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  • 1.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Fyrhjulingars köregenskaper och förarnas kunskap om dessa egenskaper2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riding quad bikes differs in many ways from driving passenger cars and the rider is not always aware of the differences required to maintain control of a vehicle that they are not trained to ride. One of the major differences with quad bikes compared to driving a car is that a quad bike has a tendency to roll over during sharp cornering. The purpose of this study was to compare both static vehicle characteristics and driving dynamics of motorcycle-registered quad bikes of different models to identify any difficulties that may arise when using quad bikes in road traffic. The aim was also to study how driving style affects the quad bike’s driving dynamics and identify the riders' knowledge of these.

    The study consists of three parts of which the first two concerns vehicle handling characteristics studied by performing a series of 1) static and 2) dynamic performance tests. The static tests consisted of measuring the angle at which the vehicle rolled over sideways by means of a hydraulic tilting table. The dynamic test consisted of performing a series of test runs on different test tracks in order to study the dynamic behaviour of the quad bike. The third part addressed the question whether riders have the necessary knowledge to drive quad bikes safely by conducting focus group interviews with persons with different driving license categories and driving experience.

    The results of the static test showed that the rollover threshold of the quad bikes is affected by the weight of the rider due to the relative lightweight of the quad bike. The dynamic tests verified that the rider could, by using his/her own body weight, compensate for the physical forces acting upon the vehicles’ tendency to roll over by using an active driving style. The focus group interviews showed that most of the interviewed persons believe that an active driving style is needed to drive safely and that the current training for the driving license lacks necessary training for driving a quad bike.

  • 2.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Pichon, Marianne
    UNIVAL.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Specification of test procedures for the simulator experiments2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Deliverable 3.1 of Workpackage 3, we discuss the methodology developed and applied in the European ITERATEproject (IT for Error Remediation And Trapping Emergencies). This methodology has as its objective to design experiments that will provide data to seed the ITERATE model. In the ITERATE project a high-level theoretical model of vehicle operator behaviour has been developed in Workpackage 1, specifying the factors that play a role in the influence of innovative support systems on vehicle operation in potentially dangerous situations. Themodel isapplicable for different surface transport modes: road vehicles, rail transport and ships. Themodel will be calibrated by experiments investigating how the different factors interact. One hundred and sixty car drivers and 160 train drivers in five countries will drive with a static driving simulator, and 64 drivers (both train and car) with full motion simulators. Finally an executable simulation model will be constructed with the aim to predict the effects of support systems on operator behaviour and risk.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 4.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En utvärdering av den utökade riskutbildningen för B-körkort: delstudie 42010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 July 1999 the mandatory skid training for learner drivers was replaced by a new expanded risk education program. The aim was to put emphasis on teaching pupils’ risk awareness instead of how to handle critical situations. The purpose of this report is to present the results from an evaluation conducted before and after the implementation of the new training program. The study used a postal survey and the target group was learner drivers aged 18 to 24 years. Results are based on 1,403 people. The results show that participants in the after study believed that they learnt more about drink/drug driving and fatigue than the participants in the before study. They also believed that they learnt less about driving on slippery road surfaces, ABS brakes and traction control.

  • 5.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 6.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Tekniska system: krav vid införande av ny teknik i förarmiljöer inom alla trafikslag2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to study vehicle rules, regulations, directives and standards pertaining the development and introduction of technically advanced driver/operator support systems for all mode of transport, commissioned by the Swedish Transport Agency. The inventory of the process for introducing new technology systems into the operator’s environment suggests that the Swedish national regulations for all four modes of transport are to a large degree steered outside of the national arena. The Swedish Transport Agency should therefore consider spearheading their efforts internationally if they are to exert influence on the formation of new rules and regulations. Some additional recommendations for the Swedish Transport Agency regard the utilisation of function based requirements as a complement to the detailed based rules, including the compulsory use of test pilots for all modes of transport. It is however important to use validated evaluation methods with the development of valid measures. The use of pass/fail criteria should be considered. The evaluation criteria (and measures) should be mapped to the operator’s cognitive abilities (to e.g. process information) but must also be based on the operator’s cognitive workload for all modes of transport and in a number of typical journey types. It is important that the authorities’ decisions are based on solid empirical data.

  • 7.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Syns jag bättre med en gul plexiglasskiva framför strålkastaren?: en studie om motorcyklisters synbarhet i trafiken2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of the motorcyclists that are killed or injured occur when interacting with other vehicle-users. These accidents are typically intersection, head-on or rear-end collisions. A contributing factor to these collisions can be the difficulties that other road users have in detecting the motorcyclists and thereby correctly deducing their position and speed. All motorised vehicles in Sweden have a mandatory daylight running lights (DRL) requirement. The main purpose of this project was to examine possibilities of increasing the conspicuity of motorcyclists by using a yellow Plexiglas disc or sheet (yellow glass) placed in front of the motorcycle’s headlight. The project comprised four studies viz. 1) a field study, 2) a laboratory study, 3) an interview study and 4) a questionnaire study. The results from the field and laboratory studies suggest that the maximum amount of conspicuity is achieved when yellow and white light are combined; one with yellow and one without. The results from the interview and questionnaire studies show that the motorcyclists that drive with the yellow glass, perceive that their own conspicuity had increased. They believe that they are detected by other road users earlier and more easily especially in certain traffic environments and ambient lighting/weather conditions. This had also contributed to an increased sense of security by the yellow glass group. Am I more conspicuous with yellow glass? The results from this project suggest that the answer is yes, in certain circumstances. This must however, be qualified by the limitations of the studies in this project where all traffic situations, weather conditions and lighting conditions have not been assessed.

  • 8.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hawke, Emma
    Dalarna University.
    How close is close?: an experimental study of cycling safety related to cycling on rural roads2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as well as in many countries in Scandinavia and in northern Europe, there is a growing trend towards daily sport and exercise cycling and cycle commuting. Cycling on rural roads is, whether for health, exercise, sports, leisure or commuting, is hampered by feelings of insecurity and risk caused by motorised traffic passing too close to the cyclist sharing the rural road. A cyclist is often overtaken by cars and other motorised vehicles and does not have control over the distance between them and the other vehicles. However, if the cyclist had control over the distance between themselves and the motor vehicle/object, how much space would they give themselves?

    The aim of this study was to investigate a scenario where the cyclists had control over the distance between themselves and a fictive motor vehicle or road side object and assess how much space they would give themselves.

  • 9.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hjulburna oskyddade trafikanter på landsväg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this collection of three sub-studies; 1) Two-minus-one bicycle lanes on rural roads, 2) How close is close? and 3) Pilot study on road friction testing for motorcycles, is to highlight any problems that two-wheeled unprotected road users have on Swedish roads. Studies 1 and 2 are about cyclists on country roads, while study 3 is about motorcyclists. Study 1 is a survey of a new road design, two-minus-one rural roads. Study 2 is an experimental study that highlights the issue of the width of a cycle path/hard-shoulder from the perspective of the cyclist. Study 3 is friction measurements carried out on a measurement method that is more adapted to the situation of motorcyclists. The three sub-studies resulted in the following recommendations: i) stretches of rural roads that are intended to be two-minus-one rural roads should be chosen carefully and in places where sight-lines are obscured (by hedgerows, topography, etc.), alternative solutions should be considered. ii) The speed limitation on the two-minus-one rural roads should not exceed 50 km/h. In order to reduce speeding, signage in combination with surveillance and/or infrastructure measures should be considered to reduce speed violations. iii) The introduction of two-minus-one rural roads should be done in dialogue with local populations and preceded by information efforts so that everyone knows what rules apply. iv) A single carriageway cycle path/hard-shoulder on a two-minus-one rural road with mixed traffic should be at least 120 cm laterally from the middle of the bicycle path to the motor vehicles’ carriageway. v) Friction measurements should be linked to the driver's experience of grip. vi) Develops a measurement method/protocol for friction testing where the measurement section is ≥ 1 m in different levels of wetness on the roadway, which can also be used to evaluate blackspots on road sections that are linked to “temporary” road repairs.

  • 10.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hellsten, Helena
    Helsäker Konsult AB.
    Simonsson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Känsla och förnuft: utvärdering av utbildningsprogram för alkohol- och trafikinformation i gymnasieskolor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate how different educational programmes affect young people's attitude to drink driving. The question was if they would be more influenced by an emotional message than by one based on facts or if a combination of both emotion and facts needed? A further aim was to explore young people's attitudes to alcohol and traffic in general, and describe what predicts their intentions to drink and drive, travel with somebody who has been drinking alcohol and prevent somebody from drinking and driving. The evaluation was conducted in the form of a before and after study comparing four different groups: three groups who took part in the educational program and one control group. The sample consisted of 1 178 students aged 15 to 20 years (mean age 16.5 yrs) from six different senior high schools (75% response rate).

  • 11.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Åberg, Lars
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Drivers' tendency to commit different aberrant driving behaviours in comparison with their perception of how often other drivers commit the same behaviours2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 27, no PA, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the difference between drivers' self-reported tendency to commit different aberrant driving behaviours in comparison with their perception of how often other drivers commit the same behaviours measured by the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) in Sweden and Turkey, respectively. A sample of 228 Swedish and 302 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the DBQ. The results showed that in both Sweden and Turkey, the participants reported committing aberrant driving behaviours less frequently than their perception of how often other drivers commit the same behaviours. The size of this difference does, however, vary depending on the DBQ-item and it is suggested that this variation could be used as a clue for understanding social acceptability.

  • 12.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gymnasieungdomars syn på förarlösa fordon2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka gymnasieungdomars inställning till förarlösa fordon på NHTSAs Nivå 4: Fullständigt autonom körning där föraren är helt passiv medan fordonet sköter hela färden. Totalt besvarade 172 gymnasieungdomar från tre skolor i Falun och en skola i Ludvika enkäten.

    Resultaten av studien visar att nästan hälften av deltagarna inte hört talas om förarlösa bilar innan de deltog i studien. Efter att läst den inledande beskrivningen av förarlösa bilar var ungefär hälften av deltagarna rent allmänt positiva till förarlösa bilar och nästan hälften trodde dessutom att antalet trafikolyckor skulle minska med förarlösa bilar i trafiken. En majoritet av deltagarna ansåg att de skulle känna en viss oro med förarlösa fordon i trafiken. De flesta fördelar som nämndes med förarlösa bilar kopplades till praktiska saker så som tidsbesparing och ökad mobilitet. 

    För att få en hög acceptans av framtida teknikutveckling krävs därför ett ökat fokus på trafikanternas upplevelse av tekniken oavsett om de befinner sig inuti de förarlösa fordonen eller om de i egenskap av fotgängare, cyklister, mopedister och motorcyklister delar trafikmiljön med de förarlösa fordonen. Detta är inte minst viktigt med tanke på att mindre än hälften av deltagarna i dagsläget själva är intresserade av att ha tillgång till en förarlös bil och därmed framför allt skulle komma i kontakt med tekniken som medtrafikanter i en trafikmiljö där förarlösa fordon ingår.

  • 13.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Polisliknande varselväst för motorcyklister: hur påverkas samspelet i trafiken?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To be easily detected by other road users, many motorcyclists use different types of high visibility vests. Even high visibility vests resembling those used by the police occurs both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether and, if so, how motorcyclists’ interaction with protected road users (mostly car drivers) is influenced by the motorcyclists’ use of traditional high visibility vest and police-like high visibility vest. To study this, the interaction with protected road users was filmed using action cameras mounted on a motorcyclist who alternately drove with all black textile protective clothing without a high visibility vest, with a traditional high visibility vest or with a police-like high visibility vest. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the all black textile protective clothing without a high visibility vest, with a traditional high visibility vest or with a police-like high visibility vest regarding problemfree interactions (i.e. the interaction is unimpeded) and non-problem-free interactions (i.e. the interaction is disrupted in some way). On the other hand, there were significant differences between the drives with police-like high visibility vest and the all black textile protective clothing without a high visibility vest and the traditional high visibility vest, with regards to the distribution within the non-problem-free category. During the drives with police-like high visibility vests, a greater proportion of interactions were categorized as unexpected non-problem-free interactions (e.g. a protected road user suddenly slows down to legal speed), while a minor proportion of interactions were categorized as speed-related non-problem-free interactions (e.g. a protected road user drives faster than the speed limit when overtaking). In summary, the findings show that the use of police-like high visibility vests increase the proportion of unexpected non-problem-free interactions while reducing the rate of speedrelated non-problem-free interactions.

  • 14.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Alkohol och cykling: en multidisciplinär studie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies have shown that alcohol impairment can be a contributing factor in cycling accidents, there is currently relatively little knowledge of the connection(s) between alcohol and cycling. The overall aim of this study was therefore to increase the knowledge of alcohol associated with cycling. The study is divided into two different parts; an analysis of the Swedish Road Administration’s in-deep data on killed cyclists and an interview study analyzed from three different perspectives; a social psychological, an emotional sociological and a phenomenographic. While the analysis of the in-deep data resulted in detailed statistics on the accidents involving alcohol impaired cyclists, the interview study resulted in a deeper understanding of cyclists' beliefs, emotions and perceptions regarding alcohol and cycling. Based on these results, information and/or campaigns to reduce the prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling as well as the amount of alcohol associated with cycling, is recommended. However, the introduction of a legal alcohol limit or improved public transport is not recommended in order to reduce the number of cyclists affected by alcohol and/or to improve the safety of those bicycling during alcohol impairment.

  • 15.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fyrhjulingsförares beteenden och felhandlingar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As quadbikes are becoming more and more common the number of accidents also increases. The first aim of this project was therefore to increase our knowledge of the accidents whilst the second aim was to increase our knowledge of how and where quadbikes are used, the mistakes and violations that are made and what situations and behaviours drivers consider as risky. The project was divided into two sub-studies. In the first sub-study 51 road traffic accident registered in Strada-police were analyzed and in the second 7 injured drivers (involved in any one of the 51 road accidents registered in Strada) and 22 non-injured drivers were interviewed. The results show that quadbikes are popular vehicles with many capabilities; as tools, as recreational vehicles and as vehicles for transport. Inexperienced drivers’ lack of knowledge, alternatively experienced drivers’ stress and/or carelessness combined with the quadbikes special characteristics; underage drivers; quadbike-driving under the influence of alcohol and excessive speed may however lead to accidents. Without a helmet the consequences of an accident might become more severe. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend a series of measures to reduce the number of serious quadbike accident.

  • 16.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    En modell för säker cykling2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the multi-disciplinary scientific research programme A strong research environment in the field of non-motorised vulnerable road users is to increase our knowledge of unprotected twowheeled or non-motorised road users and their special requirements in the road traffic environment. The aim being to, in the long-term, to contribute to the Swedish national road safety goals. The objective of the Model for Safe Cycling report is to summarise the results and suggested actions from the eight projects that were conducted within the framework of the research programme; a literature study; and other programme related activities, in a conceptual model based on Haddon’s matrix. With a model, in this case, we mean that a list of suggested implementation actions, structured according to Haddon’s matrix and embellished with prerequisites directed towards the cyclist, the bicycle and the road environment. Each of the suggested actions or implementation suggestions, are organised along the chain of events from the prerequisite phase to the crash phase. Stakeholders are identified for each of the suggested actions for implementation. In summary, the results suggest one must look at the (road) transport system as a whole to provide a system for safe cycling. To be able to acquire a holistic approach, cooperation between stakeholders is necessary. Finally, more research is required to find optimal solutions and designs tailored to the actions that must also be evaluated to assure that the desired effects are reached.

  • 17.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    A behavioural study of quadbike drivers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As quadbikes are becoming more and more common in Sweden the number of accidents also increases. The first aim of this study was therefore to increase our knowledge of how and where quadbikes are used, the mistakes and violations drivers make and what situations they consider as hazardous. The second aim was to increase our knowledge of the accidents. Seven injured and 22 non-injured quadbike drivers were interviewed. The results show that quadbikes are highly appreciated as tools, as vehicles for recreation and as means of transport. Inexperienced drivers’ lack of knowledge, alternatively experienced drivers’ stress and/or carelessness combined with the quadbikes special characteristics; underage drivers and passengers; quadbike-driving under the influence of alcohol and excessive speed are all factors that could contribute to accident involvement; and without a helmet the consequences of these accident might become more severe. To combat these problems, and to reduce the number of quadbike accidents, the authors suggest changes to the law for helmets, a short specialized course focusing on practical quadbike driving in combination with a theoretical education focusing on risk awareness as well as a national mobilization against quadbike driving under the influence of alcohol and underage drivers.

  • 18.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    An evaluation of re-designed rural roads2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is a strong political desire to shift car traffic to cycling. While the number of road fatalities among motor vehicle occupants have seen a substantial decrease, the same positive trend has, not been found among cyclists. To increase safe cycling, different traffic safety measures is therefore needed. One such attempt is the Swedish Transport Administration’s re-design of five rural road-segments in the southern part of Sweden. On the re-designed segments, the hard shoulders on each side of the road are broadened to give more space to cyclists. At the same time, the area for motor vehicles is narrowed to a single lane where the motor vehicle drivers are forced to adapt their driving to the flow of cyclists when meeting another motor vehicle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate these re-designed rural road segments, focusing on the beliefs underpinning the road users’ attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control associated with these segments.

  • 19.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. VTI.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utökad utvärdering av bygdevägar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna utökade utvärdering var att kartlägga acceptansen av bygdevägarna hos cyklisterna som cyklar på bygdevägar. Totalt intervjuades 19 cyklister längs någon av de 10 bygdevägssträckorna där vi stod. Resultaten visade att många tyckte om tanken med bygdeväg eftersom det gav dem som cyklister ett existensberättigande på vägen. Samtidigt upplevde många också en del problem – framför allt relaterat till bilisternas beteende. En knapp majoritet av cyklisterna tyckte dock att bygdeväg trots allt var bättre än landsväg utan vägren medan många påpekade att en separat gång- och cykelväg hade varit den bästa lösningen.

  • 20.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vägtjänster i Europa: intervjuer med vägmyndigheter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The assignment was to map how other national road authorities in Europe use – describe, implement and follow up – on the term and concept of a road service. After a literature study, eight European countries (Cyprus, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Luxemburg, Croatia, the Netherlands and Germany) were contacted. The results suggest that in Europe, just like in Sweden, the road authorities develop direct, indirect and other functions needed but the concept of road service is not used. To examine the possibility of introducing road service as a unifying concept for functions provided by road authorities, a follow-up study was conducted.

    The results from three countries (the Netherlands, Cyprus and Iceland) show that these road authorities are almost exclusively responsible for the road use by providing different groups of road users access to roads and rest areas while the remaining direct, indirect and other functions are provided by other governmental or private actors. The Swedish model, with TRV being responsible on a national level both for the different transport modes and for different types of functions, creates a unique possibility to introduce the concept of road service and to describe, implement and evaluate the concept within the same authority. For the concept to be introduced and used in a uniform manner throughout TRV a rigorous amount of internal coordination is, however, required.

  • 21.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Shared space: utifrån olika åldersgruppers perspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A shared space, in the context of road transport, often refers to an area that is shared by unprotected and protected road users and is intended to facilitate a living city space for everyone. The purpose of this study was to investigate how young, middle-aged and elderly people experience shared space from a pedestrian perspective, but also to investigate whether, and if so, how an alternative design of the area (with or without large flower pots) affects their experience. In the study, two different methods were combined; an eye tracking study and a Q-study. The Q method is a research method that is used in psychology and social sciences to investigate people's subjective views on a particular matter, phenomenon or topic. In this study, the Q method is used to investigate pedestrian experiences of two different design configurations - with or without large flower pots deployed - on the Fiskaretorget (eng. Fisherman’s Square) in Västervik. A total of 37 participants, divided into the three age groups, participated in the study, which was carried out at the Fiskaretorget and an adjacent non-signal-regulated pedestrian crossing in Västervik. About half of the participants carried out the experiment with, and half without large flower pots placed on the square. The results of the eye tracking study show that middle-aged pedestrians seemed to experience increased risk awareness, in the absence of the traditional division between unprotected and protected road users. Young and older, on the other hand, looked about the same amount of traffic-related objects, regardless of whether there were large flower pots placed or not. At the same time, the Q-study shows that pedestrians, regardless of age, did not experience any great uncertainty on this type of common areas. The perceived uncertainty, which nevertheless existed, was further reduced with large flower pots that recreated the traditional division with clear zones or stretches, pedestrians can stay in a relatively car-free area while the motor vehicles get clear paths to travel along. Based on these results, we recommend that, instead of a shared space design, designing common areas should have clear safe zones where pedestrians can stay in relatively car-free areas.

  • 22.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Varför väljer cyklister att cykla alkoholpåverkade?: En enkätstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol impairment seems to be an important contributing factor to cyclists being killed or injured in traffic. Nevertheless, there is currently relatively little known about people's view of alcohol impaired cycling. The aim of this questionnaire study was therefore to examine how beliefs, which according to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), underpin people’s attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control influence the decision to cycle alcohol impaired. The survey of 196 cyclists shows that their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control together could explain a greater portion of the variance in their intention to cycle alcohol impaired than what the underpinning beliefs could do. Therefore, if the main interest is to predict cyclists' decisions to cycle alcohol impaired, one should focus on attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. If, on the other hand, one is interested in understanding cyclists’ decisions to cycle alcohol impaired one should focus on the underpinning beliefs. The results further show that campaigns challenging cyclists' perception of how nice it is to cycle home even though they are alcohol impaired and/or urges cyclists to leave their bicycles at home during social events with alcohol should have the potential to reduce alcohol impaired cycling. These campaigns should focus on specific groups, with high prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling, rather than on cyclists in general. Improved public transport services should also have a potential to reduce alcohol impaired cycling. 

  • 23.
    Warner, Henriette Wallen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    The effectiveness of road safety interventions using three different messages: Emotional, factual or a combination of both messages2016In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 36, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is an evaluation of a road safety intervention programme dealing with alcohol in traffic. The intervention was based on a programme developed by the Swedish Road Administration using three different messages. The aim of the study was to evaluate which message (emotional, factual or a combination of both messages) had the largest effect on the variables included in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB).

    Of the 930 Senior High School Students who took part in the study 265 received an emotional message, 251 received a factual message, 254 received a combination of both messages and 160 were assigned to a control group who did not receive any message. Two scenarios were used describing situations where the participants would receive a lift from someone who had drunk two 'strong' beers and was either someone they did not know very well or their best friend.

    The results showed that the intervention combining the emotional and the factual message had the largest effect on the variables included in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Attitude was affected the most by the interventions while further activities need to be taken in order to better target perceived behavioural control and especially subjective norm and thereby also intention.

1 - 23 of 23
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