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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Etablering av konkurrerande snabbtågstrafik på Västra stambanan: översyn ur marknadens synvinkel2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As of October 2010 the railway market is liberalised. As a result, other operators than SJ could apply for track capacity also for long-distance passenger services, and the timetable for 2012 was the first timetable that was affected by the liberalisation. The Swedish railway network has, by definition, capacity restrains. The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) allocates capacity among those railway traffic operators that has applied for track capacity in the annual capacity allocation process. In the capacity allocation process for the 2014 timetable, four operators applied for capacity for long-distance high-speed train traffic between Gothenburg and Stockholm. In several cases the operators applied for the same train paths, which put Trafikverket’s applying of the process, the use of coordination and prioritization criteria, to the test for the first time since the liberalisation. VTI has interviewed the three largest of the above operators to receive information about how they experienced the capacity allocation process leading to the timetable for 2014 and to get their views on the possible obstacles that may exist for establishing a new operator on the railway market. The study was commissioned by the Swedish Transport Agency as a basis for their market surveillance in the area. The operators that are challenging SJ perceive that the capacity allocation process does not meet the requirement for competitive neutrality and non-discrimination. Both operators see the need for a more transparent process, with priority criteria that provide a more predictable outcome and which is carried out by the help of computerized tools so that the process can be implemented more efficiently and provide a more effective outcome. They argue that the construction of a timetable is so complex that it is difficult to, as now being done, manually make the most effective adjustments in the timetable necessary due to competing applications. The challenging operators therefore call for a review of the process to assess in which areas it can be improved.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Förslag till Nationell plan för transportsystemet 2014–2025: kvalitetsgranskning av underlaget med fokus på samhällsekonomi2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In June 2013, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) presented a proposal for a new plan for the development of the transport system between 2014 and 2025. This new national transport plan (NTP) was a result of a government commission received in December 2012. The agency Transport Analysis (Trafikanalys) has been commissioned by the government to review the proposal and the associated documents that form the basis for decision about the plan. VTI has assisted Trafikanalys in their review. VTI has mainly focused on the documents describing the so called overall impact assessment, including results from cost benefit analyses, for individual investments. VTI has also studied how the overall impact assessments for individual investments have been considered in the construction of the proposal for a new NTP. One important observation concerning the proposal for a new NTP is that descriptions and motivations for the overall priorities being made are absent. As a result, it is not possible to state whether or not the construction of the proposed NTP follows the given directions from the government. Further, VTI comes to the conclusion that the analyzed impact assessments for individual investments have had a small effect on the composition of the NTP. This is implied by the fact that the number of new investment measures that has been prioritized is extremely low. When it comes to the impact assessments and the cost benefit analyses for individual investments, VTI can see a development towards more comparable analyses by clearly stating used parameters, calculation values, etcetera, and by providing instructions on how to carry out the analyses and how to present the results, a development that is positive. However, despite these standardization efforts, VTI notes that the documentation varies between projects. Steps of the assessment are handled differently, for example there is a variation in how non-priced effects are handled in the analyses, and requested information is missing, for example requested information about which measures are not qualified for the analysis and if there exists any interdependence between the analyzed measure and other proposed measures in the NTP.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    SAMKOST: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task has been implemented by defining projects addressing all externalities of relevance for the assessment, i.e. infrastructure wear and tear, accident risks, emissions from the use of fossil fuel, noise as well as shortage of capacity. The overall assessment of marginal costs of road use is not far from the level in previous domestic studies. Behind this average, a new approach to estimate the costs to the infrastructure holder of heavy and light vehicles using roads, results in cost estimates that are higher than before. Other cost components, in particular the social costs for road accidents has however been reduced. Also the estimates of the costs originating from emissions and noise are lower than before. The marginal costs of railway services are now higher than before, in particular for freight trains. The single most important change also in the railway sector is the increase in costs for infrastructure wear and tear. These results represent national averages for roads and railways. A graphical representation of costs is also offered in order to address the degree of cost-level differences across the networks. It is obvious that costs for noise and emissions are higher the closer people live to traffic using the network. Clear differences with respect to maintenance costs are also observed, but overall this aspect of the results is not yet ready for providing the basis for a comprehensive policy discussion.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Österström, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Arlandabanan: konsekvenser av förändrade strategier2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In year 2000, railway operations started between Arlanda airport and downtown Stockholm. The service is part of a PPP contract that includes construction and maintenance as well as service provision for a period of 45 years after the initiation of traffic. Patronage on the line is below expectations at the time of contract closure in 1993. There is therefore an ongoing discussion of whether it would be appropriate for the government to renegotiate the contract to change the preconditions for the service. Commissioned by Riksrevisionen, the Swedish National Audit Office, this memo addresses two aspects of a possible change of strategy:

     Which would the consequences be of a change of pricing strategy from the current targeting of the high end of the market? A 30 percent price reduction is considered.

     Is there enough track capacity to increase the number of departures during peak hours?

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Tidtabelläggning: principer, tumregler och utfall2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Agency (Transportstyrelsen) has commissioned VTI to assist in deepening the understanding of the way in which existing railway infrastructure can be efficiently used. The assignment also includes giving advice to the agency’s regulatory tasks within the railway industry. This includes the oversight of the process from initial applications of train paths submitted by train operators to the The Swedish Traffic Agency’s (Trafikverket) subsequent decision about a train plan for the upcoming year and also the ad hoc process taking place from this time to each day of the timetable.

    The report comprises three separate mimeos. The first details the principles and rules-of-thumb used during the scheduling process. The second memorandum focuses one particular aspect of the conflicts in demand for track access, namely the need for access to the infrastructure for maintenance purposes and the consequent need to close down tracks for train operations during this period of time. The third and final mimeo seeks to assess the outcome of the process. In particular, a comparison is made between applications and final allocation of time table slots. Two measures of excess demand are used; the number of trains completely denied access and the adjustment of departure-arrival times relative to initial demand specification.

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