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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2019In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 122, p. 34-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The ordered logit model results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 2.
    Böcker, Lars
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Priya Uteng, Tanu
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Dijst, Martin
    Utrecht University.
    Weather and daily mobility in international perspective: A cross-comparison of Dutch, Norwegian and Swedish city regions2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With climate change, weather has emerged as an important theme in transport research and planning. Although recent studies demonstrate profound weather effects on mobility in single case study areas, international cross-comparisons are required to reveal how effects differ between cities with different transport and climate regimes. This paper provides an international cross-comparison of the simultaneous effects of weather on destination choices, distances, trip chaining, and transport modes in the urban regions of Utrecht (Netherlands), Oslo and Stavanger (Norway), and Stockholm (Sweden). Hereto, regional subsamples of national travel survey data were linked to meteorological records for the three respective countries and analysed in generalised Structural Equation Models. Our findings generally indicate that light, calm, dry and warm atmospheric conditions may positively affect cycling and the selection of outdoor leisure destinations, while cold and to a lesser extent wet and windy weather conditions reduce cycling and enhance car use and travel optimising strategies like trip chaining, to reduce weather exposures. A positive effect of air temperature on cycling flattens out above 20–25 °C in most of our study areas, but hot weather does not seem to reduce cycling strongly. However, our findings also show considerable regional differences in the effects of weather on mobility. Both general effects and differences are interpreted in relation to geographical context, transport and land use, climate conditions, cultures, habits and adaptations and are discussed to formulate policies to mitigate active transport mode users’ exposures to adverse weather and make walking and cycling (even more) year-round modes.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

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  • 4.
    Lin, Xiaomei
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH.
    Shao, Chunfu
    Beijing Jiaotong University.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    The implication of road toll discount for mode choice: Intercity travel during the chinese spring festival holiday2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intercity travel congestion during the main national holidays takes place every year at different places around the world. Charge reduction measurements on existing toll roads have been implemented to promote an efficient use of the expressways and to reduce congestion on the public transit networks. However, some of these policies have had negative effects. A more comprehensive understanding of the determinants of holiday intercity travel patterns is critical for better policymaking. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of the road toll discount policy on mode choice behavior for intercity travel. A mixed logit model is developed to model the mode choices of intercity travelers, which is estimated based on survey data about intercity journeys from Beijing during the 2017 Chinese Spring Festival holiday. The policy impact is further discussed by elasticity and scenario simulations. The results indicate that the expressway toll discount does increase the car use and decrease the public transit usage. Given the decreased toll on expressways, the demand tends to shift from car to public transit, in an order of coach, high-speed rail, conventional rail, and airplane. When it comes to its effect on socio-demographic groups, men and lower-income travelers are identified to be more likely to change mode in response to variation of road toll. Finally, policy effectiveness is found to vary for travelers in different travel distance groups. Conclusions provide useful insights on road pricing management.

  • 5.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sun, Yilin
    KTH.
    Chen, Yuan
    Zhejiang University.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH.
    The effect of residential housing policy on car ownership and trip chaining behaviour in Hangzhou, China2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 62, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has recently initialised affordable housing policies to provide low rent housings for medium and low income households aiming to satisfy the growing demand in the housing market. The travel behaviour of residents in these two different types of housing is likely to differ, since public housing tenants have a limited choice of residential location, as the location of low-rent housing is fixed, while residents in commodity housing are able to take their travel patterns into account in choosing their housing location. Therefore, this paper investigates the differences in car ownership and trip chaining behaviour arising from living in different types of residential housing. The self-selection bias caused by the differences in the observed individual and household characteristics is partially controlled by a propensity score matching approach. The study further considers the endogenous effect of car ownership on travel chaining behaviour, thus controlling for the self-selection bias at car ownership level. The results show that residents in private commodity housing are more likely to own a car than those in low-rent housing with similar individual and household characteristics. Different life cycle stages play a vital role in car ownership after self-selection in residential housing has been taken into account. Living in private commodity housing has a direct negative effect on trip chaining complexity, after controlling for endogenous car ownership, although this effect is offset by the tendency for private commodity housing owners to do complex trip chaining because they have one or more cars.

  • 6.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH.
    Dharmowijoyo, Dimas B. E.
    Investigating intra-household interactions between individuals’ time and space constraints2018In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 73, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity space of an individual is defined as the activity-travel environment which a traveller is using for his or her activities. It is limited by this individual's ability and resources, such as available time for travel as well as his or her anchor points. However, most existing studies have focused on single individual activity space, ignoring the fact that individuals’ activities often interact with that of his or her family members’. In this paper a multivariate model is proposed where the correlation between travel time of fathers and mothers, and the correlation between the activity space and travel time are modelled explicitly. The estimated correlations from these joint distributions provide insights into both the intra-household interactions in daily travel and the intrinsic relationships of the hidden limits in the dimensions of space and time. The travel time limits are modelled using a stochastic frontier model component, which can estimate an unobserved upper or lower limit for travel time expenditure. This limit usually refers to the maximum travel time budget or minimum travel time need, which denotes the maximum or minimum amount of travel time that an individual is willing or able to allocate per day. The concept of the confidence ellipse is used as a measure of activity space constructed from the multi-day travel diary data. It is hypothesised that the unobserved travel time limits and activity space sizes of fathers and mothers are correlated with each other, due to a similar spatial knowledge and accessibility to various facilities. The daily variations in the travel time expenditure of parents are also assumed to be correlated because of daily household task allocation and joint household travel. Data collected from a three-week household travel diary in the Bandung Metropolitan Area in Indonesia are used for estimation in this study. The estimated frontier model component shows that neither parent has reached their maximum travel time budget and/or minimum travel time need that they inherently must spend. Compared with other attributes, the perceived accessibility attributes play the most important role in influencing the activity space limits. For households with fully employed fathers, a trade-off mechanism is found in travel time expenditure between parents, which is likely due to the redistribution of household tasks. On the other hand, for households with fathers who are not fully employed, a complementary effect is found, arising from the joint travel among household members. The travel time budget and activity space limits of fathers are positively correlated with those of mothers. These findings call for the formulation of transport policies that consider the household as a unit, especially in developing countries such as Indonesia, to fulfil the mobility needs of different market segments, e.g., households with fully employed fathers and those with fathers who are not fully employed.

  • 7.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Karlström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Jointly modelling individual’s daily activity-travel time use and mode share by a nested multivariate Tobit model system2017In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a nested multivariate Tobit model is proposed to model activity and travel time use jointly. This proposed model can handle: (1) The corner solution problem; (2) time allocation trade-offs among different types of activities; and (3) travel being treated as a derived demand of activity participation. The model is applied to the Swedish national travel survey (NTS). Evidence of the potential positive utility of travel time added on non-work activity time allocation in the Swedish case is also found. The proposed model is compared to an MDCEV model specification. The results show clear differences in marginal effect estimates. In terms of prediction, the nested multivariate Tobit model shows a slightly worse performance on the hit rate measure than the MDCEV model combined with a stochastic frontier model, but shows a slightly better performance on the SMAPE measure.

  • 8.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Karlström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Weather variability and travel behaviour: what we know and what we do not know2017In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that severe weather conditions are becoming more frequent, it is important to understand the influence of weather on an individual’s daily activity-travel pattern. While some previously rare events are becoming more common, such as heavy rain, unpredicted snow, higher temperatures, it is still largely unknown how individuals will change and adapt their travel patterns in future climate conditions. Because of this concern, the number of research studies on weather and travel behaviour has increased in recent decades. Most of these empirical studies, however, have not used a cost–benefit analysis (CBA) framework, which serves as the the main tool for policy evaluation and project selection by stakeholders. This study summarises the existing findings regarding relationships between weather variability and travel behaviour, and critically assesses the methodological issues in these studies. Several further research directions are suggested to bridge the gap between empirical evidence and current practices in CBA.

  • 9.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Rydergren, Claes
    Linköping University.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Development of a large-scale transport model with focus on cycling2020In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 134, p. 164-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a transport model to better model cycling demand. The model improves modelling of cycling in several ways compared to a conventional transport model. First, it uses a detailed bicycle network containing information about existing bicycle infrastructure. Second, generalised cost measures based on different bicycle route choice models are calculated and compared to evaluate how to best represent the impact of bicycle infrastructure in the model. Third, the model utilizes a refined zone system with smaller zones of size 250 m × 250 m. Using these smaller zones, more short-distance tours are included in the model, and these are predominantly walking and cycling trips. Fourth, the model considers cycling also as an access mode choice to public transport. Therefore, the model treats cycling and public transport as both competing and complementary modes. Results show that the model captures detailed individual heterogeneity in cycling demand for different trip purposes. Impacts of bicycle infrastructure, land use characteristics and individual/household socio-demographics are investigated. Detailed individual level travel time and generalised cost are derived for cyclists of different socio-demographics. The result highlights the importance of choosing a good measure of generalised cost, given that different bicycle route choice models result in different effects of bicycle infrastructure. In future applications, the model can be used to evaluate proposed bicycle investments regarding their impact on link flow, bicycle route choice, modal shift and generation of completely new tours. The model can also be a powerful tool in a cost-benefit analysis of bicycle investments.

  • 10.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH.
    En transportmodell med fokus på cykeltrafik: modellutveckling och scenarioanalyser2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging the use of active travel modes such as walking and cycling is vital for ensuring a sustainable urban development. In many European metropolitan areas, cycling is becoming increasingly popular within the recent decades. On the other hand, large-scale transport models, which serve as the main tools for policy evaluation and cost-benefit analysis, are often designed for modelling motorised travel modes such as private car and public transport. This study presents a tourbased transport model to better model cycling demand and supply. First, it uses a detailed bicycle network containing more than 200,000 links, covering the whole Greater Stockholm Area. Second, the model utilizes a refined zoning system with totally 5 808 zones each of the size of 250 m×250 m covering the entire Greater Stockholm Area. Third, the model is estimated on the newest Stockholm travel survey 2015, and therefore the model can represent travel behaviour that is up-to-date. In addition to the improvements mentioned above, the model also considers cycling as an access travel mode to a trip by public transport. Therefore, the model treats cycling and public transport as both competing and complementary modes, and the model is capable of evaluating the impact of an improvement in bicycle infrastructure on cycling, as well as on cycling to public transport stations. The model is then validated against bicycle count data from the City of Stockholm. Six scenarios are tested according to the investment plan from the City of Stockholm. The results show that the investments have a limited effect on modal shift but a moderate effect on the existing cyclists' route choice, travel time and generalised cost.

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  • 11.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wang, Qian
    WSP Analys & Strategi.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH.
    Assessing the impacts of collection-delivery points to individual's activity-travel patterns: A greener last mile alternative?2017In: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport impacts of collection-delivery points (CDPs), as an alternative to home delivery, are rarely studied. As e-shopping becomes increasingly popular, trips to collect deliveries at CDP, especially by car travel, may generate a considerable amount of external effects, such as emissions. Therefore, this paper analysed the "picking up/leaving goods" trips selected from the Swedish National Travel Survey and jointly modelled the individuals' mode choice and trip chaining decisions using a panel cross-nested logit model. The roles of trip chain characteristics, individual socio-demographics and land use characteristics on each trip chain and mode choice combination are investigated. The results indicate observed and unobserved heterogeneities of trip chaining and mode choice decisions among populations. Young adults living with partners/spouses, single adults with children and partnered adults with children have the preference of using cars in collection-delivery trips compared to other life-cycle groups. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the effect of distance to CDPs on vehicle kilometres travelled. The calibrated model is used to estimate the VKT of collection-delivery trips in the greater Stockholm area. The results indicate a 22.5% reduction of VKT from collection-delivery trips by relocating 5% CDPs from urban areas to suburban and rural areas.

  • 12.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pereira, Iman
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    An approach for systematic assessment of infrastructure automation readiness from a traffic performance perspective2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road authorities need tools to assess potential impacts on traffic performance due to the introduction of automated vehicles. Extended traffic modelling tools offer possibilities to estimate impacts on traffic performance metrics such as travel time, delay and capacity. However, there are large uncertainties related to the future behavior of automated vehicles, and these need to be carefully handled. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic and sound approach that can be used by road authorities to assess the automation readiness of a specific infrastructure. We present a definition of automation readiness from a traffic performance point of view, and an approach for how to estimate the automation readiness for a specific road design taking the uncertainties in the development of automated vehicles into account. The developed approach is applied to both macroscopic and microscopic use cases, demonstrating the applicability of the approach for automation readiness assessment.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Exploring patterns of time use allocation and immobility behaviours in the Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia2017In: Urban Mobilities in the Global South, Taylor and Francis , 2017, p. 111-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the patterns of time use and immobility behaviours in Bandung city, the second biggest metropolitan area in Indonesia. A three-week time-use and activity diary is used. The day-to-day variations in time use allocation across different socio-demographic groups are examined. The results show different distinct weekday and weekend patterns and mobile and immobile days’ patterns of respondents’ time use distribution. The results show a strong tendency of social exclusion resulting from transport poverty.

  • 14.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Who has more say on your daily time use?: A quantitative intra-household time-use altruism analysis2019In: Mapping the Travel Behavior Genome / [ed] Goulias, K.G., Davis, A.W., Elsevier , 2019, p. 455-477Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the six typical shared activities, i.e. grocery shopping, household chores, babysitting, picking up children, relaxing, and social activities, and investigates on how a husband/wife’s time allocation on such activities is influenced by his/her spouse’s participation on the same activities and vice versa. The results show that the altruism behaviors differ substantially across different activity types. Income and the presence of children polarize husband’s altruism behaviors, and wives have a lot of power in influencing husbands’ time use allocations for activities such as baby-sitting. At the same time, the results also show the significant role of opportunities, such as accessibilities to wider crowd and amenities, in shaping household members’ altruism behaviors.

  • 15.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30 years2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilised the Swedish national travel survey covering a period of over 30 years. We investigated the long-term trends in activity-travel patterns of individuals in different life-cycle stages and generations using cohort analysis and a path model. The main findings are summarised as follows. The women, including mothers, in younger generations have become more active in out-of-home non-work activities and their trip chaining has become more complex, compared to their male counterparts. While men are still driving more than women, the gap is decreasing in the younger generations. The gender difference among teenagers in terms of out-of-home time use diminishes in younger generations. Teenagers of younger generations spend more of their leisure time inside their homes, possibly due to the rise of online activities and gaming and more time-consuming school trips, the latter attributed to changes in school choice policy. Older adults travel more, possibly due to better paratransit transport service, supported by better health services.

  • 16.
    Zhang, Chi
    et al.
    KTH.
    Campana, Pietro E.
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wang, Ke
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH.
    Crowdfunding preferences for a sustainable milk product with integrated photovoltaic water pumping system in China2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, article id 113694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of potential investors in financing renewable energy systems—specifically, relating to crowdfunding as a financing mechanism, with the enhancement of internet and social-media tools. The research question in this study is whether crowdfunding with a novel socio-technical product reward program attracts potential customers to a more sustainable milk product with a specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system. The particular case study we empirically investigated is product reward crowdfunding in dairy milk production in China. The milk production chain was supplied by PVWP system integration, which generated solar energy both for feed production for dairy cows and for the operation of dairy farms. 48 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted between the research team and customers in order to perform qualitative analyses of the determinants of customers’ milk purchase behaviors. In addition, 357 online surveys were collected for quantitative analysis. Binary and ordered probit regressions were employed to use survey date to systematically estimate purchase intention and willingness-to-pay for sustainable milk. Customer behaviors, environmental consciousness, and individual socio-demographic factors were investigated as potential explanatory variables.

    This article evaluated key factors which may influence potential customers for crowdfunding, and used a discrete choice model to estimate customers’ willingness-to-pay for reward-based projects. These results could help producers of sustainable milk products to identify potential target groups in China and estimate market demand. This exploratory study could provide a framework with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of crowdfunding for renewable energy systems in a national or international context.

  • 17.
    Zhang, Chi
    et al.
    KTH.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wang, Ke
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Purchase Intention for Crowd-funded Milk Products with Integrated Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems in China2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, p. 503-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison with current financing mechanisms for renewable energy systems, crowd-funding financing mechanism offers a new potential source of financing with recent use of social media. Crowd-funding financing mechanism can also increases the social supports for renewable energy systems as users and investors turn to be more actively engaged in energy systems. As a new potential source of financing, crowd-funding mechanism has different forms, including donation, lending, equity and product reward approaches. In this paper, discrete choice model was used to explore whether crowd-funding financing with a novel sociotechnical product reward practice, has the attractions for potential customers to pay for a more sustainable milk product with distributed photovoltaic (PV) system. We empirically investigated the reward-base crowd funding with the specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system in dairy milk production in China. 48 in-depth interviews were adopted for qualitative analysis of determinants of customer milk purchase decision. The ordered probit regression was employed with 357 online surveys to systematically estimate the purchase intention for the online-crowd-funding sustainable milk. Customer behaviours, environmental consciousness, and the individual socio-demographic factors were tested as potential explanatory variables. In the survey and depth interview samples, we found interviewees as potential customers showed strong purchase intentions to the crowd funding dairy milk for noticing milk quality and nutritious improvement, emission reduction and environmental benefits by the integrated PVWP system. In our findings of the regression results, the females, customers with young children or planning to have children were found with higher willing to purchase than other customers for crowd funding the sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity and popularity with online shopping and pre-sale purchase in China made customers more open and active towards pre-pay and crowd-funding mechanism.

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