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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2016/20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm City has been working to reduce the impact of road dust through improved and specific street operations to reduce particulate levels in the air. Since its inception, effects on dust load and air quality have been investigated by VTI and SLB-analys at the Environmental Management in Stockholm. Specific measures have mainly included dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning with a Disa-Clean sweeper. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is maintained for the fourth year in a row in Stockholm, which is partly due to operational measures. Additional daytime dust binding could be shown to lower the daily average PM10 concentration by 6%, while blockwise CMA treatment could not be shown to have any clear effect. Road dust load, measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm), tend to have increased slightly compared to the previous season, especially in between the wheel tracks. The repaving of Folkungagatan has resulted in heavily increased dust load levels, but also lower PM10 levels than previous seasons. Evaluation of the possibilities for optimizing dust binding shows that several days with exceedances in autumn are missed, while several days in January are treated with CMA without an actual need to reach the limit value. Higher precision with forecast-based measures is needed to further optimize the efforts.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2015–20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm has made special efforts to reduce PM10 levels in the city. The efforts mainly include dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) and vacuum suction with a powerful dry vacuum suction machine. This report summarizes effects on particulate matter and road dust storage, as the actions taken by Stockholm City during the 2015–2016 season and discusses how measures can be further improved. The limit value for the environmental quality standard was not exceeded for the 2015–2016 season for the third consecutive year, but the number of days with PM10 levels over the environmental quality standard was higher than in the previous season, which had a record low number of exceedances. The evaluation of daytime dust binding was complicated by the fact that the CMA was also used on the reference street, which caused to much uncertainties to provide quantitative analysis of its effect this season. Block-wise dust binding and vacuuming could not be evaluated due to dust contamination from a construction site. The dust load on the streets varies from a few g/m2 to about 250 g/m2 depending on the street and season and is highest during the winter (Dec–Jan). A trend towards lower dust loads is broken this season on several streets, which may be due to the damper streets in spring. Analyses made on the connection between dust load, PM10 and impacting factors, as well as a condition-based calculation method suggests that dust binding in spring is important for keeping the levels down, while dust binding in autumn and winter is more often “unnecessary” (the levels would probably not have exceeded the limit value also without dust binding).

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Optidrift: optimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift för bättre luftkvalitet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operation of streets and roads, in addition to accessibility and safety, also affects environmental aspects such as air quality. Measures such as sanding and salting affect the content of inhalable particles (PM10) in the air. On the other hand, operational measures that are made to reduce the suspension of particles in the spring can have an effect on the winter operation, because the salt solutions used also act as de- and anti-icing agents. The project has investigated the possibilities of optimizing street operations from these aspects, with a focus on air quality. In various activities, views and experiences were gathered about problem images and solutions from industry, road managers and practitioners. A road dust sampler, WDS II, was developed. Evaluations of the effect of different coil and cleaning variants on the road dust load showed that a positive effect of the methods requires that there is relatively much dust on the road surface. Optimization tests showed that good forecasting of dust binding is important for a good result. A criteria-based analysis showed that no optimization of the dust binding occurred during the project period. Overall, the project's original goal of being able to propose an optimized street operation in a district in Stockholm has not been achieved, mainly due to current operating contracts and of the high priority of the environmental quality objective (PM10) and accessibility in the city. On the other hand, Optidrift has identified success factors and problems with the street operation, resulting in increased knowledge about the street operations' effects on dust load and air quality, and developed useful evaluation methods and scenario analyzes useful in continued work on improving and optimizing winter and barge operations.

  • 6.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Andersson, Karl
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lindström, Thomas
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga att reducera vägdammsförrådet i gatu- och tunnelmiljöer i Trondheim2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid exceeding the environmental air quality standards for particulate matter (PM10) Norwegian Public Roads Administration Directorate of Public Roads (Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet) in Trondheim, Norway, has implemented an attempt to clean a road tunnel and a stretch of road with three different cleaning machines to reduce the amount of dust of the road. A large number of other tests is presented in the main report, while the present report focuses on how large the road dust depot has been before and after cleaning with different machines in the different environments.

    The results show that two of the three different machines will reduce the road dust depot efficiently in the street environment, while the road dust depot increases of cleaning in the tunnel environment. One theory might be that this may be due to the fact that even the walls and ceiling are cleaned in the tunnel environment, which could lead to the cleaning moves particles from the ceiling and walls to the road surface. Tunnel cleaning is carried out with the cleaning solution, which gives a different chemical environment, which can dissolve way the dust further down in the texture and make it for the sampler.

  • 7.
    Järlskog, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga  att reducera vägdammsförrådet  i gatu- och tunnelmiljöer: En fältstudie i Trondheim 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2016, VTI conducted a field study in Strindheim tunnel and on Haakon VII street on behalf of the Norwegian Road Administration in Trondheim aiming at comparing and evaluating the ability of cleaning techniques to reduce the road dust depot in street and tunnel environments. 

    The result showed that after a first cleaning effort in the tunnel with the BEAM rotorclean (roadway only), a larger dust load was detected than before cleaning. This is believed to be due to the flushing of dust from the edge of the road or the removal of dust cemented in the road surface texture. After a second cleaning effort, where the walls and ceilings are cleaned and the road is cleaned again, a reduction in dust load could be distinguished, but only in the roadway, not near the edge.

    On Haakon VII street, two different cleaning machines, Disa Clean and Val’Air rotor cleaner were used, the former being a dry vacuum sweeper and the latter using rotary high pressure washing combined with vacuum. Sampling was conducted in six fields. The result showed that greatest effect was achieved with Disa Clean in combination with high pressure rinsing as well as with Val’Air rotor cleaner at a driving speed of 3 kilometer per hour. In both cases there were significant differences in dust storage before and after cleaning.

  • 8.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wet Dust Sampler: a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 9.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Utvärdering av sopsaltning på cykelstråk i Stockholm vintern 2016/172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stockholm, cycling as a mode of transport is promoted, especially for commuting. Public transport as well as the roadway network has reached capacity during peak hours and cycling is considered to be an advantageous alternative, since there are environmental and health benefits to gain. To encourage people to cycle during winter and at the same time reduce the number of single bicycle crashes, a high winter maintenance service level is needed. Using salt for skid control of bicycle paths could be one solution, although it has its drawbacks and difficulties. In recent years, a method using a frontmounted power broom for snow clearance and salt for de-icing (commonly called “sweep-salting”) has become popular for winter maintenance of bicycle paths in Sweden.

    In 2013 the city of Stockholm decided to try the “sweep-salting” method and evaluate its potential to improve the service level on bicycle routes for commuting. To optimize and develop the method, VTI has performed field studies every winter since 2013. These studies have included measurements of friction, road condition observations, measurements of residual salt on bicycle path surfaces, salt deposition at the side of bicycle paths, maintenance protocols and interviews with maintenance operators. Since all studies were done in field, in a real-life environment, the experimental work was designed according to the winter maintenance routines of the municipality and other prevailing conditions and circumstances. This report presents the results from the evaluation of the winter of 2016/2017.

    The evaluations show that when working successfully, the sweep-salting method creates a bare surface with higher friction than traditional ploughing and gritting. Measures must be done in time and the operating speed adjusted according to the prevailing conditions. In mild weather brine is sufficient, but with lower temperatures and heavy snowfall larger amounts of salt is needed and pre-wetted or dry salt must be used. For the method to work properly, the bicycle path construction should be of good condition without cracks or other damages in the surface. Otherwise, it is difficult to clear the surface with the broom as snow and water can be trapped in potholes and cracks, eventually creating ice patches. A sufficient drainage from the surface is also crucial as every contribution of water will dilute the salt amount on the path with a following risk of creating a slippery surface. Narrow passages and obstructing design features cause difficulties when clearing the snow, resulting in a need of larger amounts of salt to prevent icy conditions. Clearing the surface from snow and water is crucial to get a good result with the method.

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