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  • 1.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lind, Bo
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Claesson, Anna (Nystrom)
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Larsson, Lennart
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Jacobson, Torbjom
    Coal tar-containing asphalt: Resource or hazardous waste?2007In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    SGI.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Landslide risk management: A brief overview and example from Sweden of current situation and climate change2013In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 3, no March, p. 44-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landslide risk is a function of the probability of the event and its consequences. Previous research has shown that preventive measures to reduce the risk are preferred over reactive measures but, especially in developing countries, rarely undertaken. A contributing factor is the lack of evidence that preventive measures pay. This study includes a brief overview of landslide risk management in general and an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden based on interviews in 11 municipalities complemented with interviews in Norway. The result shows that climate change has become part of the general awareness and started to be taken into account in the municipal spatial planning. Landslide susceptibility maps and databases are useful tools in the complex spatial planning. The results indicate that the application of landslide susceptibility and risk maps as previously applied for preventive measures and spatial planning in the landslide prone area Gota alv river valley have been cost effective. Improved documentation and more active communication among different stakeholders would, however, contribute to more effective landslide management.

  • 3.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS): en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport redovisas det arbete som pågått inom ESS-programmets första fas inom temaområde naturolyckor. Detta temaområde innefattar skred, ras, erosion och översvämningar. Målet med det arbete som presenteras i denna rapport har varit att skapa en överblick över hurman idag arbetar med dessa frågor i Sverige med fokus på kommunal nivå. Arbetet utgörs aven sammanställning av tidigare studier, beskrivning av metoder samt intervjuer med svenska och norska kommuner och myndigheter. I de svenska kommunerna har politiker och tjänstemän intervjuats.

    Förebyggande åtgärder för att minska sannolikheten för, eller konsekvensen av, olyckor vidtas ofta. Åtgärderna är baserade på en analys eller akut reaktion på en specifik händelse. Vissa åtgärder är platsspecifika och kan vara både fysiska och icke fysiska. Andra åtgärder är mer generella såsom lagstiftning och utbildningsinsatser, regional, nationell och internationell policy, direktiv och ramverk.

  • 4.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. COWI AB.
    Davidsson, Göran
    COWI AB.
    Risk Management of Landslides and Flooding: Recommendations and Step Wise Process2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction & Management / [ed] Christian N Madu, Chu-Hua Kuei, World Scientific, 2017, p. 329-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year flooding and landslides cause severe material damages and thousands of deaths and injuries. To reduce the risk, measures can be taken by applying different management strategies either by reducing the probability of the event or by reducing the potential consequences in case of an event. This chapter provides a systematic (step-by-step) guidance, a brief overview of landslide and flood risk management in general and a summary of an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden which has resulted in some general recommendations. Examples of general recommendations are to apply available knowledge, for example by learning from existing good examples and, when available, lessons learned and documentation of the rational argumentation made in the decision process. There is a request of checklists and guides that can be used in the current daily work among planners and risk managers. It is important with a broad basis for decisions, therefore integrated assessments and valuations are recommended for example by applying multi-criteria analysis methodology and involving relevant stakeholders in the process for example through well working networks. It is further important to counteract the current trend that more automatic monitoring results in less field monitoring and reduced local knowledge.

  • 5.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstads universitet.
    Landslide risk and climate change: economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden.

    The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide.

    This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 6.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Fallsvik, Jan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Hultén, Carina
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Climate change in Sweden: geotechnical and contaminated land consequences2008In: WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science,2008, 2008, p. 52-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 7.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael,
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klimatförändringens påverkan på sjöfart och luftfart: översiktligt underlag för handlingsplan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a summary analysis of how climate change may affect Swedish naval and aviation. The aim was to provide a basis for an action plan on climate adaptation within the two sectors. The action plan will be developed by the Maritime and Aviation Department of the Swedish Transport Agency.

    The potential climate change outlined in this report are all based on scenarios included in the compilations of potential climate change at global level by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014) and calculations of SMHI for Sweden.

    The expected air temperature increase will affect the flight specifically, as increased heat reduces the aircraft's lifting ability. This leads to reduced load capacity and at very high temperatures can lead to cancellation and delay of flights.

    Reduced ice coverage is expected to result in longer shipping season and reduced need for icebreaking measures. For the Baltic Sea, the reduced ice coverage may result changes in type and distribution form of the ice. Airports will have a reduced need for deicing and also for the use of salt and chemicals for road and other land improvements.

    The flood risk caused by high water levels, prolonged precipitation, heavy rainfall and storms is expected to increase in large parts of Sweden. This may affect the accessibility of all road and rail traffic and there are already occasions with long shut-off times, which may affect both accessibility to and from airports and ports, as well as other activities involving flights and shipping. Ports and coastal airports may need to be adapted to maintain their activities and operations.

  • 8.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Uppfyllelse av klimat- och miljömål vid en fullständig internalisering av vägtrafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 9 February 2017, The National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) received the governmental commission to continue previous research on socio-economic costs of traffic by developing new knowledge and update the existing knowledge base. As part of this mission, an assessment of the impact on the climate and the national environmental objectives of internalizing external costs was included. The transport sector has a direct or indirect impact on virtually all Swedish environmental quality objectives. This report focusses on road traffic and the environmental quality objectives that were considered in the previous governmental commission SAMKOST 2 and where relevant quantifiable targets, specifications and indicators were available: Limited climate impact, Fresh air, Only natural acidification, No eutrophication and noise as a part of the environmental quality objective Good built environment.

    According to results presented in this report, a taxation corresponding to 100 percent internalization would, if imposed in 2016, contribute to a 2 percent (ca 0,4 million ton) decrease in emissions of carbon dioxide 2030 in comparison to current internalization degrees. Such an estimated change is small in relation to the calculation uncertainties due to for example uncertainties about traffic development, price elasticity, technological development, economic development, the development of prices of oil etc. To achieve the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transport (except aviation) by 70 percent by year 2030 compared with 2010, would need additional instruments and measures than those which have already been decided to reduce the emissions by a further 1–3 million ton or 5–15 percent. An increase in the current carbon dioxide tax from SEK 1.14 per kg of carbon dioxide to SEK 2 per kg of CO2 will reduce emissions by an additional 1.6 million ton or 8 percent more than achieved with current degree of internalization (all other aspects alike). In combination with the already decided instruments, an increase in the carbon tax with SEK 1 per kg carbon dioxide for passenger cars implies that the target of reducing emissions from domestic transport by 70 percent from year 2010 level to 2030 can be reached. For future emissions of nitrogen oxides, a 100 percent internalization, or increased CO2 tax, will only result in a marginal impact.

  • 9.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Fredriksson, Lena M
    Tidningen Utemiljö.
    Att värdera ekosystemtjänster2017In: Gröna Fakta från Utemiljö, ISSN 0284-9798, no 8 / 2017, p. I-VIIIArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ekosystemtjänster används allt oftare och värdet av ekosystemtjänsterna ska, enligt Naturvårdsverkets etappmål, vara allmänt kända och integrerade i olika ställningstaganden och beslut senast 2018. Här förklaras begreppet i korthet och några tips om hur det kan implementeras i kommuner ges. Därefter beskriver forskarna Yvonne Andersson-Sköld och Jenny Klingberg ett forskningsprojekt som de har deltagit i och vars resultat är en handbok om hur ekosystemtjänster kan värderas.

  • 10.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    Göteborgs stad.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    SLU.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, Fredirk
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    SLU.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 11.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Metod för bedömning och värdering av ekosystemtjänster i staden (VEKST): Handbok version 1.02018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2013–2016 genomfördes forskningsprojektet Värdering av ekosystemtjänster av urban grönska med syftet att kartlägga, synliggöra och värdera den urbana grönskan. Inom forskningsprojektet studerades bland annat hur ekosystemtjänsterna klimatreglering, förbättrad luftkvalitet, dagvattenhantering, bullerdämpning, rekreation och välbefinnande kan bedömas och värderas. Dessutom kartlades delar av den biologiska mångfalden (träd, buskar, örter, bin och fåglar). För att kunna bedöma och värdera de ekosystemtjänster som ingick i projektet utvecklades en stegvis metod. Metoden baseras på mätningar och inventeringar i sju fallstudieområden i Göteborg, intervjuer och enkätstudier samt relevant litteratur. I denna handbok presenteras metoden samt mallar som guidar användaren genom metodens fem steg. Handboken innehåller också exempel på hur metoden har använts. Viktigt att poängtera är att metoden som beskrivs i denna handbok inte är en slutprodukt utan en första version. I takt med ökad kunskap kan, och bör, metoden utvecklas, kompletteras och förbättras. Till exempel kan fler ekosystemtjänster bedömas och värderas. Metoden är utvecklad med tanken att den ska vara enkel att använda, systematisk och transparent i alla steg. Denna handbok vänder sig bland annat till stadsplanerare och konsulter som på uppdrag av planerare arbetar med beslutsstöd i planprocessen. Metoden kan användas för att bedöma inverkan av förändringar i stadsbilden, t ex vid förtätning, eller för att följa förändringar över tid.

  • 12.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values.

    The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved.

    The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 13.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 14.
    Bergman, Ramona
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Effects of Security actions2010In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 12, EGU2010-7880, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today’s performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today.

    The project includes several aspects such as:

    • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality
    • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis
    • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures
    • in which way do one learn from past accidents
    • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases
    • etc

    There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient “tools” in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of authority the investigation of the security work will be done with authorities on both regional and local scale. At the moment the investigation process are in progress and preliminary results will be presented.

  • 15.
    Bergman, Ramona
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Efficiency of preventive actions for landslides and flooding : evaluation of Scandinavian practices2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results presented here covers natural hazards with focus on land slides and flooding. The results are based on Swedish/Scandinavian contexts. Natural events such as erosion, flooding and land slides are common, but the number of accidents (events causing severe negative impact) is rare. Therefore, in such analysis there is limited data and other information available which can be used for example in statistical analysis of actions and their effects. Instead, the analysis must be based on other information. The analysis may have to include aspects that only can be assessed by scenario and "what-if" analyses.

    In this project the main method has been interviews with officials in Swedish municipalities and national agencies in Sweden and Norway. In all municipalities, one politician and officials working with planning and rescue service have been interviewed. The study covers hazard and risk mapping, follow up of such maps, physical planning and lessons learned from previous events and activities.

    The final outcome of the research will be a review of what is found to be well functioning, identification of weak points and recommendations for the management of landslides, erosion and flooding. The present results indicate that hazard/risk maps are of great importance, but the knowledge about the maps and how to use them varies depending on who you ask and between municipalities. Most officials in municipalities are aware of climate change (CC) but, due to high uncertainties and since climate induced events such as natural hazards are rare, the issues are often not prioritized. Further, the results indicate that the documentation, communication and the responsibilities among different units is not always clear, having impacts on for example the knowledge transfer to new personnel.

  • 16.
    Falemo, Stefan
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Suer, Pascal
    SGI.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstads universitet.
    Quantification, economic valuation and visualisation of landslide consequences in the Göta river valley2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Challenges in governing climate change: experiences from research on adaptation in Swedish municipalities2009In: 9th Nordic Environmental Social Science Conference (NESS): Knowledge, learning and action for sustainability, 2009, p. 1-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI).
    Managing climate change vulnerabilities: formal institutions and knowledge use as determinants of adaptive capacity at the local level in Sweden2010In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 525-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though managing vulnerabilities posed by climate change calls for effective strategies and measures, its challenges have hitherto not been fully understood. In Sweden, municipalities have recently started incorporating vulnerability management into their political and administrative agendas. This study discusses such experiences and explores how institutional determinants may influence adaptive capacity within a local case study area, to illustrate emerging challenges and opportunities for Swedish municipalities in managing climate vulnerabilities. Specifically, formal institutional structure and the use of knowledge are analysed, concluding that vulnerability management often is focused on technical and reactive fixes, due to limited cooperation between local sector organisations, lack of local co-ordination, and an absence of methods and traditions to build institutional knowledge. Even so, opportunities, such as a high capacity to examine risks to technical systems and important establishments which in turn facilitates protection of technical infrastructure exposed to climate variability and change, also exist.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    How to measure efficiency in risk prevention?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment methods form corner stones in the striving to reduce risks and threats to human life and society. Proposed actions can be physical or non-physical and adopted or declined after political evaluation, with consideration taken to available resources and estimated effect on risk. To optimize and avoid regrettable actions, decision-makers are in need of well-founded analyses of how efficient different options might be. Analytically, there are several possible steps that can contribute.

    Firstly, the correlation between a measure and its effect should be based on causality, which often is difficult to establish quantitatively. High frequent accidents (e.g. traffic) can normally be treated statistically , while low frequent accidents with severe consequences (e.g. natural hazards) are more restricted to qualitative descriptions of correlation. Systematic monitoring of injury and damage data and gathering into databases, are a crucial activity for causality valuation. Secondly, economic valuation of effect is an important contribution in a cost-benefit perspective. Thirdly, a measure often brings several different effects and some may fall outside the actual purpose. An additional problem is how to handle effects that exert varied influence on different stakeholders or social groups in society. Fourthly, certain criteria are required for final prioritization. For instance, in analysis of goal fulfillment, effects are compared with politically decided quantified goals.

    In cases where basic data from steps 1-3 are incomplete, alternative criteria like “acceptable risk” might be necessary to agree about politically. To use similar approaches on how to describe and quantify effect correlations, promote gathered efforts at local level where risk reducing measures are decided upon by different actors and with regard to diverse local conditions. Tests of suitable methods and approaches to measure efficiency of planned or accomplished actions in gain for risk prevention, are described and discussed.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    André, Karin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Linköpings universitet.
    Cities’ capacity to manage climate vulnerability: experiences from participatory vulnerability assessments in the lower Göta Älv Catchment, Sweden2012In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 17, no 6-7, p. 735-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the scope of this project, tools for conducting systematic and integrated climate vulnerability and sustainability assessments have been developed. Two municipalities in the lower Göta Älv catchment were selected as study cases. Together with representatives from key municipal departments and national government agencies, the interdisciplinary research team designed and conducted a co-production process. Results obtained using the developed tools demonstrate that conducting such a systematic assessment of the current situation and potential impacts of climate change adaptation measures would contribute to synergies between adaptation strategies and other policy arenas. Our recommendation for enhancing the capacity of local vulnerability management in Sweden is to shift foci in four fields: from static analysis of climate vulnerability to a dynamic approach to social vulnerability, from a sectorwise fragmented approach to integrated management, from a focus on technical fixes and physical measures to institutional adaptation measures, and, finally, from sustainability-blind adaptation investments to long-term sustainable climate adaptation measures. The processes and mechanisms for succeeding in this requires that knowledge be produced, shared, and managed in partly new ways, allowing stakeholders both inside and outside local government administration to voice and synergise their concerns and solutions.

  • 21.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Statens geotekniska institut (SGI):.
    Axelsson, Jesper
    SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut .
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rosén, Bengt
    Statens geotekniska institut (SGI):.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Emissioner från bränder: Metoder, modeller och mätningar2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, fires have been associated with losses of life and property, and costs for interruptions in production etc. In recent years increased attention has been paid to the fact that fires also are related to environmental problems. The emissions from fires can consist of a number of different types of species with a variety of effects to health and the environment. In the present report a method is described on how to determine the emissions from a fire and how the emissions are spread. The aim of the work has been to study the entire process from a specific fire scenario to the spread of the emissions to air, soil, and water. The result is a method with a number of different subparts. These subparts include: description of fire scenario, modelling of production of emissions, and modelling of spread of emissions. They are described as is how the different parts are linked to each other.

    Fire tests were performed with electric and electronic waste, and car tyres. Tests were performed both with and without water application and in connection with the tests the fire gases, run-off water, and fire debris were analysed. Based on the fire tests and literature data from other tests, emission models were developed. Knowledge of formation mechanisms for different species was also used. Several of the modelling tools used with the project demand both much time and computer resources. Therefore, they might not be useful in the acute phase of an accident, but should instead be used in the prevention work of the rescue services. In case of a fire in a specific object with a material composition or mode of storage different from those of the cases that the emission models were based on, supplementary fire tests might be needed to develop representative emission models.

  • 22.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stripple, Håkan
    Rosén, Bengt
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    Axelsson, Jesper
    SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Simonson, Margaret
    SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Emissions from Fires: Methods, Models and Measurements2007In: Proceedings of the 11th International Fire Science & Engineering Conference (Interflam 2007), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • 24.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstads universitet.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sustainability Aspects of Flood Risk Management: Interrelations and Challenges2010In: SELECTED PAPERS FROM IDRC ON RISK REDUCTION AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT, HARBIN INST TECHNOLOGY, P R CHINA , 2010, p. 101-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of sustainable development are crucial for Flood Risk Management (FRM). These aspects are relevant for the flood risk analysis, risk evaluation and risk-reduction. Two case studies are used to identify potential conflicts between different values: Lake Vanern and Gota alv River in Sweden and Elbe River in Germany. In both cases there are diverging interests of how to manage the systems, e.g. how to regulate water levels and use floodplains. The conclusion is that the relevant sustainability aspects must be identified, addressed and valued in the risk management process, especially for different risk-reducing measure options.

  • 25.
    Sand, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Konarska, Janina
    University of Gothenburg.
    Howe, Alessandro W.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Uddling, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of ground surface permeability on the growth of urban linden trees2018In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Street trees are an important part of urban vegetation due to their provisioning of different types of ecosystem services such as local climate regulation and contribution to aesthetical and recreational values. In order to provide these services, urban trees need to endure many stress factors not present in natural environments, such as the widespread use of impervious surfaces in the vicinity of street trees. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of this potential stress factor on urban tree growth. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how ground surface permeability affects stem and current-year shoot growth of linden (Tilia europaea) street trees in Gothenburg, Sweden. We found that a small fraction of permeable ground surface in the vertically projected tree crown area caused lower stem growth and strongly suppressed current-year shoot growth. This finding can guide future city planning, demonstrating that the vitality of street trees is compromised when the permeable surface area in the vicinity of the tree is small.

  • 26.
    Takman, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Hannele
    Energikontor Sydost.
    Uhlin, Lovisa
    Regional utveckling Örebro län.
    Kantelius, Åslög
    Region Jönköpings län.
    Biogas för tunga lastbilstransporter: barriärer och möjligheter2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an in-depth study of barriers and opportunities regarding the commercialization of biogas, and particularly liquified biogas (LBG), for heavy trucks on a larger scale and how these challenges can be overcome. In the study we also identify key actors and other stakeholders in Sweden as well as under what circumstances they dare to invest in the biogas technology. To study the research questions a literature review as well as interviews and workshops with important actors were conducted. The results indicate that biogas is a fuel option that can contribute to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Energy security and a circular economy are mentioned as important driving forces. The fact that new LBG trucks are now available on the market and that new policy instruments have come into force are also seen as opportunities. The absence of long-term, stable policy instruments and regulations, as well as high prices and costs for production, vehicles and gas are considered to be the main obstacles. Other barriers are lack of knowledge in the area, and that today’s renewable fuels are competing instead of complementing each other.

    There is a need for increased long-term regulatory frameworks that will benefit the most sustainable renewable fuels available today. It is also necessary to make sure that Swedish policies are harmonized with other policies in EU in a better way than the policies that have existed until today. There is also a need for more support systems, for example systems that favor the production of biogas, investment support for the vehicles that best fulfil climate and other environmental objectives, as well as support that includes the secondary market for the LBG vehicles to develop the market towards a more environmentally sustainable transport sector. Information efforts are also needed to inform about biogas in relation to other fuel options for heavy trucks, as well as information about that, and where, LBG fuel stations exist. Furthermore, demonstration projects that show vehicles on the roads as well as contribute to infrastructure development could help spread knowledge and demonstrate that the technology works and by doing so contributing to the development of the LBG market.

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