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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Barns säkerhet i bil: en enkätundersökning genomförd i Blekinge1999Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Barns säkerhet i bil: en enkätundersökning i västra Sverige1999Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhet vid skolskjutsning: en enkät till förare2002Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Marknadsundersökning: skyddsutrustning för barn i bil1998Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Björketun, Urban
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kövarningssystem på E6 Göteborg: analys av parameterinställningar2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under augusti/september 2001 installerades en första etapp av ett

    kövarningssystem på E6 i sydlig riktning från Bäckebolsmotet till

    Tingstadsmotet, ca 3 km långt. Systemet består av portalmonterade

    varningsskyltar och detektorer för mätning av fordonsflöde, beläggningsgrad

    och hastighet. Varningsskyltarna tänds och varnar för kö nedströms i trafiken

    enligt förutbestämda kriterier. Varningsskyltarna är sju till antalet och

    varje skylt styrs av två eller tre par av detektorer. Med par av detektorer

    avses det förhållande att mätningar görs separat för höger och vänster

    körfält vid varje plats. För att en skylt ska tändas räcker det att kö

    indikeras för ett körfält vid någon plats kopplad till skylten. Här

    dokumenteras ett arbete utfört under hösten 2002 i avsikt att förbättra

    inställningen för kölarm i detektorerna. Loggdata insamlade under veckan 4-8

    november, analyserades för kontroll av gränsvärden som styr huruvida en

    detektor ska indikera kö eller ej. Analysen har resulterat i en

    rekommendation om ändrade inställningar

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Carlsson. Arne,
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätningar på Essingeleden 1999: förstudie för MCS på Essingeleden2000Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kövarningssystem på E6 Göteborg: redovisning av trafikmätningar2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under augusti/september 2001 installerades en första etapp av ett kövarningssystem på E6 i sydlig riktning. Denna första etapp (pilotprojekt) sträcker sig från Bäckebolsmotet till Ringömotet, ca 3 km långt. Systemet består av vägsidesplacerade varningsskyltar och detektorer för mätning av fordonsflöde och hastighet.

    Varningsskyltarna tänds och varnar för kö nedströms i trafiken enligt förutbestämda kriterier. Systemet planerades öppnas för trafikanterna i slutet på mars 2001. Men installationen blev försenad och systemet togs i bruk först i september 2001.

    På den aktuella sträckan finns sju omställbara varningsskyltar som styrs av nio detektorstationer. Syftet är att minska antalet upphinnandeolyckor samt om möjligt få en bättre trafikavveckling genom att en tidig varning om köbildning leder till ändrat körbeteende.

    I anslutning till detta kövarningssystem har VTI fått i uppdrag att genomföra mätningar i form av före/efter-mätningar dels för att uppskatta effekterna på framkomlighet och trafikavveckling och dels för att undersöka om några miljövinster görs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighets-flödessamband från VV mätningar 19961998Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätningar på Essingeleden 1998: förstudie för MCS på Essingeleden1999Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätningar på Essingeleden 2000: förstudie för MCS på Essingeleden2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt nu befintliga planer skall installationen av ett så kallat MCS-system

    (Motorway Control System) på Essingeleden mellan Bredäng och Eugenia (Haga

    södra) genomföras. I en första etapp klar februari 2002 skall MCS-skyltar

    finnas på delen Lilla Essingen-–Eugenia i nordlig riktning och våren 2003

    skall delen Nyboda-–Fredhäll vara klar, även detta i nordlig riktning.

    Väghållare och ansvarig för denna åtgärd är Vägverket Region Stockholm (VST).

    Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet (VTI) har av VST fått i uppdrag att

    uppskatta effekterna av detta MCS-system. För att kunna utföra detta uppdrag

    har trafikmätningar i form av floating car-studier genomförts under

    1998-–2000 och denna typ av mätningar planeras forsätta kommande år

    2001-–2003. Dessa mätningar kompletteras av hastighetflödesmätningar i fyra

    olika snitt på Essingeleden. Tillsammans ger dessa data en mycket god

    tillståndsbeskrivning av trafiken på Essingeleden under nämnda år.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätningar på Essingeleden 2001: förstudie för MCS på Essingeleden2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2001 påbörjas installationen ett nytt MCS-system på Essingeleden mellan

    Bredäng och Eugeniatunneln (Haga Södra). I en första etapp klar februari 2002

    skall MCS-skyltar finnas på delen Lilla Essingen-Eugenia och våren 2003 skall

    delen Nyboda-Fredhäll vara klar.

    Dessutom görs förändringar på Essingeleden i samband med färdigställandet

    av Södra Länken. Sträckan Nyboda-Fredhäll har blivit fyrfältig i nordlig

    riktning

    med öppnande november 2001 och dessutom har tillkommit ett ytterligare

    körfält på delen Fredhäll-Tomteboda i båda riktningarna. I sydlig riktning

    görs

    motsvarande åtgärd under år 2002 med planerad färdigtidpunkt hösten 2002.

    Under våren 2001 ändrades nedfarten söderut till Klarastrandsleden från Norra

    Länken på så sätt att avfarten målades tvåfältig i Karlbergs trafikplats.

    I anslutning härtill har VTI fått i uppdrag att genomföra mätningar i form av

    före-efter mätningar för att uppskatta effekterna på framkomligheten och även

    skatta förändringar i miljön genom minskade utsläpp.

    En typ av mätningar som genomförts som förmätning under åren 1998-2001 är

    så kallade floating car studier. En instrumenterad bil framföres enligt ett

    förutbestämt

    körschema ett lämpligt antal gånger längs sträckan Bredäng-Eugeniatunneln.

    Restiden för hela sträckan för varje körning mäts tillsammans

    med bensinförbrukningen.

    Mätningar med floating car fordon har för 2001 genomförts under två

    mätomgångar,

    juni respektive december, på en måndag och en tisdag för varje omgång.

    Under mornar och eftermiddagar råder i allmänhet hög trafikträngsel, som

    medför

    längre restider och högre bränsleförbrukning. Under sommarhalvåret förvärras

    trafikförhållandena av de omfattande vägarbetena som pågår varje år.

    För att uppskatta trafikförhållandena under lågtrafiktid utan nämnvärd

    trafikträngsel

    har mätningar gjorts varje mätdag mellan kl. 10.00-12.00. Under dessa

    tider var trafikförhållandena i stort sett stabila och mätfordonet framfördes

    utan

    störningar. För varje mätomgång beräknades medelvärdet av restid,

    bränsleförbrukning

    samt utsläpp av koldioxid och kväveoxider under lågtrafiktid.

    Dessa resultat från lågtrafiktid kan jämföras med motsvarande data från

    högtrafiktid under mornar och eftermiddagar. Reshastigheten för varje körd

    rutt

    under dessa tider har jämförts med den som uppmätts under lågtrafiken för

    aktuell

    mätomgång. På så sätt har tidpunkter med trafikträngsel kunnat bestämmas.

    För alla rutter som körts under tidpunkter med trafikträngsel har

    medelvärdet av restid, bränsleförbrukning och emissioner beräknats. Denna

    beräkning är gjord per delsträcka och riktning och resultatet har jämförts

    med

    motsvarande data från lågtrafiktiden. Med dessa framräknade skillnader i

    restid

    och bränsleförbrukning har trängseleffekter i form av restidsförlängning,

    merförbrukning

    av bränsle samt merutsläpp av koldioxid och kväveoxid kunnat beräknas.

    Denna beräkning är gjord för varje mätperiod, delsträcka, riktning samt tid

    dagen.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätningar på Essingeleden 2002: förstudie för MCS på Essingeleden2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under år 2002 påbörjades installationen av ett så kallat MCS (Motorway

    Control System) på Essingeleden mellan Bredäng och Eugenia (Haga södra), med

    början norrifrån från Eugeniatunneln och söderut. I en första etapp, klar

    februari 2003, skall MCS-skyltar finnas på delen Lilla Essingen-Eugenia och

    senare under 2003 eller under 2004 skall delen Nyboda-Lilla Essingen vara

    klar. Dessutom har förändringar gjorts på Essingeleden i anslutning till

    färdigställandet av Södra Länken. Sträckan Nyboda-Fredhäll har blivit

    fyrfältig i nordlig riktning med öppnande november 2001 och i sydlig riktning

    med öppnande i november 2002. Dessutom har tillkommit ett ytterligare körfält

    på delen Fredhäll-Tomteboda i båda riktningarna. Under våren 2001 ändrades

    nedfarten söderut till Klarastrandsleden från Norra Länken på så sätt att

    avfarten målades tvåfältig i Karlbergs trafikplats. Väghållare och ansvarig

    för dessa åtgärder är Vägverket Region Stockholm (VST). Väg- och

    transportforskningsinstitutet (VTI) har av VST fått i uppdrag att uppskatta

    effekterna av detta MCS. För att kunna utföra detta uppdrag har

    trafikmätningar i form av floating carstudier genomförts under 1998-2002 och

    denna typ av mätningar planeras fortsätta kommande år 2003-2004. Dessa

    mätningar kompletteras av hastighetsflödesmätningar i fyra olika snitt på

    Essingeleden. Tillsammans ger dessa data en mycket god tillståndsbeskrivning

    av trafiken på Essingeleden under nämnda år.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätningar på Essingeleden 2003: förstudie för MCS på Essingeleden2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under år 2003 påbörjades installationen av ett så kallat MCS (Motorway

    Control System) på Essingeleden mellan Bredäng och Eugenia (Haga södra), med

    början norrifrån från Eugeniatunneln och söderut. I en första etapp, klar

    februari 2003, finns MCS-skyltar på delen Lilla Essingen-Eugenia och under

    2004 skall delen Nyboda-Lilla Essingen vara klar. Dessutom har förändringar

    gjorts på Essingeleden i anslutning till färdigställandet av Södra Länken.

    Sträckan Nyboda-Fredhäll har blivit fyrfältig i nordlig riktning med öppnande

    november 2001 och i sydlig riktning med öppnande i november 2002. Dessutom

    har tillkommit ett ytterligare körfält på delen Fredhäll - Tomteboda i båda

    riktningarna. Under våren 2001 ändrades nedfarten söderut till

    Klarastrandsleden från Norra Länken på så sätt att avfarten målades tvåfältig

    i Karlbergs trafikplats. Väghållare och ansvarig för dessa åtgärder är

    Vägverket Region Stockholm (VST). Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet

    (VTI) har av VST fått i uppdrag att uppskatta effekterna av detta MCS. För

    att kunna utföra detta uppdrag har trafikmätningar i form av floating

    carstudier genomförts under 1998-2003 och denna typ av mätningar planeras

    fortsätta kommande år 2004-2005. Dessa mätningar kompletteras av

    hastighetsflödesmätningar i fyra olika snitt på Essingeleden. Tillsammans ger

    dessa data en mycket god tillståndsbeskrivning av trafiken på Essingeleden

    under nämnda år.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikmätningar på Essingeleden 2004: trängsel och fördröjningar2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under år 2003 påbörjades installationen av ett så kallat MCS (Motorway

    Control System) på Essingeleden mellan Bredäng och Eugenia, med början

    norrifrån från Eugeniatunneln och söderut. I en första etapp klar februari

    2003 finns MCS-skyltar på delen Lilla Essingen-Eugenia och under första

    halvåret 2004 blev delen Nyboda-Lilla Essingen färdigställd. Under hösten

    2004 inför öppnandet av Södra Länken blev sista etappen Bredäng-Nyboda öppnad

    och driftsatt. Dessutom har förändringar gjorts på Essingeleden i anslutning

    till färdigställandet av Södra Länken. Sträckan Nyboda-Fredhäll har blivit

    fyrfältig i nordlig riktning med öppnande november 2001 och i sydlig riktning

    med öppnande i november 2002. Dessutom har tillkommit ett ytterligare körfält

    på delen Fredhäll-Tomteboda i båda riktningarna. Väghållare och ansvarig för

    dessa åtgärder är Vägverket Region Stockholm (VST). VTI har av VST fått i

    uppdrag att uppskatta effekterna av de åtgärder som genomförts på

    Essingeleden. För att kunna utföra detta uppdrag har trafikmätningar i form

    av floating carstudier genomförts under 1998-2004 och denna typ av mätningar

    planeras fortsätta kommande år. Dessa mätningar kompletteras av hastighets-

    och flödesmätningar i fyra olika snitt på Essingeleden samt från

    radardetektorer till MCS-systemet. Tillsammans ger dessa data en mycket god

    tillståndsbeskrivning av trafiken på Essingeleden under nämnda år.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kettwich, Carmen
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Inverkan av elektroniska reklamskyltar på trafiksäkerhet: en studie på E4 i Stockholm2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report presents four studies that were conducted with the aim to evaluate how electronic billboards (ERS) affect traffic safety. Study 1 is a literature review to examine how billboards impact road safety. The conclusions from the review showed that animated pictures and the location of the billboards have a major impact on driver behaviour as well as that darkness and adverse weather conditions can create glare which makes driving difficult especially for older drivers.

    The second and third studies compared the speed and the number of accidents before and after the installation of the billboards. Neither difference in traffic volume nor in average speed could be demonstrated. There was nothing in the studied accidents to suggest that the accident was affected by a billboard.

    The fourth sub-study is a field study investigating 41 drivers (driving and visual behaviour) on the E4 as they pass the billboards. Results showed several cases of visual distraction. The results also show a negative attitude to the billboards for a majority of the drivers.

    In summary, no effects from the billboards on traffic safety could be showed at the macro level. However, the effects of visual distraction must be taken into consideration and investigated further before deciding whether billboards will be implemented on Swedish roads.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Intermittenta, heldragna och profilerade vägmarkeringars funktion över tid2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paved public roads usually have longitudinal road markings, which can be of different types. Two-lane roads should have a 10 or 15 cm wide broken edge line, but a continuous edge line can be used in order to enhance visibility. If the annual average daily traffic (AADT) is ≥ 2000 the edge lines must be wet-night visible, which is attained by creating a so-called profiled marking.

    The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a difference in durability between a broken and a continuous edge line, and to investigate whether there is a difference in performance and durability between different types of profiled markings. In the first part of the project, broken and continuous edge lines were applied on a public two-lane road. The performance of the markings was followed up by annual measurements of retroreflectivity RL and luminance coefficient Qd for four years. In the second part of the project, a test field with six different types of markings - one without and five with profile – were applied on a public road.

    Follow-up measurements of retroreflectivity RL on dry as well as on wet markings, and luminance coefficient Qd in dry conditions were carried out after one and two years. No difference in durability between broken and continuous edge lines was shown. Regarding profiled markings, a road marking with an embossed pattern had the best performance with respect to all three performance parameters. Profiled markings with diagonal squares (“stairs”) had better performance than markings with transversal lines.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsmätning av vägmarkeringars funktion 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of road marking performance have been carried out from 21 May to 6 November 2014 on a sample of Swedish roads. The aim of the performance assessment is primarily to investigate to what extent the road markings fulfil the Swedish regulations. Besides, the assessment aims at comparing the road marking performance in different counties and regions, and to analyse the development over time, as performance assessments have been carried out to various extent since 2000. The results of the measurements in 2014 show that 39 per cent of the road marking objects fulfilled the requirements regarding dry road marking retroreflection. The corresponding figure for wet road markings was 21 per cent. With respect to dry road markings, Region Norr (North) and Region Väst (West) had the largest percentage of road marking objects that fulfilled the requirement, with 52 per cent each. Region Stockholm had the lowest percentage of road markings objects that fulfilled the requirements – only 12 per cent. Regarding wet road markings, the percentage of approved objects were 50 per cent in Region Norr (North) and in the range of 7–30 per cent in the other regions. A comparison over the years 2011–2014 shows a downward trend. The percentage of road marking length that fulfills the requirements for dry road markings has decreased from 70 per cent in 2011 to 60 per cent in 2014. The corresponding figures for the percentage of approved road marking objects are 52 per cent and 39 per cent, respectively. In four out of the six regions, the percentage of approved road marking objects has decreased from 2013 to 2014. In summary, the fulfilment of the requirements is in general low and there has been a downward trend since 2011. Furthermore, there is a substantial difference in results between the regions, where Region Norr (North), Region Väst (West) and Region Syd (South) have better results than the other regions. Region Stockholm has markedly worse results than the other regions. A total of 303 objects, each including two edge lines and one centre or lane line, i.e. three road marking objects, have been monitored using mobile equipment. The objects have been randomly selected, however in such a way that at least 14 objects per county have been included in the sample.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringar i Norden: en jämförelse mellan vägmarkeringars funktion i Norge, Sverige och Finland2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to compile and compare road marking performance in Norway, Sweden and Finland, in order to disseminate knowledge. More specifically, the study aimed at investigating whether there are any differences in road marking performance between the countries, and whether there are any differences in road marking performance depending on traffic volume and road width. The results showed that road marking performance tended to be somewhat better in Norway and Sweden than in Finland. The average of the retroreflexion for dry edge markings were in Norway 179, in Sweden 177 and in Finland 142. Corresponding results for centre lines were in Norway 137 (yellow markings), in Sweden 164 (white marking) and in Finland 102 (white marking) and 107 (yellow marking), respectively. For wet edge markings, the retroreflexion was 45 in Norway and 31 in Sweden. In Finland, no data on wet markings was available. Furthermore, the results showed that the retroreflexion of the edge markings was independent of average annual daily traffic (AADT) and roadway width. Centre markings on roads with AADT<2000 had lower retroreflexion than centre markings on roads with larger traffic volume. A sample of 98–167 objects were selected from each country, where each object consisted of a 2–10 kilometre long stretch of road. All objects were two-lane roads, which were divided into five classes based on AADT and roadway width. For each object, the retroreflexion of both edge lines and the centre line was measured.

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  • 19.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Cassani, Mirella
    KITE.
    Amantini, Aladino
    KITE.
    Lai, Frank
    University of Leeds.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Arvidsson, Marcus
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Results from the analysis and input to the development and validation of the statistical models2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of Deliverable 5.1 of the ITERATE project is to present results of analyses made of the data collected in the ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments. The ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments consisted of train and car driving experiments carried out on a portable car/train driving simulator platform and in full scale car and train driving simulators. The analyses conducted and presented in this deliverable consist of hypothesis testing, cluster analysis and development of a procedure for estimation of parameters of relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model. Findings from the analyses show that country was found to be an important factor in both the car and train driving experiment. Significant effects of the factor workload were also established in many of the events analysed. The conclusion of comparisons between the data collected in the portable and full scale simulators is that the ITERATE portable driving simulator platform is a suitable tool to studying underlying factors controlling driver behaviour at least for the car diving. However, there were differences between the portable and full scale train simulators. These differences have to be considered in later stages of the project. The next step within the ITERATE project is to estimate relevant relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model based on the findings of the analyses presented in this deliverable. The analyses presented will also be important as inspiration for other studies outside of the present project with the ITERATE driving simulator dataset as an important source of data.

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  • 20.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kontrolldiagram för månadsvis uppföljning av antal dödade i vägtrafiken2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents and the number of fatal accidents are important indicators of the traffic safety situation. The monthly values are, however, difficult to interpret due to large random fluctuations. The aim of this project have been to develop methods that facilitates analysis and interpretation of these data. Control and prognosis charts are presented in the report. The control charts have an upper and a lower limit, and a value outside these limits can be interpreted as a real departure from the prevailing level. Control charts for monthly values are useful to determine if the outcome a specific month is unusually high or low. These diagrams are, however, not good at detecting small changes during a longer time period. They are therefore complemented by charts of the total number of fatalities from the beginning of the year. Prognosis charts are included as a complement to the control charts. These charts are based on so called ARIMA models and can be used for data with autocorrelation. At the beginning of each calendar year, prognosis and prognosis intervals are calculated for the entire year. An outcome outside the prognosis intervals is interpreted as a change in the prevailing pattern. Prognosis charts are applied to twelve-month moving sums of the number of fatalities.

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  • 21. Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Björketun, Urban
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Hastighet – vägyta: problemet, kunskapsläget, fördjupad analys och förslag till fortsatt forskning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation between speed and road surface condition is of interest for the planning of pavement maintenance on the road network. The costs and the target variables that are affected by this correlation are, in addition to travel time, fuel consumption (vehicle costs), energy and environment.According to previous studies of the road surface influence on the vehicle speed increased rut depth (RUT) and increasing longitudinal road unevenness (IRI) causes decreased vehicle speed. In the description of the road surface macro texture (MPD) is normally also included. There has, however, been a lack of knowledge about the importance of MPD on vehicle speed. The main purpose of the present study was to supplement existing knowledge about the vehicle speed with the importance of MPD.Mean values of ADC, RF, RUT, IRI and MPD, has been calculated for pre-sections of different lengths between 100 metre and 1 000 metre. These averages can sometimes change significantly with changes in section length while the speed data is the same. The sometimes systematic variation is in part a consequence of the positions of the measurement sites (TMS) not being randomly selected.

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  • 22.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rolling resistance model, fuel consumption model and the traffic energy saving potential from changed road surface conditions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate traffic energy changes due to the improvement of road surface standard one need to describe:

    • • rolling resistance at different road surface conditions
    • • all other driving resistance
    • • fuel consumption (Fc) as a function of driving resistance.

    Based mainly on empirical data from coastdown measurements in Sweden a general rolling resistance model – with roughness (iri), macrotexture (mpd), temperature and speed as explanatory variables – was developed and calibrated for a car; a heavy truck and a heavy truck with trailer.

    This rolling resistance model has been incorporated into a driving resistance based Fc model with a high degree of explanation. The Fc function also includes variables for horizontal curvature (ADC) and the road gradient (RF). If mpd per road link is reduced by up to 0.5 mm, the total Fc in the road network will be reduced by 1.1%. By reducing iri per link by 0.5 m/km, speed will increase in parallel to reduced rolling resistance and there will be approximately no resulting effect on Fc. If rut depth is decreased in parallel to iri there will be a further increase in speed. For individual road links there might be an energy saving potential if the proportion of heavy vehicles is big enough.

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  • 23.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Coastdown measurement with 60-tonne truck and trailer: estimation of transmission, rolling and air resistance2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of coastdown measurements, driving resistance parameters have been estimated for a truck with trailer (60t) and a box vehicle body. At a vehicle speed of 20 m/s, average meteorological wind conditions and a load factor of 50% the following distribution of the driving resistance components has been obtained:

    • transmission resistance (churning losses), 5%
    • rolling resistance (test route surface conditions), 41%
    • air resistance, 54%.

    There are also measurements for the truck without a trailer. Rolling resistance is dependent on road surface conditions, in particular roughness (iri) and macro texture (mpd). The total rolling resistance consists of three parts: a basic, an iri and a mpd part. The road surface effect amounts to approximately 40% of the total rolling resistance. The iri effect seems to be the dominating part of the surface effects on the contrary to light vehicles.

    Driving resistance parameters have been estimated by means of regression analysis. A major problem is how to avoid high correlations between explanatory variables. One objective of the experiment design has been to minimize such dependencies. This study might also be of interest for methodological reasons and in particular for including:

    • the introduction of high accuracy road gradients as well as other road surface properties
    • the estimation of vehicle mass from coastdown to coastdown
    • the equipment (based on Doppler technique) used in order to measure the coastdown driving pattern
    • the method used in order to separate parts of the driving resistance
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  • 24.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    A method for estimation of average engine fuel maps: power measurements at drive wheels2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for engine maps in order to simulate fuel consumption for road vehicles after mechanistic principles. In an engine map, fuel consumption (g/kWh or g/s) is expressed as a function of engine speed and engine torque. In general, there is a considerable lack in engine map data. The main purpose of this study is to develop a tool for assigning any segment of the car fleet a representative engine map. Two methods have been developed: a "matrix" method based on interpolation of measured values to a uniform grid of values and a "function" method based on regressions. The function alternative is in focus in this documentation. The estimated functions have a high degree of explanation (>0,97). On commission of the Swedish Road Administration, Rototest AB has measured stationary fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for more than 400 cars of different year models. If this data set could be used in mechanistic simulation models one could expect increased representativity in different applications. Advantages with the Rototest method, where the engine at measurements is mounted in the vehicle, could be increased representativity and lower costs compared to motor test bench, which is the traditional method for engine map measurements. One problem with the Rototest data set is that engine torque or power, which is needed in an engine map, is not available, only the output power from the final gear box. In order to estimate crankshaft torque, transmission losses need to be estimated.

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  • 25.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    An analysis of the Swedish HGV fleet with driving resistance in focus: vehicle parameters as a basis for HBEFA emission factor estimation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to estimate energy use and exhaust emissions from road traffic, on a regional or a national level, one needs representative emission factors. Emission factors are estimated based on vehicle driving resistance. Driving resistance is estimated based on representative driving patterns and vehicle parameters. In the HBEFA program, used for estimation of road traffic exhaust emissions, the vehicle fleet is divided into vehicle categories. One such category is Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV). The HGV category is divided into vehicle segments after maximum vehicle weight (GVW). One further division is into vehicle combinations, a rigid truck (RT) or a truck with trailer (TT). Vehicle segments are divided into Euro classes approximately corresponding to year model intervals. For each segment and Euro class there is a set of emission factors. Then there is need for vehicle parameters per vehicle segment and Euro class. HGV emission factors on the Euro class level are treated as independent of calculation year. Emission factors for HGV vehicles in HBEFA are calculated by means of the PHEM computer program. The PHEM simulations are based on driving resistance estimation. In order to estimate vehicle parameters, data available in the Swedish national vehicle register (1997, 2004 and 2009) and in transport surveys (1997 and 2003) has been compiled. Survey data including mileage is necessary in order to estimate vehicle parameters for average road conditions. The split into RT and TT segments demands access to mileage data describing the use of trailer. The total number of HGV in the Swedish vehicle fleet is approximately the same 2010 as 1990. Despite this there are most important changes within the HGV fleet in this time period, such as the proportion of trucks with GVW>26t has increased from 6 to 36 per cent. In this group there are some segments with very large changes of proportion. In parallel to an important change in the segment distribution one could expect a change in distribution also inside individual segments and Euro classes by time influencing the average vehicle parameters and finally the emission factors.

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  • 26.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighetsregulator och bränsleförbrukning för tunga lastbilar med släp: försök med sänkning av maximal inställd hastighet från 89 till 85 km/h2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trucks with a gross vehicle weight above 12 tons and of year model 1988 or later shall as from 1992 be equipped with a speed regulator. The Road Administration, Region Skåne, made an agreement with a number of truck companies to set speed regulators with 85 km/h as maximum speed. The truck owners guaranteed that the speed regulators in the previous year were set at 89 km/h. The speed regulators were reset in June 2003. The agreement between the Road Administration and the truck owning companies included six companies and in all 17 trucks. Data on fuel fillings and odometer readings per month, both before and after the speed regulator resetting, was only available for 12 trucks belonging to five companies. The data analysis showed an increase in fuel consumption in the after situation. Different methods of analysis give somewhat different results with an increase of more than 3% at the most. The average air temperature in the after situation was somewhat higher than before the speed regulators were reset. The analyses show a temperature effect of 0.3% decrease in fuel consumption, from before to after.

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  • 27.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Motorhantering under stopptid: tomgång eller avstängning. Utsläpp under krypkörning: avgasmätningar och litteraturgenomgång2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    There is a scarcity of data on which decisions can be based regarding the

    limitation of idling during standstill periods. There is also reason to

    believe that the significance of engine management during standstill may vary

    between different propulsion systems and technical standards etc, which will

    increase the need for a decision base. The need for data that describe exhaust

    emissions during crawling speed is particularly great in the case of tunnels.

    Ventilation plants in tunnels are designed on the basis of relationships

    between emissions and mean speed. Up till now, for speeds below 30 km/h, these

    relationships have not been satisfactorily based on measured data. The primary

    objective has been to fill the gaps in knowledge by exhaust measurements. The

    methodology has comprised a survey of the literature, measurements and

    analyses. Different objectives result in different limiting times for idling

    during standstill periods. For the vehicle fleet as a whole, different limits

    have been estimated for different objectives: for private economy, 12 seconds;

    for macro economy overall, 23 seconds; for energy policy, 12 seconds, and for

    air quality, 36 seconds. There are also time limits per compound, per

    technical standard and per vehicle type. The time for diesel is shorter than

    for petrol engine. According to measurements, emission of oxides of nitrogen

    (NOx) at crawling speed varies over the range -51 and 171% for different

    engine types when speed drops from 25 to 10 km/h. There are considerable

    differences in the speed dependence of fuel consumption both between and

    within studies. The relationships which could be estimated for particulate

    emissions do not, in any one case, indicate an increase in emission as speed

    drops from 25 km/h.

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  • 28.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammed-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppskattning av representativa bränslefaktorer för tunga lastbilar: intervjuundersökning2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den genomsnittliga bränsleförbrukningen för tunga lastbilar under år 1997 har

    uppskattats till

    0,43 l/km baserat på en enkät (UVAV). Utöver bränsleförbrukning innehåller

    svaren, totalt 1513

    användbara svar, ett stort antal variabler som beskriver både fordonet och

    utförda transporter. Ett

    primärt syfte har varit jämförelse med bränslefaktorer som används vid

    uppföljning av avgas-utsläpp

    från vägtrafiken. Ett urval av de bränslefaktorer som används inom

    uppföljningen, både

    nationellt och internationellt, ligger 16-–33% under studiens

    bränslefaktorer.

    Resultaten beskriver

    också bränsleförbrukning med avseende på olika kombinationer av karosserityp,

    totalvikt,

    årsmodell, motoreffekt, transportlängd och släpanvändning. Redovisningen

    omfattar både sträck-(

    l/km) och transportspecifik (l/tonkm) förbrukning.

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  • 29.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av rundvirkestransporter med 90-tonslastbilar: delprojekt inom Sammodalitetsprojektet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to make a cost benefit analysis, showing how costs for truck transports of round wood would change if vehicles with a total weight of 90 tonnes were used instead of the 60-tonne vehicles that are currently in use. The analysis has two parts. First, costs per vehicle kilometre are presented for both vehicle sizes. This gives a good general view but does not take into account the various conditions with regard to road type, etcetera, that affect costs. Neither does it take into account that the amount of vehicle kilometres associated with round wood transports changes if larger vehicles are allowed. Therefore a scenario analysis is also performed. The basis for this analysis is simulations using the Swedish transport and logistics system Samgods. Flow estimates from Samgods are combined with road attribute data from the national road database (NVDB) to compute the total transport cost, including externalities. In these computations road type and other situation specific factors are taken into account. The scenario analysis is summarized by the total annual cost for road transports of round wood in Sweden. Due to the simulations the amount of vehicle kilometres are reduced by 21 percent if 60-tonne vehicles are replace by 90-tonne vehicles, given that the capacity of bridges is left without regard. In socioeconomic terms this equals cost reduction of 4 per cent of 163 million Swedish crowns annually. It should be kept in mind, though, that costs for improving bridge capacity, which is required for this scenario to be realized, are not included in the analysis. When 90-tonne vehicles are not allowed to pass bridges with limited bearing capacity, larger vehicles do not generally improve efficiency. There are however some important round wood transport routes where larger vehicles are possible to use without any measures to improve bridges.

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  • 30.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Användning av personbilar ägda av juridiska personer: jämförelse av registrerings- och stationeringskommun2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a demand among Swedish municipalities for vehicle statistics broken down by municipal level. The statistics can be used for estimates of traffic volume or descriptions of the car fleet. Vehicles can, however, be registered in a municipality due to the Swedish Road Traffic Registry but completely or predominantly be located/stationed in another municipality, here referred as stationing municipality. The statistics can then be misleading. This problem is assumed to be greatest for vehicles owned by juridical persons. This study has examined the proportion of the juridical owned passenger cars’ total mileage driven in the municipality they are registered in according to the Road Traffic Registry. A short questionnaire was sent in January 2015 to a sample of 2 000 juridical persons who owned a passenger car. The survey, which also was accessible in a web version, also contained questions about stationing municipality (if the car was stationed anywhere else than in the registration municipality) type of car ownership and its use. The response rate was 52 percent.

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  • 31.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seatbelt usein a number of towns in Central Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2012 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2012, averaging at one day at the studied sites. In total, approximately 59,300 passenger cars, 1,200 taxi cars and 8,100 other vehicles were observed.During the whole survey period, 1983–2012, seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level than back seat passengers. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are almost 98 per cent.

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  • 32.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in Southern Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2013 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2013. In total, approximately 58,400 passenger cars, 1,200 taxi cars and 8,700 other vehicles, e.g. trucks were observed. During the whole survey period, 1983–2013, seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level than back seat passengers. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are 97– 98 per cent. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent. When the law requiring all adult occupants to wear seat belts in passenger cars came into force on 1 July 1986, the figure quickly increased to 60 per cent. According to the latest observations, approximately 84 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt, which is lower than the level 2012. In the back seat, children have always had a much higher belt use than the adults, which also applies to 2013, when slightly more than 96 per cent of children in the back seat were belted. Since the surveys in 1994 to date, a subproject studying the drivers and the correlation to age and sex of the drivers, has been in force simultaneously.

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  • 33.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bältesanvändningen i Sverige 20112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in central Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2011 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2011, averaging out at one day at each studied site. In total, approximately 60,200 passenger cars, 1,300 taxi cars and 7,300 other vehicles were observed. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent. When the law requiring all adult occupants to wear seat belts in passenger cars came into force on 1 July 1986, the figure quickly increased to 60 per cent. According to the latest observations, slightly more than 80 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt. The corresponding level for children in the back seat has consistently stayed in the region of 10–20 percentage points higher. In 2011, around 96 per cent of all children in the back seat wore a seat belt. During the whole survey period, 1983–2011, seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are slightly higher than 96 per cent. Since the surveys in 1994 , a subproject studying the drivers and the correlation to age and sex of the drivers, has been in force simultaneously. Seat belt use is lowest among young male drivers, ranging between18–25 years, at 79 per cent 2011, and this is considerably lower than in 2010. In the same age group, 92 per cent of all women wear a seat belt. In the age groups 26–35, 36–50 and “51–“, 90–92 per cent of men and 97–98 per cent of women wear a seat belt. With the exception of the youngest drivers, records have been very stable in recent years. Seat belt use by taxi drivers has been observed at all observation sites since 1995.

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  • 34.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in southern Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2014 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2014. In total, approximately 57,200 passenger cars, 1,300 taxi cars and 9,700 other vehicles, e.g. trucks were observed. During the whole survey period, 1983–2014, seat belt use among drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level than among back seat passengers. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are 96–97 per cent, a slight decline from the previous year. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent. When the law requiring all adult occupants to wear seat belts in passenger cars came into force on 1 July 1986, the figure quickly increased to 60 per cent. According to the latest observations, approximately 81 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt, which is lower than the level 2013 (84 per cent). In the back seat, children have always had a much higher belt use than the adults, which also applies to 2014, when slightly more than 95 per cent of children in the back seat were belted. This is a slight decline compared to last year.

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  • 35.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in Southern Sweden since 1983. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are 97–98 per cent, a slight increase from the previous year. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent.

    According to the latest observations, approximately 89 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt, which is so far the highest rate and significantly higher than the level 2014. In the back seat, children have always had a much higher belt use than the adults, which also applies to 2015, when 97 per cent of children in the back seat were belted. This is an increase compared with 2014 and seat belt use among children in the back seat is on par with the car occupant in the front seat. A sub-study among drivers of passenger cars shows that women consistently have higher seat belt use than men. In addition, seat belt usage increases with age, especially among male drivers.

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  • 36.
    Linden, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av hög mittbarriär på Essingeleden1999Report (Other academic)
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  • 37.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: sammanfattande resultat från Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has performed measurements for condition assessment of road marking performance in Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out using the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. The measurements were supplemented with an estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions were drawn:

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 53 per cent of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - On other European highways and national roads the corresponding figure was 47 per cent.

    - On county roads 49 per cent of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings was best in regions Norr, Öst och Syd, with Syd as the best one (significantly better than Öst, however, the Syd result was not significantly different in comparison with Norr). In region Väst about half of the road markings were approved while the worst performance was found in the regions Mitt and Stockholm.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity

    - On European roads with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 44 per cent of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - The performance was best in regions Väst and Syd (there were no significant differences between them). In the other regions (Norr, Mitt, Stockholm and Öst) the performance was worse.

    The reports for each region are the following:

    VTI notat 8:1-2012 – Condition assessment of road markings of Region Syd in Sweden in 2011.

    VTI notat 8:2-2012 – Condition assessment of road markings of Region Väst in Sweden in 2011.

    VTI notat 8:3-2012 – Condition assessment of road markings of Region Öst in Sweden in 2011.

    VTI notat 8:4-2012 – Condition assessment of road markings of Region Stockholm in Sweden in 2011.

    VTI notat 8:5-2012 – Condition assessment of road markings of Region Mitt in Sweden in 2011.

    VTI notat 8:6-2012 – Condition assessment of road markings of Region Norr in Sweden in 2011

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 38.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: Trafikverket Region Mitt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This note presents the results of condition assessment of road marking performance in Region Mitt (Middle), Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out during the period 18 June to 15 October by the use of the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. Moreover, the reflectometer was supplemented with an optocator for estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions can be drawn.

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 40% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - On other European highways and national roads the corresponding figure was 23%.

    - On county roads 28% of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings was best in Jämtland county. Gävleborg county had a higher percentage of approved road markings than Dalarna county, whose performance was similar to Västernorrland county.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 25% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - The performance was equal in the two counties where wet road marking function was estimated.

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  • 39.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: Trafikverket Region Norr2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This note presents the results of condition assessment of road marking performance in Region Norr (North), Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out during the period 2-29 August by the use of the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. Moreover, the reflectometer was supplemented with an optocator for estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 43% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - On other European highways and national roads, the corresponding figure was 69%.

    - On county roads, 64% of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings in Norrbotten county was better than in Västerbotten county on European highways with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day. The difference between these counties was not statistically significant concerning the two other road types.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 36% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirement in the Swedish regulations.

    - The performance was better in Norrbotten county than in Västerbotten county.

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    fulltext
  • 40.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: Trafikverket Region Stockholm2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This note presents the results of condition assessment of road marking performance in Region Stockholm, Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out during the period 28 June-7 October by the use of the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. Moreover, the reflectometer was supplemented with an optocator for estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 38% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations (Stockholm county).

    - On other European highways and national roads the corresponding figure was 13% (Stockholm county).

    - On county roads 19% of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings on primary roads was better on Gotland than in Stockholm county. However, when taking all road types into account, there were no significant differences between the counties in the region.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 29% of the measured objects (Stockholm county) fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

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    fulltext
  • 41.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: Trafikverket Region Syd2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This note presents the results of condition assessment of road marking performance in Region Syd (South), Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out during the period 20 May to 21September by the use of the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. Moreover, the reflectometer was supplemented with an optocator for estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 74%

    of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - On other European roads and national roads the corresponding figure was 61%.

    - On county roads 67% of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings in Kalmar county was worst. In the other counties, a similar percentage of the road markings were approved, however, was Skåne county significantly better than Jönköping county.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European roads with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 65% of

    the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - The performance was best in Blekinge county. For three of the other counties, Jönköping, Kronoberg and Skåne, no significant differences were found. Road markings in Kalmar county had the worst condition (however, the difference was not significant between the counties of Kalmar and Kronoberg).

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 42.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: Trafikverket Region Väst2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This note presents the results of condition assessment of road marking performance in Region Väst (West), Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out during the period 2-6 June by the use of the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. Moreover, the reflectometer was supplemented with an optocator for estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 59%

    of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - On other European highways and national roads the corresponding figure was 50%.

    - On county roads 71% of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings in Halland county was better than in Västra Götaland county. The difference between Halland county and Värmland county as well as Värmland county and Västra Götaland county was not statistically significant.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 54%

    of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - The performance was better in Halland county and Värmland county than in Västra Götaland county. The difference between Halland county and Värmland county was not statistically significant.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2011: Trafikverket Region Öst2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This note presents the results of condition assessment of road marking performance in Region Öst (East), Sweden 2011. The measurements were carried out during the period 16 June to 20 September by the use of the mobile reflectometer Ecodyn 30 to measure dry road marking retroreflectivity. Moreover, the reflectometer was supplemented with an optocator for estimation of wet road marking performance. From the results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

    Dry road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT (Average Daily Traffic) more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 48% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - On other European highways and national roads the corresponding figure was 47%.

    - On county roads 78% of the objects were approved.

    - The performance of the road markings in Östergötland county was best and in Örebro county it was better than in Södermanland county. All other differences between the counties were not significant.

    Wet road marking retroreflectivity:

    - On European highways with ADT more or equal to 4,000 vehicles per day, 36% of the measured objects fulfilled the requirements in the Swedish regulations.

    - The performance was worst in Södermanland county. All other differences between the counties were not significant.

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  • 44.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: sammanfattande resultat från Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the results of the condition assessment of road markings in Sweden 2012. The measurements have been carried out using the mobile system Road Marking Tester which mainly is built up of a reflectometer and an optocator. The two units register the retroreflectivity and the macro-texture of the road marking, respectively. From these measures, the retroreflectivity of a wet road marking can be predicted, which has been done on roads with ADT > 4000 vehicles. Measurements were accomplished on 292 objects in total, each approximately 10 km of length. The objects were chosen randomly and spread all over Sweden. In each object three longitudinal road markings were measured: two edge lines and one centre- or laneline.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Mitt2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Norr2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Stockholm2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Syd2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Väst2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Öst2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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