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  • 1.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Sweco.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH.
    Smartphone based travel diary collection: Experiences from a field trial in Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, Vol. 26, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great need for new methods to collect travel data. Traditional methods have considerable drawbacks and, at the same time, the models used to analyse the transport system require more and more detailed and high-quality data. Since most smartphones are equipped with various sensors that can be used to determine the location of the smartphone, and since smartphones are integrated in the daily life of most people, they provide an unprecedented opportunity for large-scale travel data collection. This method has a great potential to solve the problems related to the estimation of distance/travel time, geographic coding of departure/destination locations and forgotten trips and it will also provide a more detailed and extensive data set.

    In a recently completed research project the feasibility of replacing or complementing the traditional travel diary, with a suite of tools that make use of smartphone collected travel data has been evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional method and the proposed method were studied. For a fair comparison, both methods have been tested in the same city, at the same time, and with the same respondents. To achieve the objectives of the project, MEILI, a system that consists of a smartphone application for capturing the movement of users and a web application for allowing the users to annotate their movement, has been deployed. In total 2142 trips were collected and annotated by 171 users. 51 of the users annotated trips covering more than a week. The main findings of the paper are that smartphone based data collection is feasible, that the algorithms to save battery work well and that trips of the same respondent vary considerably depending on day of the week.

  • 2.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Trängselskatt på Essingeleden minskar trängseln kraftigt. PM till TV4 201104252011Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Sweco Transport System AB.
    Assessing the welfare effects of congestion charges in a real world setting2014In: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794, Vol. 70, p. 339-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard textbook analysis shows that drivers as a group lose from congestion charges. However, it omits taste heterogeneity, shorter travel times far out in the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and the possibility for drivers to reschedule. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic scheduling model with heterogeneous users we find that all three add significantly to the benefit of the Stockholm congestion charges and that drivers as a group benefit from these charges even without recycling of revenues. This paper also provides an update on the consumer benefits of the Stockholm charges.

  • 4.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Estimating welfare effects of congestion charges in real world settings2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The Gothenburg congestion charge: Effects, design and politics2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 75, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 6.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    The Swedish congestion charges: Ten years on2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 107, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-day dependent cordon-based congestion charging systems were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, and in Gothenburg in 2013. The Stockholm system was significantly extended in 2016, and the peak charge has been increased in the two cities. This paper analyses the effects of the first decade with the Swedish congestion charges, specifically effects of the system updates, and draws policy lessons for the years to come. Should we introduce congestion charges in more cities? Should we extend the systems that we have? We synthesize previous research findings and focus on the long-term effects that have varied over time including the recent years: the price elasticities on the traffic volume across the cordon, the revenue and system operating cost, the public and political support, and consequences for the transport planning process. We also explore the effects on peak and off-peak, and different types of traffic (trucks, company cars and private passenger cars), because of access to novel data that make this analysis possible. We find that the price elasticities have increased over time in Stockholm, but decreased in Gothenburg. We find that the public support increased in the two cities after their introduction until the systems were revised; since then, the public support has declined in both cities. We find that the price elasticity was substantially lower when the charging levels were increased, and when the Stockholm system was extended, than when the charges were first introduced, a likely reason being that the most price-sensitive traffic was already priced off-the road at the introduction.

  • 7.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, Glasgow, UK, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

  • 8.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

  • 9.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C. USA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

  • 10.
    Ekström, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping Universitet.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköping Universitet.
    Surrogate-based optimization of cordon toll levels in congested traffic networks2016In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1008-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefit, in terms of social surplus, from introducing congestion charging schemes in urban networks is depending on the design of the charging scheme. The literature on optimal design of congestion pricing schemes is to a large extent based on static traffic assignment, which is known for its deficiency in correctly predict travel times in networks with severe congestion. Dynamic traffic assignment can better predict travel times in a road network, but are more computational expensive. Thus, previously developed methods for the static case cannot be applied straightforward. Surrogate-based optimization is commonly used for optimization problems with expensive-to-evaluate objective functions. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a surrogate-based optimization method, when the number of pricing schemes, which we can afford to evaluate (because of the computational time), are limited to between 20 and 40. A static traffic assignment model of Stockholm is used for evaluating a large number of different configurations of the surrogate-based optimization method. Final evaluation is performed with the dynamic traffic assignment tool VisumDUE, coupled with the demand model Regent, for a Stockholm network including 1240 demand zones and 17000 links. Our results show that the surrogate-based optimization method can indeed be used for designing a congestion charging scheme, which return a high social surplus.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Flexibel trängselskatt ger flyt åt Stockholmstrafiken2012In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Omstridd skatt fyller sex. Trängselskattens påverkan på trafiken är till och med större i dag än när den infördes. Att många ändå upplever att köerna blivit längre beror på flera stora byggprojekt som påverkar kapaciteten på vägarna. Trängselskatten bör därför bli mer flexibel och anpassas efter vägarbeten, årstider etc. Essingeleden bör också snarast avgiftsbeläggas. Det skulle enkelt minska trafiken där med 13 procent och göra Stockholm effektivare, renare och trevligare, skriver fyra transportforskare.

  • 12.
    Hainz, Svenja
    et al.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR).
    Vannier, Elodie
    SNCF .
    Meyer zu Hoerste, Michael
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR).
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Passenger Demand in a Technical World2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Fransson, Magnus
    Sweco.
    Aggregated Validation of Traffic Simulation Models Based on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Fransson, Magnus
    Sweco Society AB.
    Validation of Traffic Simulation Models Based on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban traffic simulation models could benefit significantly from new validation methods with potential to reduce the time-consuming calibration and validation work needed before application of the model to evaluate city infrastructure or policy implementations. Current practice is to validate simulation models locally through comparison with point flow measurements and travel times on some important routes. However, for many applications, the level of congestion in an entire area is important. During the last decade, several studies have found empirical evidence of a relation between flow and density on city district level, the existence of a so-called macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD). This paper shows how the MFD can be used to validate results from a traffic simulation model for a city district. Furthermore, the paper shows empirical results for Stockholm, Sweden. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 15.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Effekter av förarlösa fordon: Analys av simuleringar för att nå en helhetsbild2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Framtidsscenarier för självkörande fordon: person och gods2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ger en höjd trängselskatt samma effekt som vid första införandet?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Impacts of time-varying cordon pricing: Validation and application of mesoscopic model for Stockholm2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 28, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a simulation model to compare traffic and welfare effects of changes to the charging schedule currently in use in Stockholm. In particular, a step toll is compared to its flat counterpart at two charging levels. The increments between steps are also increased in a peaked step toll scenario. Furthermore, results from simulation of the current toll ring are compared to real-world measurements in a first attempt to validate model predictions regarding impacts of a time-varying congestion charging scheme. In the model, car users have the possibility to respond to congestion charging by changing departure time, route or switch to public transport and travel times are calculated using mesoscopic traffic simulation. Validation shows that departure time choice adjustments because of congestion charging are overestimated by the model that is based on stated preference data. This warrants further research on discrepancies between stated and revealed adjustments to congestion charging.

    The current step toll reaches the highest social benefit estimate in model predictions, but differences in traffic effects between the current step toll and its flat counterpart are rather small. Furthermore, results show that demand changes occur in the model to a considerably greater extent for trips with low value of time. The differences in welfare effects is for that reason large for different trip purposes, indicating the importance of accounting for heterogeneous trips when modelling effects of congestion charges

  • 19.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Indikatorer för ökad punktlighet på järnväg: slutrapport inom projektet Nypunkt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Punctuality is a very important issue for the railway in order to increase passenger and transport buyer satisfaction and be competitive in relation to other modes of transport. To obtain punctuality is however a complex task which includes cooperation between different organisations such as infrastructure managers and train operators. Such a cooperation exists in Sweden and is called TTT (Together for Trains on Time). TTT has divided the work concerning increased railway punctuality in Sweden into eight so called effect areas: Infrastructure, Vehicle, Trespassing, Traffic and resource planning, Traffic management, Trackwork, Departure time and nodes and From abroad. In this report, an analysis of the work in TTT is conducted which identifies synergies in-between the effect areas and reports on current status for the punctuality work in each effect area. Furthermore, twelve main indicators for improved railway punctuality are identified in this report. The purpose of these indicators is to assist TTT in monitoring the punctuality improvement work. The new indicators cover both the most important issues from the effect areas and aspects of special importance to travellers such as very long delays and cancelled trains.

  • 20.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vad har trängselskatten gett för effekter i Stockholms Stad?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Berglund, Svante
    WSP.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH.
    Estimation of large-scale tour generation model taking travellers' daily tour pattern into account2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tour generation is conventionally modelled separately per tour purpose. Tours with different purposes are however not generated independently of each other in reality. For example, few travellers conduct more than three tours per day. In this paper, the conventional tour generation model is extended into estimation of a model that takes travellers’ daily tour pattern into account. Results show that access to car and drivers’ licence, having a job and presence of children in the household increase the probability of making many tours in one day. Furthermore, results show that accessibility is an important factor for generation of non-mandatory tours, that weekend and holiday season are important determinants of when tour purposes are generated, that high income increases the probability of conducting business tours as well as tour patterns that include expensive activities and that high income reduces the probability of conducting cheap activities such as visiting friends and family.

  • 22.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Berglund, Svante
    WSP.
    Samulesson, Sandra
    WSP.
    Almström, Peter
    WSP.
    Algers, Staffan
    TPMod.
    Sampers4: Skattning av regionala efterfrågemodeller2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har tagits fram som slutrapportering av projektet ”Sampers4 -fortsättning” finansierat av Trafikverket, som genomförts under hösten 2017 och våren 2018. Detta projekt har tagit vid där tidigare omskattningsprojekt för Sampers regionala efterfrågemodeller slutat. De största förändringarna och förbättringarna i denna senaste omskattning är:

    • att även de som inte angivit någon inkomst i RVU har fått en inkomst påkodad,
    • att hushållsvariabler kunnat inkluderas i skattningen på grund av framsteg inom framtagning av syntetisk befolkning med hushållsdata som kan användas vid implementering,
    • att konsistensen mellan utbud och efterfrågan förbättrats genom att impedansen från kollektivtrafikutläggningen använts i skattning av efterfrågemodeller för färdmedelsval.

    Projektet ”Sampers4 –fortsättning” har avgränsats till att gälla skattning av regionala efterfrågemodeller. Implementering av modellerna har påbörjats i tidigare omskattningsprojekt, men har inte ingått i detta projekt. Vi inser att mycket av vårt arbete i detta projekt inte kunnat göras utan det arbete som gjorts i tidigare omskattningsprojekt.

  • 23.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The Swedish Congestion Charges: Lessons Learnt2018In: Road Pricing: Technologies, economics and acceptability / [ed] John Walker, IET , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The charging systems in Sweden show that congestion charges can be an efficient (socio-economically beneficial) and effective policy measure for combating urban congestion. Furthermore, the technology of the Swedish charging systems has proven to work well, with high accuracy of correctly identified vehicles using the video technique with ANPR. The case of Gothenburg demonstrates this measure is not only less efficient if initial congestion levels are low, but also less efficient in the long run: the effects are declining in the long run. In Stockholm, the effects have increased over the years. The difference between the cities in this respect could be a result of the lower density city structure and high car dependence in Gothenburg. From this perspective, congestion charges are likely most successful in cities where congestion levels are high and where there exist good alternatives to driving.

  • 24. Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Daly, Andrew
    ITS Leeds.
    Algers, Staffan
    Modelling the attraction of shopping centres2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Daly, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Algers, Staffan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Modelling the attraction of travel to shopping destinations in large-scale modelling2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 68, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of major shopping centres continues even though online shopping is increasing. This has implications for mode and destination choice for shopping travel and therefore also for sustainability, which need to be considered in planning policy. In this paper, we estimate models for shopping travel using an unusually rich data set of shopping attractions. We find that shopping travel is best represented in three separate models: consumables in short and long activity segments and durables. In all of these models, we show that representing nearby attractions outside the destination zone adds to the measured attraction. For long activity consumables and for durables, the addition of secondary attractions within 2 km of the main destination gives the best models. For short activity consumables, both 2 km and 5 km add to the model, but 5 km is slightly better. Furthermore, we find significant within-zone correlation in the consumables models but are unable to find significant between-zone correlation, indicating that zone boundaries have some behavioural meaning for shopping travellers, but larger areas are not viewed in this way. Shopping attractions with a specifically Swedish impact, Systembolaget (official alcohol outlet in Sweden) and IKEA, proved to be important in all the models. These attractors work better as part of the size than as part of the utility, indicating that they appear to be separate attractors of trips, rather than as adding to the utility of other attractors. The models are also applied in two policy scenario analyses in which the impacts of new IKEA establishments and availability of Systembolaget in all zones on destination and mode choice are assessed.

  • 26.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH .
    A dynamic transportation model for the Stockholm area: Implementation issues regarding departure time choice and OD-pair reduction2009In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 551-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic congestion is an increasing problem in urban areas. Building new roads often attracts latent demand and turns parts of the city into building sites for several years. Policy measures that stimulate more effective use of the existing network, such as variable road pricing, are therefore becoming increasingly popular among policy makers and citizens. These measures are often aimed at changing the temporal distribution of traffic. Yet transportation models taking departure time choice into account are rare. This paper describes the implementation of an urban transportation application for Stockholm, which includes departure time choice, mode choice and time dependent network assignment. Through iterations between demand and supply the objective of the transportation model is to forecast effects of congestion charges, intelligent transport systems and infrastructure investments on departure time choice. The complexity of large-scale departure time choice modelling and dynamic traffic assignment is high, which results in very long run times. Therefore, research on how to increase model efficiency is needed. This paper describes choices made in the implementation for a more efficient model.

  • 27.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Engelson, Leonid
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Estimating preferred departure times of road users in a large urban network2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reliably predict and assess effects of congestion charges and other congestion mitigating measures, a transportation model including dynamic assignment and departure time choice is important.

    This paper presents a transport model that incorporates departure time choice for analysis of road users’ temporal adjustments and uses a mesoscopic traffic simulation model to capture the dynamic nature of congestion.Departure time choice modelling relies heavily on car users’ preferred times of travel and without knowledge of these no meaningful conclusions can be drawn from application of the model.

    This paper shows how preferred times of travel can be consistently derived from field observations and conditional probabilities of departure times using a reverse engineering approach. It is also shown how aggregation of origin–destination pairs with similar preferred departure time profiles can solve the problem of negative solutions resulting from the reverse engineering equation. The method is shown to work well for large-scale applications and results are given for the network of Stockholm.

  • 28.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Engelson, Leonid
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Valideringsrapport: Hur väl kan trafikmodellen Silvester återskapa Stockholmsförsökets effekter?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholmsförsöket med trängselavgifter genomfördes våren 2006 och i augusti 2007 blev trängselavgifterna permanenta. När avgifterna blev permanenta skedde en del ändringar av systemet (t ex. att taxibilar inte var undantagna längre), men betalstationernas placering, avgiftens belopp och tiderna då de olika beloppen tas ut förblev desamma. Eftersom trängselavgiften i Stockholm är en skatt som regleras i svensk lag, måste ändringar av avgiftssystemen antas av riksdagen. Förändringar kan därmed inte ske särskilt ofta. Det är därför extra viktigt att använda trafikmodeller för att simulera effekter av olika avgiftssystem innan en ändring sker.

  • 29.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Efficiency vs equity: Conflicting objectives of congestion charges2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 60, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trade-off between equity and efficiency in the design of the Stockholm congestion charging systems. Comparing different designs for Stockholm, the paper shows that the most efficient system is the least equitable. Indeed, we show that moving towards a more efficient system design favours high-income-users most. The reason is the uneven distribution of workplaces and residential areas, combined with richer socio-economic groups living in areas with more workplaces. Hence, the conflict between efficiency and equity of this policy arises from the spatial mismatch of residential areas and locations of employment, and the spatial separation between low-income and high-income groups that characterise most cities. This paper shows that these spatial patterns have a large effect on the distribution effects of the congestion charges and that the system design can have a major impact on equity.

  • 30.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH.
    Future scenarios for self-driving vehicles with Sweden as a case study2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH.
    Scenarios for the development of self-driving vehicles in freight transport2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria, Zenodo , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends previous research by developing future scenarios for self-driving vehicles and their societal impacts in freight transport using Sweden as a case study. Freight experts from vehicle manufacturers, agencies, universities and hauliers were recruited for a workshop where they assessed the benefits, costs, possibilities and barriers for self-driving vehicles in freight transport. The paper shows that reduction in driver and vehicle costs, reduced number of incidents and more fuel-efficient driving are seen as the main benefits of self-driving vehicles in freight transport, and increased vehicle costs, lost jobs, reduced degree of filling and more transport as the main costs. Furthermore, reduced drivers' costs, more hours-of-service and new business models are identified as the main drivers of the development and traffic management, small hauliers, loading and unloading and cross-border transport as the main barriers. The paper also integrates the description of possible developments of self-driving vehicles in freight transport into the four future scenarios developed for passenger transport in Sweden.

  • 32.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Framtidsscenarier för självkörande fordon på väg: samhällseffekter 2030 med utblick mot 20502017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development in the field of self-driving vehicles is quick and many vehicle manufacturers (GM, Ford, Toyota, BMW, Audi, VW and others) say they will launch a fully self-driving vehicle on the market around 2020. Although technology development will move quickly in the coming years, big questions remain regarding; how self-driving vehicles will be received by society, where they will be allowed, if they will be used primarily as private or shared vehicles, how they will handle traffic safety, privacy and cyber-security issues, and to what extent they will influence accepted commuting time, mode choice and induced travel by car.

    At the same time, long-term socio-economic effects are not primarily determined by technological advances, but mostly by the role self-driving vehicles will have in our society, that is, their effects on traffic and urban planning in general. Therefore, it is important to sketch possible future scenarios for self-driving vehicles. Based on these scenarios, a discussion can follow on how regulations and policy instruments should be used in order to maximise social benefits of self-driving vehicles.

    This report describes the work with future scenarios for self-driving vehicles undertaken during the winter of 2016/2017. An analysis group consisting of five people, supported by a passenger transport expert group that met for three full-day workshops, identified both a secure development towards 2030and two uncertain axes that lead to four possible scenarios for the future with self-driving vehicles in Sweden. With participation of 40 experts from 23 transport organizations, this study is unique compared to previous scenario work concerning the development of self-driving vehicles which have been based either on literature studies or expert workshops with few researchers.

     

  • 33.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH.
    En transportmodell med fokus på cykeltrafik: modellutveckling och scenarioanalyser2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging the use of active travel modes such as walking and cycling is vital for ensuring a sustainable urban development. In many European metropolitan areas, cycling is becoming increasingly popular within the recent decades. On the other hand, large-scale transport models, which serve as the main tools for policy evaluation and cost-benefit analysis, are often designed for modelling motorised travel modes such as private car and public transport. This study presents a tourbased transport model to better model cycling demand and supply. First, it uses a detailed bicycle network containing more than 200,000 links, covering the whole Greater Stockholm Area. Second, the model utilizes a refined zoning system with totally 5 808 zones each of the size of 250 m×250 m covering the entire Greater Stockholm Area. Third, the model is estimated on the newest Stockholm travel survey 2015, and therefore the model can represent travel behaviour that is up-to-date. In addition to the improvements mentioned above, the model also considers cycling as an access travel mode to a trip by public transport. Therefore, the model treats cycling and public transport as both competing and complementary modes, and the model is capable of evaluating the impact of an improvement in bicycle infrastructure on cycling, as well as on cycling to public transport stations. The model is then validated against bicycle count data from the City of Stockholm. Six scenarios are tested according to the investment plan from the City of Stockholm. The results show that the investments have a limited effect on modal shift but a moderate effect on the existing cyclists' route choice, travel time and generalised cost.

  • 34.
    Pernestål, Anna
    et al.
    KTH .
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Effects of driverless vehicles: Comparing simulations to get a broader picture2019In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driverless vehicles have the potential to significantly affect the transport system, society, and environment. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding what the development will look like, and there are several contradictory forces. This paper addresses the effects of driverless vehicles by combining the results from 26 simulation studies. Each simulation study focuses on a particular case, e.g. a certain mobility concept or geographical region. By combining and analysing the results from the 26 simulation studies, an overall picture of the effects of driverless vehicles is presented. In the paper, the following perspectives are considered: what types of application of driverless vehicles have been studied in literature; what effects these simulation studies predict; and what research gaps still exist related to the effects of driverless vehicles. The analysis shows that it is primarily driverless taxi applications in urban areas that have been studied. Some parameters, such as trip cost and waiting time, show small variations between the simulation studies. Other parameters, such as vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT), show larger variations and depend heavily on the assumptions concerning value of time and level of sharing. To increase the understanding of system level effects of driverless vehicles, simulations of more complex applications and aspects such as land use, congestion and energy consumption are considered.

  • 35.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Where will self-driving vehicles take us?: Scenarios for the development of automated vehicles with Sweden as a case study2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Self-Driving Vehicles (SDVs) is fast, and new pilots and tests are released every week. Among the positive effects are increased traffic throughput leading to less congestion, improved mobility for people without a driver’s license, decreased need for parking spaces, and SDV as an enabler for shared mobility. On the other hand, SDVs are expected to increase the consumption of transport which leads to an increase in total vehicle kilometers travelled. This effect is further reinforced by empty vehicles driving around. This will increase the number of vehicles on the streets and lead to more congestion and increased energy usage. Since the SDV technology is expensive, segregation may be a consequence of the development. In addition there are several challenges related to for example legislation, standardization, infrastructure investments, privacy and security. The question is not if, but rather when SDVs will be common on our streets and roads, and if they will change our way of living, and if so, how?

    To this end a scenario-based future study was performed to derive a common platform for initiation of future research and innovation projects concerning SDVs in Sweden. The work has been performed by an expert group and a smaller analysis team. The expert group has involved nearly 40 persons from 20 transport organizations, including public authorities, lawyers, city planners, researchers, transport service suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. The expert group met three times, each time focusing on a specific theme: 1) trend analysis, 2) defining scenario axes of uncertainty, and 3) consequence analysis. The analysis team, consisting of the present three authors and two future strategists, has analyzed, refined and condensed the material from the expert group. During the project certain trends and strategic uncertainties were identified by the expert group. 

  • 36.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Future scenarios for self-driving vehicles in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question is not if, but rather when SDVs will be common on our streets and roads, and if they will change our way of living, and if so, how? As we are in a potential mobility shift, and decisions made today will affect the future development, understanding possibilities and challenges for the future is important for many stakeholders. To this end a scenario-based future study was performed to derive a common platform for initiation of future research and innovation projects concerning SDVs in Sweden.

    A motivation for the study is to shed light on how demography, geography and political landscape can affect the development of new mobility services. Since there are many different forces that drive the development, often uncertain and sometimes in conflict with each other, a scenario planning approach was chosen. The work has been performed by an expert group and a smaller analysis team.

    The expert group has involved nearly 40 persons from 20 transport organizations, including public authorities, lawyers, city planners, researchers, transport service suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. The expert group met three times, each time focusing on a specific theme:

    1. trend analysis,
    2. defining scenario axes of uncertainty, and
    3. consequence analysis.

    The uncertainties that were identified as most important for the development of SDVs in Sweden are:

    1. whether the sharing economy becomes a new norm or not, and
    2. whether city planners, authorities and politicians will be proactive in the development of cities and societies or not, especially regarding the transportation system.

    This led to four scenarios:

    1. “Same, same but all the difference” – a green, individualistic society,
    2. “Sharing is the new black” – a governmentally driven innovation society based on sharing,
    3. “Follow the path” – an individualistic society based on development in the same direction as today, and
    4. “What you need is what you get” – a commercially driven innovation society where sharing is a key.

    In the paper, we describe the scenarios and the process to derive them in more detail. We also present an analysis of the consequences for the development of SDVs in the four scenarios, including predictions concerning pace of development, level of self-driving, fleet size, travel demand and vehicle kilometers travelled. The paper also includes a discussion and comparison with other studies on the development of SDVs in the US, Europe and Asia.

  • 37.
    Saifuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH .
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Sweco.
    de Palma, André
    Centre d'Économie de la Sorbonne, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan.
    Stockholm congestion charging: an assessment with METROPOLIS and SILVESTER2016In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 653-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and compares the performance of two dynamic transportation models – METROPOLIS and SILVESTER – which are used to predict the impacts of congestion charging for Stockholm. Both are mesoscopic dynamic models treating accumulation and dissipation of traffic queues, route choice, modal split and departure time choice. The models are calibrated independently for the baseline situation without charges and applied to forecast the effects of congestion charging. The results obtained from the two models are mutually compared and validated against the actual outcome of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme. Both models successfully predict the outcomes of the congestion charging trial at both aggregate and disaggregate levels. Results of welfare analysis, however, differ substantially due to differences in model specification

  • 38.
    Widell, Jenny
    et al.
    SWECO.
    Isberg, Linda
    SWECO.
    Guo, Lei
    SWECO.
    Bergström, Staffan
    SWECO.
    Östlund, Johannes
    M4Traffic.
    Sandin, Mats
    M4Traffic.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bytesmotstånd och ruttval i kollektivtrafiken: En översyn av modeller för kollektivtrafikanalyser2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ökar kunskapen om hur ruttval hanteras i kollektivtrafikmodeller genom en litteraturstudie inklusive en jämförande studie av bytesmotståndets skattade storlek, genom expertintervjuer med forskare, konsulter och beställare av kollektivtrafikanalyser, samt genom ett stort antal modelltester där bytesmotståndets påverkan analyserats både för enskilda utpekade relationer och totalt för hela Stockholmsregionen.

    I rapporten definieras bytesmotstånd som ”den uppoffring det innebär för en resenär att inte åka direkt till målpunkten med ett och samma kollektiva färdmedel”. En generell slutsats från litteraturstudien är att bytesmotståndet verkar vara större för byten buss-buss jämfört med tunnelbana-tunnelbana.

    Även genomförda expertintervjuer visade på stor variation kring vad som behöver analyseras gällande bytesmotstånd i kollektivtrafiken. Enighet råder kring att kollektivtrafik är eftersatt jämfört med biltrafik när det gäller kalibrering och validering av nätutläggning. Flera av de intervjuade experterna ville gärna se bättre möjligheter till nodspecifika bytesmotstånd. 

    Resultaten av modelltesterna visar hur nätutläggningsalgoritmerna för kollektivtrafik fungerar i praktiken tillsammans med olika nätkodning. När det gäller nätkodning i Emme är ett viktigt val huruvida hållplatser med olika kollektiva färdmedel kodas som en gemensam nod eller inte. Resultaten visar också att med dagens nät med isärkodade noder och användning av standard transit assignment-algoritmen i Emme kan små ändringar i kodning göra att alla resenärer istället väljer en annan rutt. Trots ovan nämnda allt-eller-inget beteende är dagens Sampers/Emme-modell förvånansvärt bra på att återskapa färdmedelsfördelning vid större bytespunkter i Stockholm. Resultaten visar mycket bra överensstämmelse generellt för tunnelbana, pendeltåg och lokaltåg, medan resultaten stämmer något sämre för buss. 

    När liknande tester görs i Visum visar det sig att till skillnad från allt-eller-inget beteende i Emme så sprider Visum oftast resenärer på flera ruttval. Anledning till detta är att resenärer i Visum antas komma till hållplatser slumpmässigt då väntetid för en linje varierar mellan 0 och linjens turtäthet, i stället för en genomsnittlig väntetid som är hälften av turtätheten. Rutten med kortast genomsnittliga restid är inte snabbaste rutt för alla resenärer. Visum beräknar sannolikheten att väljas för alla attraktiva rutter. 

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