continuously testing and validating the feasibility of deploying remote operation of road vehicles on public roads. These tests range from the technological scope to social aspects such as acceptability and usability that affect human performance. This survey presents a compilation of works that approach the remote operation of road vehicles. We start by describing the basic architecture of remote operation systems and classify their modes of operation depending on the level of human intervention. We use this classification to organize and present recent and relevant work on the field from industry and academia. Finally, we identify the challenges in the deployment of remote operation systems in the technological, regulatory, and commercial scopes.

  • 2.
    Andreotti, Eleonora
    et al.
    CINECA, Italy.
    Selpi, Maytheewat
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Cooperative Merging Strategy Between Connected Autonomous Vehicles in Mixed Traffic2022In: IEEE OPEN JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, ISSN 2687-7813, Vol. 3, p. 825-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we propose a new cooperation strategy between connected autonomous vehicles in on-ramps merging scenarios and we implement the cut-in risk indicator (CRI) to investigate the safety effect of the proposed strategy. The new cooperation strategy considers a pair of vehicles approaching an on-ramp. The strategy then makes decisions on the target speeds/accelerations of both vehicles, possible lane changing, and a dynamic decision-making approach in order to reduce the risk during the cut-in manoeuvre. In this work, the CRI was first used to assess the risk during the merging manoeuvre. For this purpose, scenarios with penetration rates of autonomous vehicles from 20% to 100%, with step of 10%, both connected and non-connected autonomous vehicles were evaluated. As a result, on average a 35% reduction of the cut-in risk manoeuvres in connected autonomous vehicles compared to non-connected autonomous vehicles is obtained. It is shown through the analysis of probability density functions characterising the CRI distribution that the reduction is not homogeneous across all indicator values, but depends on the penetration rate and the severity of the manoeuvre.

  • 3.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Modelling and Simulation for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System Functions2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future vehicles are expected to be equipped with wireless communication technology, that enables them to be “connected” to each others and road infrastructures. Complementing current autonomous vehicles and automated driving systems, the wireless communication allows the vehicles to interact, cooperate, and be aware of its surroundings beyond their own sensors’ range. Such sys- tems are often referred to as Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which aims to provide extra safety, efficiency, and sustainability to transporta- tion systems. Several C-ITS applications are under development and will require thorough testing and evaluation before their deployment in the real-world. C- ITS depend on several sub-systems, which increase their complexity, and makes them difficult to evaluate.

    Simulations are often used to evaluate many different automotive applications, including C-ITS. Although they have been used extensively, simulation tools dedicated to determine all aspects of C-ITS are rare, especially human factors aspects, which are often ignored. The majority of the simulation tools for C-ITS rely heavily on different combinations of network and traffic simulators. The human factors issues have been covered in only a few C-ITS simulation tools, that involve a driving simulator. Therefore, in this thesis, a C-ITS simulation framework that combines driving, network, and traffic simulators is presented. The simulation framework is able to evaluate C-ITS applications from three perspectives; a) human driver; b) wireless communication; and c) traffic systems.

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and its applications are chosen as the first set of C-ITS functions to be evaluated. Example scenarios from CACC and platoon merging applications are presented, and used as test cases for the simulation framework, as well as to elaborate potential usages of it. Moreover, approaches, results, and challenges from composing the simulation framework are presented and discussed. The results shows the usefulness of the proposed simulation framework.

    List of papers
    1. Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
    2015 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

    Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

    Keywords
    Electronics, Software, Automation, Vehicle, Autonomous vehicle, Safety, Behaviour
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-9271 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2015.7225677 (DOI)2-s2.0-84951010000 (Scopus ID)9781467372664 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2015, 28 June 2015 through 1 July 2015
    Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2022-10-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016
    Keywords
    Simulator (driving), Cooperative intelligent transport system, Technology, Development, Network (traffic)
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10736 (URN)10.1145/2901378.2901397 (DOI)978-1-4503-3742-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16)
    Projects
    VICTIgSAFER-VICTIg
    Funder
    Knowledge Foundation
    Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2022-10-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Cooperative Driving Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Driving Simulation
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

    Keywords
    Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
    National Category
    Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12688 (URN)
    Conference
    DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France
    Funder
    Knowledge Foundation
    Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2022-10-21Bibliographically approved
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  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE.
    Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jernberg, Christian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Ictech AB.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH.
    Nylander, Tomas
    Ericsson.
    Persson, Magnus
    Voysys AB.
    Remote Driving Operation (REDO) project: final report2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents experimental setups and findings from the REDO project, which had been conducted between December 2019 and February 2023. Five main topics are covered in this report: 1) Effects of latency and field-of-view on driving performance; 2) Remote driving feedback and control; 3) Connectivity and mobile network support for remote driving; 4) Video transmission for remote driving; and 5) Laws and regulations concerning remote driving. Contents of this report dives into technical details and findings within each topic. Nevertheless, this report does not intend to repeat all detail and results published in scientific publications, and thus this report should be seen as complementary material to the published results.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Detournay, Jerome
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Frimodig, Viktor
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Oscar Uddman
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Rodriguez, Victor Diez
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Shahanoor, Golam
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss postcompetition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

  • 7.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria & Högskolan i Halmstad, CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations2017In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero), Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan , 2017, article id 20174621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function, which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road space utilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are not desired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especially from non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining the safety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performs the cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers using time to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks are always high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6 seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

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  • 8.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Fu, Jiali
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Selpi, Selpi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Behavioral adaptation of drivers when driving among automated vehicles2022In: Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, ISSN 2399-9802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore whether drivers would adapt their behavior when they drive among automated vehicles (AVs) compared to driving among manually driven vehicles (MVs).Understanding behavioral adaptation of drivers when they encounter AVs is crucial for assessing impacts of AVs in mixed-traffic situations. Here, mixed-traffic situations refer to situations where AVs share the roads with existing nonautomated vehicles such as conventional MVs.

    Design/methodology/approach: A driving simulator study is designed to explore whether such behavioral adaptations exist. Two different driving scenarios were explored on a three-lane highway: driving on the main highway and merging from an on-ramp. For this study, 18 research participants were recruited.

    Findings: Behavioral adaptation can be observed in terms of car-following speed, car-following time gap, number of lane change and overall driving speed. The adaptations are dependent on the driving scenario and whether the surrounding traffic was AVs or MVs. Although significant differences in behavior were found in more than 90% of the research participants, they adapted their behavior differently, and thus, magnitude of the behavioral adaptation remains unclear.

    Originality/value: The observed behavioral adaptations in this paper were dependent on the driving scenario rather than the time gap between surrounding vehicles. This finding differs from previous studies, which have shown that drivers tend to adapt their behaviors with respect to the surrounding vehicles. Furthermore, the surrounding vehicles in this study are more “free flow'” compared to previous studies with a fixed formation such as platoons. Nevertheless, long-term observations are required to further support this claim.

  • 9.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Englund, Christofer
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons2021In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 10, article id 100381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently unknown how automated vehicle platoons will be perceived by other road users in their vicinity. This study explores how drivers of manually operated passenger cars interact with automated passenger car platoons while merging onto a highway, and how different inter-vehicular gaps between the platooning vehicles affect their experience and safety. The study was conducted in a driving simulator and involved 16 drivers of manually operated cars. Our results show that the drivers found the interactions mentally demanding, unsafe, and uncomfortable. They commonly expected that the platoon would adapt its behavior to accommodate a smooth merge. They also expressed a need for additional information about the platoon to easier anticipate its behavior and avoid cutting-in. This was, however, affected by the gap size; larger gaps (30 and 42.5 m) yielded better experience, more frequent cut-ins, and less crashes than the shorter gaps (15 and 22.5 m). A conclusion is that a short gap as well as external human–machine interfaces (eHMI) might be used to communicate the platoon's intent to “stay together”, which in turn might prevent drivers from cutting-in. On the contrary, if the goal is to facilitate frequent, safe, and pleasant cut-ins, gaps larger than 22.5 m may be suitable. To thoroughly inform such design trade-offs, we urge for more research on this topic. © 2021 The Author(s)

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  • 10.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    A Novel Risk Indicator for Cut-In Situations2020In: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cut-in situations occurs when a vehicle intentionally changes lane and ends up in front of another vehicle or in-between two vehicles. In such situations, having a method to indicate the collision risk prior to making the cut-in maneuver could potentially reduce the number of sideswipe and rear end collisions caused by the cut-in maneuvers. This paper propose a new risk indicator, namely cut-in risk indicator (CRI), as a way to indicate and potentially foresee collision risks in cut-in situations. As an example use case, we applied CRI on data from a driving simulation experiment involving a manually driven vehicle and an automated platoon in a highway merging situation. We then compared the results with time-to-collision (TTC), and suggest that CRI could correctly indicate collision risks in a more effective way. CRI can be computed on all vehicles involved in the cut-in situations, not only for the vehicle that is cutting in. Making it possible for other vehicles to estimate the collision risk, for example if a cut-in from another vehicle occurs, the surrounding vehicles could be warned and have the possibility to react in order to potentially avoid or mitigate accidents.

  • 11.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    A Simulation Study on Effects of Platooning Gaps on Drivers of Conventional Vehicles in Highway Merging Situations2020In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning refers to a group of vehicles that--enabled by wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication and vehicle automation--drives with short inter-vehicular distances. Before its deployment on public roads, several challenging traffic situations need to be handled. Among the challenges are cut-in situations, where a conventional vehicle--a vehicle that has no automation or V2V communication--changes lane and ends up between vehicles in a platoon. This paper presents results from a simulation study of a scenario, where a conventional vehicle, approaching from an on-ramp, merges into a platoon of five cars on a highway. We created the scenario with four platooning gaps: 15, 22.5, 30, and 42.5 meters. During the study, the conventional vehicle was driven by 37 test persons, who experienced all the platooning gaps using a driving simulator. The participants' opinions towards safety, comfort, and ease of driving between the platoon in each gap setting were also collected through a questionnaire. The results suggest that a 15-meter gap prevents most participants from cutting in, while causing potentially dangerous maneuvers and collisions when cut-in occurs. A platooning gap of at least 30 meters yield positive opinions from the participants, and facilitating more smooth cut-in maneuvers while less collisions were observed.

  • 12.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria & Högskolan i Halmstad, CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios2017In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2017, p. 315-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

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  • 13.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Halmstad Universitet.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad Universitet.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Viktoria Swedish ICT,.
    Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation2015In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

    Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

  • 14.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

  • 15.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework—consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators—for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Cooperative Driving Simulation2016In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

  • 17.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Halmstad University.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

  • 18.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Patel, Raj Haresh
    EURECOM.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Härri, Jerome
    EURECOM.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users. EURECOM.
    Bonnet, Christian
    Evaluating Model Mismatch Impacting CACC Controllers in Mixed2018In: Proceedings IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1867-1872Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At early market penetration, automated vehicles will share the road with legacy vehicles. For a safe transportation system, automated vehicle controllers therefore need to estimate the behavior of the legacy vehicles. However, mismatches between the estimated and real human behaviors can lead to inefficient control inputs, and even collisions in the worst case. In this paper, we propose a framework for evaluating the impact of model mismatch by interfacing a controller under test with a driving simulator. As a proof- of-concept, an algorithm based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) is evaluated in a braking scenario. We show how model mismatch between estimated and real human behavior can lead to a decrease in avoided collisions by almost 46%, and an increase in discomfort by almost 91%. Model mismatch is therefore non-negligible and the proposed framework is a unique method to evaluate them.

  • 19.
    Maleki, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks2023In: Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, IEEE Computer Society, 2023, p. 23-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification.

  • 20.
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    SICS.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Aderum, Tobias
    Autoliv Research.
    Ågren, S. Magnus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Jonsson, Göran
    Volvo Cars.
    Heldal, Rogart
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research & Technology AB.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems2016In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future transportation systems will be a heterogeneous mix of items with varying connectivity and interoperability. A mix of new technologies and legacy systems will co-exist to realize a variety of scenarios involving not only connected cars but also road infrastructures, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS), where each constituent system - one of the units that compose an SoS - can act as a standalone system, but the cooperation among the constituent systems enables new emerging and promising scenarios. In this paper we investigate how to architect cars so that they can be constituents of future transportation systems. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom.

  • 21.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jernberg, Christian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    One2Many: remote operation of multiple vehicles2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One2Many, the title of this report, refers to remote operation of vehicles where an operator handles several vehicles simultaneously. This may increase efficiency and opportunities for profitability. The objective of this report is to identify essential and relevant developments of the regulatory framework, as well as business models and working conditions for support of safe and sustainable introduction of a single person’s remote operation of multiple vehicles. 

    As a starting point, this report describes the taxonomy used and a state-of-the-art study. Most literature deals with technical challenges around remote operation while non-technical challenges, as well operation of multiple vehicles, are poorly covered. This report aims at addressing this gap by considering non-technical aspects for remote operation. 

    Legal aspects are described and analysed, resulting in recommendations for next steps for legislation and regulation. Furthermore, business models and working environment are discussed, taking advantage of two real world use cases: goods transport (Einride trucks), and public transportation (Ride the Future automated shuttles). 

    One2Many summarises regulatory considerations in a Memorandum, and additionally concludes that: 

    • Research is needed regarding legal challenges for the three different modes of remote operation (remote driving, remote assistance, remote supervision) and how to address them in future regulation to best deal with safety concerns and to support remote operation. Liability issues and concerns also need to be handled. 

    • The main advantage of introducing remote operating for several vehicles per operator will most likely be uptime. The employee cost is foreseen to decrease, but potential surrounding functions need to be studied in order to determine if the cost of personnel actually would go down. 

    • Several working environment considerations should be further discussed, e.g. regarding what type of controls would be most effective and safe to use, and whether it matters if an operator has a background as driver of conventional vehicles.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Zhao, Lin
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Mechanics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Department of Engineering Mechanics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Rothhämel, Malte
    Department of Engineering Mechanics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Drugge, Lars
    Department of Engineering Mechanics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jiang, Frank
    Division of Decision and Control Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Remote Driving of Road Vehicles: A Survey of Driving Feedback, Latency, Support Control, and Real Applications2024In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, ISSN 2379-8858, E-ISSN 2379-8904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature survey explores the domain of remote driving of road vehicles within autonomous vehicles, focusing on challenges and state-of-the-art solutions related to driving feedback, latency, support control, as well as remote driving platform and real applications. The advancement towards Level-5 autonomy faces challenges, including sensor reliability and diverse scenario feasibility. Currently, remote driving is identified as vital for commercialization, however, it comes with challenges like low situational awareness, latency, and a lack of comprehensive feedback mechanisms. Solutions proposed include enhancing visual feedback, developing haptic feedback, employing prediction techniques, and use control methods to support driver. This paper reviews the existing literature on remote driving in these fields, revealing research gaps and areas for future studies. Additionally, this paper reviews the industry applications of remote driving and shows the state-of-art use cases.

1 - 22 of 22
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