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  • 1.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Life cycle assessment of roads and pavements: studies made in Europe2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report in sub-project 3 (SP3) in MIRIAM (Models for rolling resistance In Road Infrastructure Asset Management systems). The main aim in MIRIAM is to provide sustainable and environmentally friendly road infrastructure by reducing rolling resistance. In SP3 the importance of rolling resistance regarding energy use is studied as well as if maintenance measures can be viable options to reduce total energy use.

    In this publication there is a compilation and short description of a number of scientific studies made in Europe that use the life cycle assessment methodology to study roads and pavements. One conclusion is that the results of these studies are not directly comparable since the underlying prerequisites differ considerably. A common understanding in the studies is that all roads are unique and have their own specific conditions, which means that a flexible method is needed that can be adjusted to suite the road you want to study. Also, it is concluded that the energy used for construction, operation and maintenance of the road infrastructure only amounts to a small part of the energy use due to traffic.

  • 3.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Rullmotstånd: vägytans egenskaper och dess inverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is an important aspect of the road surface properties in relation to transport energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). By reducing rolling resistance, the transport energy efficiency can be improved and the CO2 emissions can be reduced. This will help in reaching the climate targets. MIRIAM is a joint project with partners from Europe and the United States with the aim to provide better opportunities to control road transport CO2 emissions related to road surface characteristics with focus on reducing rolling resistance. The partnership covers measurement methods and equipment, tests and measurements, modeling, case studies and implementation of results.

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the results published in MIRIAM. The report will give a description of what has been done in the different sub-projects and what the findings are. The compilation is based on the reports and other publications issued within MIRIAM as well as in projects that directly is connected to MIRIAM, and that is published on their websites.

  • 4.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andra generationens biodrivmedel: en litteraturöversikt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the transport policy objectives in Sweden is that the vehicle fleet should be fossil independent by 2030. To achieve this we should replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels based on biomass. The purpose of this report is to make a knowledge-based overview of second-generation biofuels production technologies, use, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions as well as the problems of land use.

    First-generation fuels such as ethanol from starch and biodiesel from plant oil have a number of limitations, which means they are not a sustainable solution in the long run. The anticipation is instead that the second-generation biofuels, which use cellulosic material, have a better potential to replace fossil fuels. These biofuels have higher energy efficiency and lower overall greenhouse gas emissions compared with the first-generation biofuels. Also, they use raw materials that do not directly compete with food or with land use for food production. It is also predicted that the new biofuels can replace some of the fuels used in air transport, which is not possible with today's options.

    For an increased biofuel production to be sustainable it is important to avoid negative effects on the environment, which for instance can be effects on biodiversity, land degradation, and that the cultivation of crops for biofuels will be on sensitive land areas. To ensure this is not happening there is a European directive stating how this should be performed. In addition, it is important to ensure that production is carried out as efficiently as possible from the perspectives of resources, environment and costs. Other restrictions apply in particular for technical and economic barriers, which will impede the commercialisation in the short run. To have a functioning market within a reasonable time frame, it is also important that the second-generation biofuels are supported by different instruments which will make them competitive. Because no single biofuel is foreseen to provide sufficient quantities to meet a demand of large volumes, it is imperative that the financial and administrative instruments do not lead to solutions that are not justifiable in the long run. And since even renewable raw materials could become scarce, we should not only rely on replacing fossil fuel with more biofuels. It is also important to continue with the making the energy use more efficient in order to reduce total energy needs.

  • 5.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utveckling av VTI:s modell för beräkning av trafikarbete på svenska vägar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, VTI delivers a description of both a historical description and a prognosis of the annual vehicle mileage using a forecast model. Based on the results from this model a simplified description is made of the future traffic in HBEFA, which is the basis for the annual calculation of traffic emissions. The purpose of this project was to undertake a general revision of the method, both historical and future, in the forecast model. The assessment shows, for example, that a computational model can continually evolve and improve. Recent data have become available through the meter readings for mileage and better data are now available to take into account heavy trucks used for overseas shipments. A function adaptation of mileage as a function of vehicle age shows a good agreement with the measured driving distances for vehicles up to and including about 25 to 30 years of age. A sensitivity analysis of making various assumptions regarding the mileage and age distribution shows the effect on the amount of fuel consumption and regulated emissions for different categories of vehicles.

  • 6.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sustainabililty and Energy Efficient Management of Roads: Final Report2014Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Ekonomisk och energieffektiv användning av motorvärmare: beräkning av kallstartstillägg2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an engine heater before starting the vehicle is a way to achieve greater energy efficiency and lower emissions in the transport sector. The purpose of this study is to update the potential savings by using engine heaters in a newer vehicle fleet. The tool COLDSTART2014 has been used to update the calculations of cold start effects of fuel and emissions, with respect to parking time, ambient temperature and for vehicles of different environmental class.

    The report provides answers to how much the cold start effects can be reduce in the regional and national level, provided that the engine heater is used effectively. There is a difference between the different environment classes on how an engine heater is used efficiently. There should be recommendations based on environmental class, parking time and ambient temperature, and not like today when they are solely based on ambient temperature. What constitutes an efficient use of engine heaters also depends on the cost perspective. If you look at socio-economic costs, engine heaters should be used much more frequently and longer than with a perspective of private economy.

  • 8.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bladlund, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Ekonomisk och energieffektiv användning av motorvärmare: utvärdering av effekten på bränsleförbrukning vid värmning av smörjolja jämfört med värmning av kylvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Test results show that the cold-start effect with increased fuel consumption is reduced most by heating the cooling water, compared to heating the lubricating oil. Starting an engine when it is cold gives rise to higher fuel consumption and emissions as a cold engine means that a larger friction needs to be overcome and that the combustion is not optimal. To warm the engine in beforehand leads to lesser cold start effect. Traditionally, engine heating has been made by heating the cooling water, which in turn heats the engine block. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it would be more energy efficient to heat the lubricating oil instead of the cooling water. The hypothesis was that a warmer lubricating oil leads to less friction in the engine, which in itself would mean that less fuel to overcome the frictional resistance is needed. Likely, there may be differences in the usefulness of engine heater between cars with gearbox integrated with motor and without such integration. The results of the tests show that the cold-start effect with increased fuel consumption is reduced most by heating the cooling water. The warmer the cooling water is at engine start, the less fuel consumption by the engine start. When the total energy needs for cold starts is calculated, i.e. fuel consumption plus electric use due to engine heating, the results are not as clear regarding which option is the most energy efficient. The reduced fuel consumption as result of pre-heating is overcome by the electricity consumption needed for the actual motor heating. One advantage is that the local emissions will decrease. Since the Swedish electricity production to a large extent is based on emission free production technology, it is most likely that the total emissions are reduced.

  • 9.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utvärdering PHEM-modellen: En förstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has stated that there is a need to develop the use of micro simulation models of fuel use and emissions of traffic that are used for transport planning. The aim of the project is to perform an evaluation of PHEM model to investigate conditions, opportunities and barriers to use it in transport planning. The following aspects have been assessed: License agreements, costs, rights, property issues; User friendliness; Content and calculation capabilities; Adjustment and development possibilities; Validation. Furthermore, simulation tests have been performed where fuel consumption and emissions of nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate mass and particle number has been calculated for roads with different road classes and for additional emissions and fuel use due to a vehicle stop. PHEM model is found to be relatively user-friendly, and with great opportunities to customize calculations. This makes the model complex, therefore it is recommended to start using PHEM with a short introductory course, even for used modellers. A conclusion of the evaluation is a recommendation to use PHEM for transport modelling. The database underlying the engine maps is constantly updated leading to more reliable emission calculations. The possibility to get a greater coherence in the calculations of the exhaust emissions of the different models that the Transport Administration advocate is also improved, which is a positive development. There are, also, some development possibilities that should be considered.

  • 10.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Trafikverket.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Energy use due to traffic and pavement maintenance: the cost effectiveness of reducing rolling resistance2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to reduce energy use of traffic by performing maintenance measures that lower the rolling resistance. However, the overall aim should be to decrease the total energy use in a life cycle perspective, including energy for both traffic and maintenance. When choosing maintenance alternative, it is also of importance to consider the costs involved. Pavement management is focused on keeping wide spread road networks in acceptable condition given certain budget constraints. Therefore, the economic constraints need to be addressed and in the case of choosing a maintenance alternative that reduces total energy, it also has to be cost-efficient in order for it to be performed. The main scope of the research presented in this report is to investigate how road management should act to reduce total energy use of roads, including traffic and maintenance induced energy use, while also taking cost efficiency and the aspect of uncertainty into consideration. The purpose is to enable a better consideration of the total energy used and maintenance cost when managing the road network. The objective is to derive a meaningful instrument for decision making situations such as when selecting and designing maintenance treatments, in which total energy use and maintenance cost is considered. A general method is developed and presented. A criterion, CR, has been identified for how to choose a pavement maintenance strategy in regards to cost and energy efficiency. A cost benefit analysis approach using Benefit to Cost Ratio, BCR, has been adopted. The study indicates that it is difficult to establish a simple rule of thumb. However, the CR-value may be a useful criterion in some circumstances and it is important to have guidelines as decision support where assessments are made of the road surface characteristics, total energy use and maintenance cost and where the different aspects are valued. This is especially important on an object level.

  • 11.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transport sector, major efforts have been concentrated on developing more fuel efficient engines and vehicles. However, the road infrastructure, its operation and maintenance also use energy and do have an effect on traffic fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this study is to estimate the total energy use in a life cycle perspective of a road infrastructure investment and the impact of different phases of the roads life time. How the results are related to the transport objectives is also addressed.

    A life cycle assessment method is used to evaluate an infrastructure investment, including construction, operation, maintenance and traffic during 60 years. A small community is used as a case study where a bypass has been built and the result show that this investment will increase the total energy use by approximately 60 %, or 1 550 TJ compared to not building it. A major part of the increase is due to traffic, and since mostly fossil fuel is used there will also be an increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The result stipulates that the aspects of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gases has not been accounted for in the planning or it has been considered as less important than other aspects, e.g. traffic safety and accessibility.

  • 12.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: Estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nuvarande förutsättningar och försök med längre godståg mellan Gävle och Malmö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The second sub-project of ELVIS demonstration project for longer and heavier freight trains aims to analyze the actual conditions for the use of longer trains and to evaluate the trial where a 730 metres long demonstration train (instead of a maximum of 630 metres) was operating between Gävle and Malmö 6–7 October 2012. One conclusion is that it is technically possible to operate trains that are longer than 630 metres but there are organizational barriers. To use the infrastructure more efficient, the project proposes the use of dedicated channels for longer freight trains in specific corridors as a temporary solution. The comparison of the demonstration train with up to 630 metres reference trains was hampered of that the central data describing the reference trains were difficult to access and partially uncertain. An important conclusion is that a better mapping of the current situation is needed in order to make reliable quantitative analysis. It was possible to compile information about the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer of the demonstration train and the reference trains. However, it is difficult to quantify how the length of the train, the weight of the train, the speed, the number of stops etc. influence the electricity consumption one by one – both due to the quality of the data set and the fact that there is a quite large variation in electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer regardless which of the factors is studied. The impact of the topography and the length and weight of the train on the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can however be shown. The electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer of the demonstration train is generally lower than the consumption of the reference trains. It is possible, however, to conclude that electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer is generally not higher for longer trains, but it is impossible to say that consumption is generally lower. The literature and discussions with firms indicate that industry can reduce transport costs by using longer freight trains. However, economies of scale can only be exploited if locomotives traction capacity is not fully utilized today. It is obvious that the access to the rail infrastructure determine which train lengths and weights are commercially interesting. The electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can possibly also reduced by using longer trains, but this cannot be stated without further notice. Running longer freight trains on a larger scale requires investments in tracks, terminals etc. The rough socio-economic calculations for the 750 metre long trains that have been carried out so far indicate that the investment costs are relatively modest. Though there is a need for analyzes for various train lengths as it is not obvious that the minimum length of 750 metres that is required for the TEN-T core network from 2030 is optimal.

  • 14.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vieira, Tiago
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Effekten på rullmotstånd av vatten och snö på vägytan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance depends on the interaction between road surface and tire and forms part of the driving resistance a vehicle needs to overcome to move forward. The road surface properties considered the most important for rolling resistance are macro textures and unevenness along the way. But water and snow on the road surface will also affect the rolling resistance. Precipitation remaining on the road surface means the wheels need to be driven through and move water or snow, which gives increased resistance.

    The purpose of the report is to provide an overview of the state of knowledge about how the rolling resistance is affected by water and snow on the road surface. Literature has been sought in databases of scientific articles and reports, and also on the internet. A review has been made of about 50 reports and articles published from the 1970s to 2018.

    The overview shows that water and snow on the road surface can have a significant effect on the rolling resistance. For water on the road surface, speed, temperature and water depth are often used as explanatory variables. To describe the snows impact on the rolling resistance, the explanation variables use snow depth, snow density, tire contact surface with the ground. An uncertainty in the results of the studies reported is that several have been implemented in the 70's and 80's. Since then, measuring methods as well as measuring equipment have been developed and improved. The tire properties have also improved, which has had an effect on the rolling resistance. Therefore, to obtain snow and water rolling resistance measurement data for tires and vehicles used on normal roads today, new measurements should be made using the most recent measurement methods and measurement equipment. This would reduce the uncertainty in measurement results and provide current information that can be used to update the relationship between fuel consumption and water and snow on the road surface.

  • 15.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Revision of criteria for selection of road lighting class: a pre-study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to investigate the potential in decreasing the energy use of road lighting by a revision of the guidelines regarding the selection of lighting level. The starting point of this work has been the method for selection of lighting classes suggested in the recently published technical report CEN/TR 13201-1, which considers road lighting for drivers and for vulnerable road users. In order to investigate whether CEN/TR 13201-1 is applicable in Sweden, a literature review on guidelines and criteria for selection of road lighting classes was carried out, with the aim of identifying criteria that are scientifically grounded. The literature review was supplemented by a workshop where road lighting criteria were discussed by invited road lighting experts from the Nordic countries. The results from the study show that there is some support that the parameters traffic volume, traffic composition, separation of carriageways, ambient luminosity and navigational task are relevant for the selection of road lighting class, but also that there is a lack of knowledge of road users’ needs and experiences of road lighting. The report gives recommendations for further work on a revision of the guidelines for road lighting, and suggestions for further research studies.

  • 16.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Möjligheter till minskade koldioxidutsläpp genom trafikledning: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management can affect the emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through traffic exhaust emissions, but, to some extent, also since efficient traffic management can delay or avoid new investment in transportation infrastructure by streamlining the use of the existing structure.

    This project compiles existing literature evaluating the effects of traffic managements on climate gas emissions, i.e. how the management can alter traffic flows and how road users adapt to the information and how these changed traffic flows are reflected on emissions of climate gases. Some difficulties have been revealed, and further studies are recommended.

    Quantifying and evaluating the effects of climate gas emissions is heavily dependent on the emission models and assumptions used. Some development in this area is proposed, especially in driving behavior related to congestion situations. There is also a large habituation regarding road user effort to find and use traffic information which leads to increased opportunities for activities that affect emissions. Also, changes in behavior and technological advances should be taken into account if older investigations are used for decision making.

    The authors see great opportunities for VO traffic management and traffic information to reduce climate gas emissions from traffic by a conscious climate mitigation.

  • 17.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Uppdatering EVA-kalkylen: nya emissionsfaktorer beräknade med PHEM2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current European emission model, HBEFA, specifies emission factors for different driving patterns and vehicle types. This model does not study the example of individual intersections. This study utilizes the same microscopic model, PHEM (www.tugraz.at), as HBEFA to calculate also intersection emissions and emissions of links without intersections. With PHEM the release of four vehicle types (cars fueled by diesel or petrol and trucks with and without trailers) calculated for several different road classes according to the division still used in the models EVA and CAPCAL. To illustrate the emissions of intersections calculations for emissions for a quick stop to rest and then the withdrawal of the original speed is also presented.

    In addition to a description of the method of how the new emissions have been calculated in the new tables also include suggestions of future updating of the model. In addition, reported the conclusion of tests and comparisons to facilitate the transition from the current basic model VETO to PHEM. The calculations show that previous assumptions about the significantly lower emissions of vehicles have not been met, and that the vehicle speed impact on emissions has changed., We suggest that more vehicle types will be included in the model at the next update.

    The model simulates the CO2, SO2, fuel consumption, HC / VOC, CO, NOx, NO2 and exhaust particles, but the report only presents fuel consumption. However, all other parameters can be obtained directly from the authors. The report first provides a brief description of the different emission models, how the calculations are done up to now and then how adaptations and updates led to the resulting emission factors.

  • 18.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Potential för en energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning: jämförelser mellan dimning och olika typer av ljuskällor2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce energy use and its accompanying costs, it is important to have as energy-efficient road and street lighting as possible. The objectives of this project were to provide basic data for different energy efficiency measures for road and street lighting and to examine how the use of dimming and various light sources affects visibility. This study shows that there is potential to reduce the energy consumption of several of the existing road lightings by reducing power and still meet the requirements based on traffic safety, because the luminance and the illuminance we measured show that some of the values fall between the recommended classes. This study highlights four different types of dimming schedules based on different conditions in which the savings in kWh/year is between 19-50%. The results from a web survey based on photographs from roads with various lighting show that responses were not conclusive regarding the best visibility between light sources. However, the survey shows that more people (62.4-71.6%) choose ceramic metal halide lighting instead of high-pressure sodium in order to feel most comfortable when driving.

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Beräkningar av energiåtgång och koldioxidutsläpp vid byggande, drift och underhåll av vägar: beräkningar enligt fyra typfall2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical values have been estimated per km road regarding the use of energy and carbon dioxide emissions for construction as well as maintenance and operation for four separate cases. These cases have been defined from standard motorways, 2+1-roads (Swedish standard road with alternating one and two lanes in each direction) and normal two lane roads. The two lane road was further divided mainly with respect to traffic flow into two separate cases. These four cases have then been analysed during the phases of construction and service for 60 years. The resource needs have been quantified in terms of material and activities. In the next step, the resources used have been translated into energy and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, a typical tunnel and motorway junction have been added to the list of cases analysed in the same manner.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dolk, Ellen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Energy use generated by traffic and pavement maintenance: decision support for optimization of low rolling resistance maintenance treatments2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has investigated the role of rolling resistance on total traffic energy use and if road maintenance treatments can be a viable option to reduce total traffic energy use. The purpose of the study is to enable road management to better consider the total energy used on roads when managing the road network. The objective is to derive meaningful and simple instruments for decision making situations such as when selecting and designing maintenance treatments, in which total energy use is considered in a multiple criteria analysis. Total energy includes both traffic and maintenance induced energy use. The report focuses on how road management can reduce traffic energy by lowering rolling resistance of pavement surfaces by decreased macro texture and increased evenness. Total energy use is a result of a complex web of parameters in which pavement managers can make a contribution to minimizing total energy, but the complexity implicates that the assessment of consequences of different maintenance options is a challenging task. In order to calculate total energy this report uses the VETO model and a life cycle approach. In this report, two case studies were undertaken in which the energy use for traffic and pavement manager induced actions were investigated in detail. The findings in these two cases were analysed to identify more general relationships that can be used for decision making planning and design of pavement maintenance.

  • 21.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kriterier för vägbelysning på statlig väg i och i anslutning till mindre tätorter på landsbygd: Resultat från litteraturstudie, intervjuer och projektmöte2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the prevailing road lighting guidelines, roads and streets in urban areas should be equipped with road lighting, while roads outside of urban areas normally do not need to be equipped with road lighting. Vägar och gators utformning (VGU) contains guidelines that are mandatory for public roads but advisory for municipality roads and streets. The need of road lighting on public roads outside of urban areas has been discussed between the road authorities, i.e. the Swedish Transport Administration and the municipalities.

    The aim of this study is to produce a proposal of new criteria for use of road lighting on public roads in and in connection to smaller populated areas in the countryside. This has mainly been done by a literature review of guidelines and research studies about road users’ needs and the effect of road lighting, as well as through interviews with persons responsible for road lighting in Swedish municipalities. A list containing possible criteria was compiled and discussed at a meeting with the project group for the project “Kriterier för belysning på statlig väg”, which is a group with common members from Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and Swedish Transport Administration. The participants at the meeting found the following criteria interesting to apply.

    A public road on the countryside should be equipped with road lighting if:

    1. the road runs through an urban area
    2. there is a local plan where there is mixed traffic on a national arterial road
    3. there are establishments and services that generate vulnerable road users close by the road, e.g. schools, churches, community centers, gymnasiums, health care centers, museums, train stations, ferry quays or similar
    4. there are passages for pedestrians and cyclists or speed reducing measures along the road
    5. there are commuter stops, including train and boat
    6. prevailing requirements on AADT in VGU are fulfilled.
  • 22.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Climate impact of the electrification of road transport in a short-term perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    A case study exploring firefighters’ and municipal officials’ preparedness for electrical vehicles2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study presents a social perspective on new vehicle technology. It explores the self-reported preparedness of the fire departments (i.e., rescue services) in Sweden’s three largest cities regarding rescue operations involving electrical vehicles (EVs).

    Methods: In this multi-method study, in-depth interviews were performed with emergency service officers and municipal officers in each city.

    Results: The results indicate that firefighters have little experience of accidents with EVs and they are learning reactively. The risks were not clearly identified. More knowledge is needed of identifying and disconnecting electricity in EVs. A more efficient way to find information about new vehicles is vital concerning the safety aspect in rescue operations. The level of knowledge about new vehicle technology varied between departments. For the municipal officers, environmental aspects are of most interest, whereas safety and rescue operations involving EVs are rarely addressed. The responsibility for disseminating information about the safe handling of EVs was unclear.

    Conclusion: The fire departments need more resources for education and training to keep up with technical developments and to be proactive. Another desired development is a solution for easy access to vehicle information. Since the environmental issues are setting the agenda, not the safety issues, lesser environment risks could become greater safety risks. We stress the need for various occupational decision making at all levels of society to cooperate in order to take responsibility for the safe introduction for new more environmentally friendly transport vehicle technique and disseminating safety information in a collected and systematic way.

  • 24.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Kunskapssammanställning över introduktionen av elbilar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an overview of the field of electric driven vehicles, aiming to give an overview of the introduction of vehicles and supporting the development of the vehicle electrification. Some current technical solutions are presented, and a possible future is outlined, in the field of vehicles, batteries as well as infrastructure and power supply solutions. A brief overview of the system perspective on society, drivers and vehicles and the impact on the environment is given. Some electrification initiatives, realized or planned, are described with a major focus on the Swedish market, although a brief international view is presented. Governmental electrification targets and duly support is presented, as well as some examples of current research in this field. For this document, the electric vehicle is mainly to be understood as a passenger type vehicle with some type of electric power supply. Initially presented are various types of electric vehicles, EV, such as (pure) electric vehicles (with no alternative power), electric hybrid vehicles, plug-in (chargeable) hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. On the 30th of April 2014 there were 3714 vehicles named “plug-in” hybrid, with an option of external charging, registered in Sweden. Out of those there were 1 260 only electric powered and 2454 of the type chargeable hybrid vehicles. The most common battery type in the modern EV is the lithiumion accumulator. EV normally retain a high purchase price, mainly due to the cost of the batteries. The sustainability of the batteries will affect the overall cost. Second hand value is still very uncertain, as well as an uncertainty by the users about the EV functionality, i.e. the possibility to drive a certain distance. An often raised question is the lack of external vehicle noise, possibly making the EV a potential risk due to low hearing detectability. To be able to use an EV, batteries need to be charged. A survey by Transport Analysis (Sweden) shows that 70% of all transportation made by passenger vehicles in Sweden are shorter than 30 km, with the implication that most of these travels are well suited to be performed by an EV. In the report various solutions to the charging of batteries are presented and whether and how power could be supplied.

  • 25.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Landergren, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Elanvändning för längre och tyngre tåg: sammanfattning av resultat, erfarenheter och lärdomar från ELVIS-demonstrationsprojekt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ELVIS demonstration project aims to analyze how rail freight transports can be performed more efficiently. Hypotheses are that the transport efficiency can be improved by using longer and heavier freight trains and by implementing energy-related measures, and that there may be additional benefits for the companies and the society such as better utilization of the track capacity. This report summarizes the results and experiences from the three previously produced sub reports. In terms of both energy efficiency and overall efficiency for the rail transports researchers, companies and the Transport Administration concluded that there is a big need to secure the quality of the data that is produced. This applies to information about electricity consumption and the factors that possibly affect electricity consumption per (gross) tonne-kilometer, i.e. the train length, the gross weight of the train, number of stops, speed, the driving style, topography etc. The ELVIS project initiated a follow-up project that aims to compile and analyze the Transport Administration’s various databases in this area. The project will provide answers to questions such as what data the various databases contain, how data is collected and stored, for what purpose the data is collected and used, the extent to which data is quality assured and how data from different databases can be linked together. In the context of three case studies, Gävle-Malmö, Holmsund–Skövde och Mora-Gävle, several experiments with different explanatory variables were conducted. With regard to the different conditions and priorities in the case studies and experiments, it is difficult to make direct comparisons. Some general conclusions with respect to the use of electricity can be drawn, for example: • The trains’ weight (in tonnes) and length (number of wagons) affect the electricity consumption per tonne-kilometer in the trials where this is tested. • In some trials there is evidence that there are economies of scale, i.e. that the electricity consumption per tonne-kilometer decreases with increased train weight. • The train driver's driving style (feed back of electricity etc.) affects the energy consumption. This can be seen clearly in the trial Mora–Gävle.

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