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  • 1.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Said, Safwat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    McGarvey, Terry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Influence of heavy traffic lateral wander on pavement deterioration2012In: EPAM 2012: Malmö, Sweden, 5–7 September : 4th European pavement and asset management conference, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012, , p. 11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral wander of the traffic has an impact on the degradation development of pavements. This is usually not accounted for in the structural design process. Facilities with wide carriageways and broad shoulders tends to have relatively large lateral spreading while narrow road facilities lacking any shoulders can have highly channelized traffic pattern. In this research lateral wander characteristics have been measured for different road facilities. They can be assumed follow a normal distribution where the standard deviation describes their lateral spreading. Rut depth has thereafter been estimated according to two new rutting calculation scheme where lateral wander characteristics has been taken into account. The first approach is based on a two step mechanistic empirical (M-E) evaluation of the permanent strain in all layer of the structure and using a time hardening approach to sum up for all wander locations. This has thereafter been used to estimate the difference in rutting development as a function of the standard deviation. The second approach concentrates on calculating the permanent strain visco-elastically in the bound layers of the structure. Both procedures can be used to estimate the rate of relative deterioration for different road facilities. Based on the same structure the first approach give around 6 % increase in the surface rut as the standard deviation of the lateral wander increases from 10 to 20 cm. The second approach estimates this difference to be around 20 %. The difference between the two approaches are partly explained due to that the first approach estimates the rut based on all layers but the second approach from the bound layers only.

  • 2.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Johansson, Thomas
    TJ kommunikation.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    McGarvey, Terry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rekommendationer för funktionell utformning av spårvägssystem2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trams are not a common feature in Sweden, which leads to some uncertainty about how they work in an urban environment alongside other transport segments. Trams can take many forms, from the classic trams that use the same lanes as cars, to express trams with their own fenced-off embankments, with higher speeds and possibly some form of signal safety system. The purpose of the project is to formulate recommendations for the design and function of new tram systems or changes to existing systems. The goal is to create clearer, more uniform conditions, allowing for good planning and construction outcomes from the beginning and avoiding subsequent costly changes.

    The results presented in this report are based on both national and international experiences of different tram systems. Different cities have different conditions, for example in terms of traffic, population and land, which means that the tram systems need to be planned and built in different ways. Technical solutions such as track designs, curve radiuses, signal systems etc. therefore differ from one tram system to the next. However, the design of the system must guarantee rigorous safety and good efficiency for passengers, staff, and persons and vehicles near or crossing the tracks. The tram system, like all traffic environments, must be clear, simple, predictable and easy to understand.

  • 3.
    McGarvey, Terence
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Barrier separated road type design: accelerated degradation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the risk of vehicular head-on collisions, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), has been transforming high traffic-volume conventional roads into barrier separated roads. This process has reduced the number of fatalities by around 80 percent.

    However, evidence has shown that barrier separated roads degrade quicker than conventional road types.

    The extent of the problem was quantified by comparing various sets of road surface characteristic data. Comparisons revealed that degradation levels increase by up to 60 percent in the single lane sections of 2+1 type barrier separated roads.

    Vehicle position surveys were carried out and subsequent data analysis confirmed that confinement of vehicle lateral wander is a main cause of the problem. The analysis indicated that in the single lane section of a 2+1 type barrier separated road, vehicle lateral wander reduced by 24 percent for light vehicles and 19 percent for commercial traffic. These figures increased to 44 percent and 39 percent for a 1+1 type barrier separated road.

    Accelerated degradation can be attributed to poor cross-sectional design. The amount of vehicular lateral wander is restricted and results in surface wear and loading being concentrated in narrow tracks along the road section.

    Design improvements are possible but will obviously require higher initial investment expenditure.

  • 4.
    McGarvey, Terence
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Measurement of tyre width and assembly type (single or double tyre)2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data provided by VTI vehicle position surveys is only relevant to the right hand side of a vehicles front wheels. No tyre width or type information is available. As parameters such as wheel paths (centre point of a single or double tyre) are considered important, it was decided to test a new system that could also record tyre width and type. However, measured tyre widths were narrower than expected. Initial thoughts are that this reduction is related to the shape of the tyre footprint. This means that results were not sufficiently accurate enough to distinguish between different sizes of tyres. Although exact tyre widths could not be determined, it was still possible to determine if tyre types were either single or double. In reality, there are large differences between single tyre widths and double tyre total widths. As similar large differences existed in the survey data, distinguishing between single and double tyre configurations was relatively easy. Approximately 30,650 vehicles were recorded and around 2,900 of these (9.5%) were classified as large goods vehicles (LGVs). Forty different types of vehicle were recorded. The percentage split between single and double tyre types was around 64% single and 36% double.

  • 5.
    McGarvey, Terence
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Vehicle lateral position depending on road type and lane width: vehicle position surveys carried out on the Swedish road network2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies of barrier separated road types, it was found that vehicle lane position and the amount of lateral wander varied depending on road type and lane width. These variations will have a direct effect on the rate of surface wear and will influence where stresses and strains are distributed in the pavement structure. In order to determine the extent of these variations, a series of position surveys were carried out on common road types found on the Swedish road network. Twenty-one sets of survey data provided information on over 271,000 vehicles. The data was divided into three groups depending on approximate axle track width. Using the survey data, it was possible to calculate and plot the distribution of lateral position (wheel path), the average position, and the variation of lateral position (lateral wander) for each group. Factors such as lane type, lane width, verge width, total width, and close proximity of guardrail all had some influence on vehicle position and amount of lateral wander. The extent of lateral wander varied quite considerably. Standard deviation values associated with the average position of light vehicles varied between 455 millimetres and 190 millimetres. Commercial traffic values were lower and ranged between 430 millimetres and 140 millimetres. These are large variations and will have a significant effect on road degradation rates. Such variations should be taken into account when planning construction or maintenance work.

  • 6.
    Said, Safwat F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rahman, Shafiqur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    McGarvey, Terence
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Enocksson, Carl-Gösta
    Trafikverket.
    Utförandets inverkan på hållbarhet för beläggningslager2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-destructive testing in quantifying the asphalt pavement layers homogeneity can be used for the quality assurance in paving contracts. This paper summarizes the findings from a field study on segregation in bituminous pavement mixes that relates pavement layer surface texture to the homogeneity of the paved bituminous layer by distinguishing mix segregated area. The mean profile depth (MPD) values of paved layer were measured. Based on these values three locations on the road were identified having low, intermediate and high MPD values. Thereafter, cored samples were tested for stiffness modulus before and after moisture conditioning by performing the moisture induced sensitivity test (MIST). Results clearly showed that the samples from the locations with high MPD values were mostly affected by the moisture conditioning for which the stiffness moduli were significantly reduced. The samples with high MPD values had the highest air voids as well. Thus, this study demonstrated that construction quality described by segregation in the paved asphalt mix has a significant impact on the moisture sensitive performance of pavements. A limited number of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements were performed at positions with different degree of separation in the road base layer. There was a tendency for the effect of separation in the road base layer on FWD even though there was a variation in data. The strong correlation between the MPD values and change in stiffness modulus also suggests that the measurements of the MPD values can be a reliable and non-destructive method for evaluating the construction quality of a pavement and in developing the quality assurance criteria based on pavement performance that can be used in paving contracts.

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