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  • 1.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Contested mobilities: politics, strategies and visions in Swedish bicycle activism2017In: Applied Mobilities, ISSN 2380-0127, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is currently the focus of considerable political and public attention in many urban areas. As more and more cyclists claim space on the roads, new forms of political engagement in cycling issues beyond traditional bicycle advocacy have also emerged. Beyond focusing on cyclists' perspectives and rights, these expressions of bicycle activism show the ways in which bicycles - as potential vehicles for sociopolitical change - are contested political and cultural symbols.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the ways in which bicycle activists and advocates in Sweden construct their politics and practices. Empirically the paper addresses three expressions of contemporary bicycling activism and advocacy: the well-established Swedish national cycling advocacy organization Cykelfrämjandet (Cycling Sweden), the ad-hoc Ghost Bike Sweden, and the online-based Bike Maffia-initiative. The empirical material of the paper consists of qualitative interviews with the leading representatives from each organization or initiative, as well as written and video materials. As arenas for cultural politics, the organizations or initiatives are diverse, exemplifying highly different views concerning conflicts in urban space, strategies for addressing these conflicts, and views of cyclists as subjects of bicycle politics.

    The paper addresses these issues in a specific Swedish context, also exploring the implications for understanding how political activism is shaped more generally. It is argued that bicycle activism can be viewed as a way of practising cycling citizenship, a perspective that provides a conceptual linkage between new social movement theory and activism more generally.

  • 2.
    Galis, Vasilis
    et al.
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    We are all foreigners in an analogue world: cyber-material alliances in contesting immigration control in Stockholm’s metro system2017In: Social Movement Studies, ISSN 1474-2837, E-ISSN 1474-2829, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of socio-material arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people. In Sweden, the recently established police project (REVA) in is an attempt to strengthen ‘internal border’ controls. This paper discusses the emergence of practices in which activist groups organized and performed resistance through the use of counter technologies in the transport sector. We explain how a hybrid alliance of human and nonhuman others generated new virtual and urban spaces and provided temporary autonomous zones, to groups of undocumented immigrants. REVA Spotter, for example, was a tool, a manifesto and a peaceful means of resistance to the REVA policing methods through continuous Facebook status updates on identity checks at metro stations in Stockholm. The technology enabled reports on location and time of ticket controls to warn travellers in real time. Attempts by authorities to exert control over the ‘spatial’ underground were thereby circumvented by the effective development of an alternative infrastructural ‘underground’ consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, undocumented immigrants, texts and emails, smart phones and computers. Based on ‘netnographic observations’ and interviews, the paper utilizes the case of the REVA to illustrate processes and practices that simultaneously configure the powerful surveyor, the discriminated and those who contest these politics through hybridities of cyber/material, human/nonhuman and urban/virtual space. The paper argues that by configuring such hybrid alliances, activists provided cyber-material autonomy to undocumented immigrants and other travellers in the metro, thereby creating new virtual and urban spaces for mobility and flows.

  • 3.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Piloters arbetsmiljö ur jämställdhetsperspektiv: en litteraturstudie2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this literature study has been to summarize research results concerning gender equality among pilots in their working environment both from Swedish and international perspective. Both male and female pilots are of the opinion that gender does not make any difference for being a pilot. At the same time there is ambivalence in the interviews; female pilots sometimes describe how they have been the object of discrimination in various forms. Women handle this with different strategies, for exampel a female pilot adjusts herself as well as possible to the existing male norms in the cockpit. The profession of a pilot has been facing new demands and changes, a fact that changes the male identity of the profession. Male pilots are able to handle this by creating new forms of male identity. The physical environment in a cockpit by its design also reflects that the cockpit is an environment for men. In international studies there are descriptions how the cockpit is built according to male standards. In Sweden, the research concerning the working environment of pilots from a gender equality perspective is almost non-existent. Research is needed concerning the experiences and attitudes of female pilots from the gender equality perspective.

  • 4.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Those who are not served?: Exploring exclusions and silences in transport infrastructures2016In: Boundary objects and beyond: working with Leigh Star / [ed] Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Stefan Timmermans, Adele E. Clarke, Ellen Barka, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016, p. 459-471Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Beslut om hastighetsgränser: prioriteringar, avvägningar och aktörer i regionala beslutsprocesser2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns the results of phase two of the research project "Speed issues on a regional level". Phase 2 describes and analyzes the concrete decision-making concerning the setting of speed limits. The study is based primarily on interviews with official representatives from the relevant authorities and private individuals as well as examination of documentation of a number of cases of contested speed limits as indicated by applications to the County Board. The study is primarily limited to the County of Östergötland but also concerns relevant relations within the broader Swedish Road Administration (SRA) region consisting of five counties, as well as relations with the national level. The results show that all participating agencies give a stronger priority to car traffic mobility than to the private citizens' perceived safety and security in cases where residents contest speed limits on specific stretches of road. It is clear from the study that SRA has dominant direct control over decisions about speed limits despite the fact that it is the County Board that takes the formal decisions on local traffic regulations. The two goals or priorities that are balanced against each other in actual decisions about changing speed limits are mobility and road safety. The interviewed individuals typically view the County Administrative Board's rejection of their applications for lowering speed limits as incomprehensible. They do not accept that their perceived security risk is not accounted for and that road mobility is prioritised by the officials. Based on the findings of the study, various issues for further research are discussed, issues that also provide input in discussions about how to develop and improve current decision making models in the context of changing speed limits. This study suggests that there is a need to develop the decision making model and the decision-making system that guides decisions on changes in speed limits. Speed limits are not currently assessed on the basis of an overall transport policy target perspective. The interview responses show that many of the officials involved, and even private citizens who have applied for reduced speed limits, call for a broader "safety and security review" process that involves more policy measures than speed limits.

  • 6.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Aktörers syn på hastighetsgränser i en region: ett arenaperspektiv2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Parliament passed the government bill “Vision Zero and the traffic safe society” (prop. 1996/97:137) in October 1997. However, the real development of traffic safety has not been in line with the prioritized goal. The current goal for safe traffic is a reduction to 270 fatalities during the year of 2007. The only measure that realistically could be effective for reaching this goal is a reduction in speed limits combined with an effective surveillance. A more ambitious use of the speed limit system as a tool for increased traffic safety requires knowledge about how speed limits are designed and set in the existing system. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse regional actors’ perspectives on speed limits on roads in a specific region. The point of departure is a geographical limitation, the Swedish county of Östergötland, as well as an analytical framework, the arena perspective, which together are used to define relevant actors actively involved in planning and decision-making processes. The purpose is reached by describing and analysing how these actors conceptualise their work with speed and speed limits on the roads, as well as the context in which this work takes place. The analysis clearly shows that there is a common view on priorities and goals among local politicians, administrators at the Regional Development Council, and planners at the Swedish Road Administration. This alliance gives priority to relatively high speed limits and high road capacity for car traffic. These priorities are to a large extent shared by traffic engineers at the Swedish Road Administration. The view that there is an urgent need to intensify efforts to improve traffic safety is shared by traffic safety engineers at the Swedish Road Administration and local traffic planners at the municipalities. Other actors that are interviewed in the study are not positioned in the same straight-forward manner between different transport policy priorities. The planners at the County Administrative Board describe their dependency on the Swedish Road Administration’s competence. The police authorities only consider speed and speed limits as a question of surveillance. The firms in the study are very dependent on overriding institutional “rules of the game” on the market that define the prerequisites for competition between different firms. The functioning of the road transport system and speed limits are external factors that every actor on the market has to cope with. Further research should focus on the actors’ actual everyday practice in handling issues related to speed limits, i.e. how the actors actually meet, negotiate, deal with conflicts and make decisions in the everyday planning and decision-making processes in which they take part.

  • 7.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    The Politics of Speed: Local and regional actors' views on speed limits, traffic safety and mobility in Sweden2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most European countries, the often difficult policy process of setting and implementing speed limits on specific roads is delegated to public administration on local and regional levels. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the perspectives and priorities of regional actors, specifically planners and elected officials within public administration, concerning their everyday work in setting speed limits within a Swedish county. The analysis indicates significant conflicts among actors with regard to the priorities, politics and goals that should guide the setting of speed limits on regional and local roads. Some groups of actors support a mobility perspective that gives priority to relatively high speed limits in the interests of accessibility and mobility. This perspective is, however, in sharp contrast to the views of other actors, who share a commitment to improve traffic safety through lower speed limits, thereby adopting what can be called a traffic safety perspective. The paper concludes with a discussion of the politics and power relations among actors and their implications for our understanding of decision-making on the issue of speed limits.

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