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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hultgren, J
    Almqvist, S
    Traffic safety effects when overtaking 30 meter trucks2012In: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012 / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy, Waldemar Karwowski, Taylor & Francis, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the introduction of extra-long and heavy trucks has an effect on traffic safety on Swedish roads, especially in relation to overtaking maneuvers. Traffic safety effects will be measured in terms of road user behavior concerning accelerations and time slots. First, focus group interviews with heavy truck drivers. Truck drivers that do not drive extra-long trucks believe that the introduction of extra-long trucks will create a number of traffic safety problems especially in terms of conflicts with ordinary road users. The drivers of extra-long trucks do not experience the problems that ordinary truck drivers predict. The problems they experience can be taken care of with more planning (thinking ahead). They also believe that the traffic sign on the back of the extra-long vehicle has a positive effect. The truck company, working environment and truck equipment are other important aspects mentioned by the drivers of the extra-long vehicles.

    The simulator study investigates overtaking situations on a 2+1-lane highway, with extra-long trucks (30.4 m) and ordinary trucks (18.75 m). The results reveal that the distance from the rear/front of the truck to the point where only one lane exists affects car drivers’ decision to overtake, independently of truck length. If the truck is in the relatively same position, the timeslot for a safe overtaking maneuver before next one-lane section was reduced significantly for extra-long trucks compared to ordinary trucks. The conclusion is that there exist small tendencies which point in the direction of enhanced traffic safety problems with the introduction of extra-long trucks. The results should, however, be interpreted with caution as the number of data points was few and collected in specific situations and in specific conditions. It was neither considered how the introduction of longer and heavier trucks, given a constant amount of goods, reduces the number of heavy trucks on the road network.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE.
    Skoglund, Tor
    Sweco Society AB.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The Human-Tech Matrix: A Socio-Technical Approach to Evaluation of Automated Transport Systems2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 876, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated transport system has the potential to improve traffic safety and flow, but also to the accessibility and comfort for users of the transport system. Realizing the positive effects with automated transport is about shaping regulatory, organizational and technical systems. Here, appropriate evaluation enables steering efforts in the desired direction. The overall aim of this study was to develop a methodological framework that could identify effects of an automated transport system, and outline methods and metrics for evaluation of these effects. We propose a tentative case-based methodology to define measures of the effects of an automated transport system that will give key stakeholders new possibilities to evaluate research and development projects and efforts connected to automation of the transport system, and thereby manage these in a human-centered direction.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driving automation and its effects on drivers: a human factor perspective2019In: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Towards high-level automated driving / [ed] Meng Lu, IET Digital Library, 2019, p. 87-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter will cover some of the issues mentioned by European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) and has its starting point in the knowledge and experience from four different EU-funded projects dealing with automation and human factors. It might be expected that there is no difference in how human factors should be considered in relation to automation depending on the country it is used in. However, there are reasons to believe that there are differences in understanding and in acceptance of new functions depending on experience or not from modern vehicles with, for example integrated driver support systems. This chapter has its starting point mainly from work done in Europe, which may be considered to be generic and valid for other countries in the world with the same type of car fleets. The focus will be on challenges covering: the need to have an adaptive Human-Machine Interface (HMI) to achieve trust and acceptance in relation to automated functionalities and system, the importance of considering different driver states and finally the evaluations of automated systems.

  • 5.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Pereira Cocron, Marta
    TU Chemnitz, Germany.
    Griesche, Stefan
    DLR, Germany.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Troberg, Sonja
    Scania, Sweden.
    Zanovello, Luca
    Ducati, Italy.
    Collecting end-users needs regarding driver state-based automation in the ADAS&ME project2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU funded project ADAS&ME (Adaptive ADAS to support incapacitated drivers & Mitigate Effectively risks through tailor made HMI under automation) develops adapted Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. A web based survey was designed to collect the opinion of ADAS&ME end-users about automated functions that could support the driver/rider during different driving tasks. In total, 1094 persons answered the survey. The results reveal that most of the participants had heard of automated functions previously, and that about half of them also had experience using such functions. Several participants indicated concerns about data security. Furthermore, the results give an insight into how end-users perceive automation and what they see as advantages and limitations for implementation of automated driving systems corresponding to the ADAS&MEs’ goals.

  • 6.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Pereira Cocron, Marta
    TU Chemnitz.
    Griesche, Stefan
    DLR.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Troberg, Sonja
    Scania.
    Zanovello, Luca
    Ducati.
    Nikolau, Stella
    CERTH.
    Collecting end-user needs regarding driver statebased automation in ADAS&ME project2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Erdelean, Isabela
    et al.
    AIT.
    Hedhli, Abdelmename
    IFSTTAR.
    Lamb, Martin
    Maple Consulting.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Zofka, Ewa
    ERICA.
    Catalogue of connected and automated driving test sites: Deliverable No2.12019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of STAPLE is to provide a comprehensive review of technological and non-technological aspects of the most relevantconnected and automated test sitesand test beds across Europe and beyond, in order to understand the impact of these sites on the NRAs’ core business and functions. The project will provide road administrations with the necessary know-how on connected and automated driving test sites, with the aim of supporting their core activities, such as road safety, traffic efficiency, customer service, maintenance and construction. The project builds on previous work by CEDR and other national and European organizations, as well as on the consortium’s expertise from a number of relevant research initiatives.

    This deliverable presents the approach taken in STAPLE for identifying a wide range of connected and automated driving test sites and test beds across Europe and beyond, as well as a detailed Catalogue of 37test sites/beds. While data on 39 test sites and beds were collected, two sites offered only confidential information and their data is not available in this version of this deliverable. In addition, the initial pre-selection and assessment of sites/beds for further investigation is also described.

    The initial review encompassed a wide variety of sites/beds, in terms of location, size, years of operation, experience and other factors. The consortium looked at already existing sites with years of experience aswell as new and developing ones. The focus was on test sites and test beds for passenger cars, freight transport operations and shared mobility services. The search yielded over 70 test sites and test beds in 20 countries inside and outside Europe, including the USA, China, Australia and South Korea.

    Based on the consortium expertise and as well as input and feedback from the PEB,a detailed data collection procedure was undertaken for obtaining information on each site, such as location, size, automated use cases tested, type of environment, physical and digital infrastructure support, connectivity employed and other factors. This resulted in a Catalogue of 37 test sites and test beds that can be used as a point of reference going forward but can also be used as a standalone output of STAPLE.

    Lastly, an first assessment and pre-selection of the test sites/beds was performed, to evaluate their feasibility for further investigation in the next activities of the project. The qualitative assessment took into account criteria such as location, availability of data, longevity of the site/bed, purpose, confidentiality. The pre-selection yielded the following test sites/beds (in no particular order):

    1. Alp.Lab–Austrian Light Vehicle Proving Region for Automated Driving, Austria
    2. Testregion DigiTrans, Austria
    3. TFN –Testbed Lower Saxony, Germany
    4. A2-M2 Connected Corridor, UK
    5. Testbed Midlands Future Mobility, UK
    6. Colas IPV –Testbed Colas Impact Protection Vehicle, UK
    7. Horiba –MIRATIC-IT, UK
    8. AstaZeroAB, Sweden
    9. AURORA–E8 Aurora, the Arctic Intelligent Transport Test Ecosystem, Finland
    10. BOREALIS–Test Ecosystem for cross-border testing with Finland, Norway
    11. ZalaZONEAutomotive Proving Ground, Hungary
    12. TRANSPOLIS, France

    The next steps of the project include the final selection of test sites to be taken into the next work package for further investigations, the identification of key performance areas for NRAs’ core business and further data collection procedures on selected test sites/beds. As stakeholder involvement is paramount to the success of the project, two stakeholder workshops will be held in March and April 2019, where first project results will be presented to national road authorities and other relevant stakeholders.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Drivers’ recovery performance in a critical run-off-road scenario: A driving simulator study2018In: Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018 / [ed] Nicole Van Nes, Charlotte Voegelé, 2018, p. 7-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Single vehicle accidents are commonly caused by fatigue and distractionand resulting in severe casualties and high economic costs. In order to evaluate driver recovery from run-off-road accidents, comprising of 80% of fatal crashes on rural roads, a simulator study in an advanced full-motion driving simulator was carried out. Drivers were given a secondary task to perform at six positions down the road (to simulate distraction), and an artificial yaw deviation was added to the vehicle to induce a run-off-road accident whilst the driver was distracted. The results show that the severity of the recovery manoeuvre was larger than similar events caused by the failure of automated lane keeping systems, leading to lane departures. Furthermore, significant learning effects was found, providing recommendations for further studies into run-off-road experiments.

  • 9.
    Johnsen, Annika
    et al.
    IfeS.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kraetsch, Clemens
    IfeS.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Eriksson, Gabriella (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindgren, Hanna (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Možina, Katarina (Contributor)
    AMZS.
    Rey, Alba (Contributor)
    ACASA.
    Literature review on the acceptance and road safety, ethical, legal, social and economic implications of automated vehicles2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable summarizes the findings of an extensive literature review on the acceptance, behavioural intentions, road safety, as well as ethical, legal, social (ELSI) and economic considerations in the scope of vehicle automation.

    The theoretical fundaments and relevant findings of recent public opinion research regarding user acceptance of automation are presented. Also the view of organised stakeholders is taken into account.

    Regarding road safety there is a potential for increased road safety but drivers tend to pick up non-related driving tasks instead. These problems are due to several traditional HMI concerns. In the future autonomous cars must make decisions that touch on ethical issues that have not yet been sufficiently and transparently discussed. Although in many countries legislation is now reacting to the new technology, many aspects – like liability and privacy / data protection – are not yet regulated by law. Automated vehicles promise to have several clear benefits that might change the entire transport system. The positive externalities that come from the technological advantages of automated vehicles might be outweighed by the negative externalities coming from the potential increases in travelling by private vehicles.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Josef
    et al.
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Falcone, Paolo
    SAFER - Fordons- och Trafiksäkerhetscentrum.
    Vinter, Jonny
    Driver performance in the presence of adaptive cruise control related failures: implications for safety analysis and fault tolerance2013In: Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W) 2013: 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP, IEEE Press, 2013, , p. 9p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how failures related to an adaptive cruise control (ACC) were handled by drivers and what the effects on safety can be. The experimental study included forty-eight subjects and was performed in a moving base driving simulator equipped with an ACC. Each subject experienced two different failures in separate scenarios. In total, the study included four different failures, i.e., Unwanted acceleration, Complete lack of deceleration, Partial lack of deceleration, and Speed limit violation. The outcome of each failure scenario has been categorized based on whether the driver managed to avoid a collision or not. For the outcomes where collisions were successfully avoided, the situations were analyzed in more detail and classified according to the strategy used by the driver. Besides showing that partial lack of deceleration caused more collisions than complete lack of deceleration (43% compared to 14% of the participants colliding), the results also indicate a preference among drivers to steer and change lane rather than to apply the brakes when faced with acceleration and deceleration failures. A trade off relationship was identified between allowing a failing ACC to stay operational and on the other hand disabling it when an error is detected. Keeping the system operational can cause confusion about the mode of the system but as the results of the study indicate it can also improve the situation by reducing impact speed.

  • 11.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Drivers’ knowledge and learning of advanced driver assistance systems2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed end-users’ knowledge of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the role of learning in relation to use of the systems. Therefore end-users’ perspective on the subject of the systems’ purpose, functions, potential risks and usefulness were explored, as well as motives behind choosing to use the systems. The study used qualitative/mixed methods through a combination of focus group interviews, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews. Results show that safety, technology interest and assistance were the main motives which influenced knowledge, learning and use of ADAS. Furthermore two groups of users were identified: drivers with special interest in car technology, and drivers with less interest in car technology. They had different needs and relations to the systems. An indication is that activities for learning could close the gap of knowledge and raise compatibility as well as value of ADAS, beneficial for both users and traffic safety.

  • 12.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Åström, Eva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Unga resenärers upplevelser av kollektivtrafiken2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to gain in-depth knowledge of factors that affect the attitude of young travelers and to explore their experience of public transport. Knowledge that can explain why the traveler makes his or her choice to travel or not travel collectively now and in the future, was investigated through three focus group interviews with a total of 24 young people aged 18-20. The survey was conducted in autumn 2016 and was a collaboration with Västtrafik in the Västra Götaland region, organizer of public transport in the region of the second largest city in Sweden.

    The results indicated two main themes: A) The experience of the commute and its relations, describing the situation, what happens and how it is approached, and B) The attitudes towards the trip and its potentials in relation to the commuter’s values and needs. We suggest that the adolescent’s choice in the future will be affected by their experiences and attitudes today.

    The results of this study stress the need to see the content of the trip, and the travelers experience as important. The commute traveling time may be valuable instead of lost, if the trip could be relaxing and with a sufficient amount of integrity for the young commuters. One of the more surprising results were that the young commuters had a generally positive attitude towards the public transports, Västtrafik got a good rating, even though they did not feel like they had another transportation option. The participants had many ideas for improvement presented in the rapport.

  • 13.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Assessing driver acceptability of the PROSPECT system2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance testing is an important part of PROSPECT. It provides knowledge on users' perception of the systems developed within the project, and an indication of their likelihood to purchase such a system. Fundamentally, it is crucial for the success of such active safety systems that they are acceptable to the drivers (e.g. judged to be useful and trusted).

  • 14.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driver reactions to warning and automatic steering in a critical VRU scenario2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective was to assess drivers reactions to Warnings and Active Steering interventions in critical longitudinal VRU scenarios when the drivers are distracted. The motivation is to build new knowledge of the performance of todays Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and for improvement of performance of future ADAS using with the driver in the loop. The results are also relevant for development of future ADAS test methods.

  • 15.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Facing failures: interactions between drivers and advanced driver assistance systems2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers’ interactions with advanced driver assistance systems based on experiences from real driving and results from driving in a driving simulator were under investigation in this thesis. Questions posed were: - How do drivers perceive and interact with ADAS? - How are (technical) failures handled by drivers, and which are the consequences’ of these failures? - Which are the implications for diagnosis and detection of failures, as well as for system development? Special attention was given to driver behavior in response to technical failures in an adaptive cruise control system. The results are based on two studies, adopting an approach with a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. In study I focus group interviews were conducted and in study II a driving simulator experiment was conducted. The findings include notions on behavioral adaptations and monitoring inefficiencies for drivers facing failures. Implications for design, failure detection, and traffic safety are discussed. With regard to human- machine-interaction it is concluded that ADAS have effects on driver’s behavior, that these effects are individual and based on experience, and that measures towards failure containment should be a taken.

    List of papers
    1. Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems
    2011 (English)In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores end-user experiences of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. A qualitative approach has been applied and data have been collected by means of focus group interviews. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to analyse and interpret collected data. In total the study consists of three focus group sessions with five to seven participants in each. Themes explored include interaction between user and system, functional limitations and trust, and system effects on driving behaviour. Key findings include reported driving behaviour changes as, for instance, an increasing tendency to stay in the right lane as well as users' conception of system functionality from which it can be concluded that end-users of ACC carry rough mental models of the system. A potentially hazardous situation for other road-users following the use of ACC is highlighted and discussed. In addition, some features desired by the end-users are discussed, for example, the call for conventional cruise control functionality when owing to weather conditions functional limitations are apparent.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2011
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Driver, Behaviour, Acceptability, Attitude (psychol), Interview, Adaptiva farthållare, Förare, Beteende, Godtagbarhet, Attityder, Intervjuer
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5295 (URN)10.1049/iet-its.2010.0116 (DOI)000291030700006 ()
    Conference
    2nd European Conference on Human Centred Design in ITS
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Interaction with and use of driver assistance systems: a study of end-user experiences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction with and use of driver assistance systems: a study of end-user experiences
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems Orlando, 2011, Washington, 2011, , p. 12Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington: , 2011. p. 12
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Collision avoidance system, Driver assistance system, Driver, Behaviour, Attitude (psychol), Acceptability, Interview, Adaptiva farthållare, Kollisionsvarningssystem, Förarstödssystem, Förare, Beteende, Attityder, Godtagbarhet, Intervjuer
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    40 Road: Construction of roads, tunnels and bridges; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5297 (URN)
    Conference
    18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems Orlando, October 16-20, 2011
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
    3. Driving with failing automatisation in longitudinal control: a driving simulator study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving with failing automatisation in longitudinal control: a driving simulator study
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Publisher
    p. 20
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Error, Driver, Behaviour, Simulator (driving), Test, Adaptiva farthållare, Fel, Förare, Beteende, Körsimulatorer, Test
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5299 (URN)2012.0061 (Local ID)2012.0061 (Archive number)2012.0061 (OAI)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
    4. Driver performance in the presence of adaptive cruise control related failures: implications for safety analysis and fault tolerance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver performance in the presence of adaptive cruise control related failures: implications for safety analysis and fault tolerance
    2013 (English)In: Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W) 2013: 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP, IEEE Press, 2013, , p. 9p. 1-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how failures related to an adaptive cruise control (ACC) were handled by drivers and what the effects on safety can be. The experimental study included forty-eight subjects and was performed in a moving base driving simulator equipped with an ACC. Each subject experienced two different failures in separate scenarios. In total, the study included four different failures, i.e., Unwanted acceleration, Complete lack of deceleration, Partial lack of deceleration, and Speed limit violation. The outcome of each failure scenario has been categorized based on whether the driver managed to avoid a collision or not. For the outcomes where collisions were successfully avoided, the situations were analyzed in more detail and classified according to the strategy used by the driver. Besides showing that partial lack of deceleration caused more collisions than complete lack of deceleration (43% compared to 14% of the participants colliding), the results also indicate a preference among drivers to steer and change lane rather than to apply the brakes when faced with acceleration and deceleration failures. A trade off relationship was identified between allowing a failing ACC to stay operational and on the other hand disabling it when an error is detected. Keeping the system operational can cause confusion about the mode of the system but as the results of the study indicate it can also improve the situation by reducing impact speed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE Press, 2013. p. 9
    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Error, Driver, Behaviour, Simulator (driving), Test, Adaptiva farthållare, Fel, Förare, Beteende, Körsimulatorer, Test
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5298 (URN)10.1109/DSNW.2013.6615531 (DOI)
    Conference
    Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W)2013, 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP, 24-27 June 2013, Budapest
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    When Driving Automation Fails2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Gohl, Irene
    AUDI AG.
    Stoll, Johann
    AUDI AG.
    Puente Guillen, Pablo
    TME.
    Bruyas, Marie-Pierre
    IFSTTAR.
    Jaussein, Marie
    IFSTTAR.
    Gallouin, Evan
    IFSTTAR.
    Perlet, Klaus
    BMW.
    Peterson, Mats
    VCC.
    Johansson, Regina
    VCC.
    Meltzer, Elin
    VCC.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    VCC.
    Braeutigam, Julia
    BAST.
    Large, David
    University of Nottingham.
    Report on simulator test results and driver acceptance of PROSPECT functions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of developing new automotive systems includes various testing cycles to assure a save operation in traffic. Physical system testing on test tracks is very important for this purpose, but rather expensive and might only become possible in later stages of the development process. Using a virtual simulation environment offers a safe possibility of testing new systems in early stages of development. Aditionally, driver-in-the-loop tests at test track and in a virtual simulator make it possible to evaluate driver reaction and potential acceptance by the future users of those systems. Within PROSPECT the new functions are investigated under various aspects in several simulator studies and test track studies.

    This deliverable D7.3 gives detailed information of conduction and results of the each study. Three studies focus exclusively on the for Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) specifically dangerous urban intersection scenarios. The first of those studies examines the driver behaviour in a turning situation when a byciclist might be crossing. The described phenomena are looked-but-failed-to-see and failed-to-look. The second study, which provides an initial step in this line of research, analyzed the acceptance of issued forward collision warning times. The positioning of the potential accident opponent and the subjective feeling towards the criticality of the situation bythe driver were key parameters taken into account. Last, but not least the acceptance of an intersection assist autonomous emergency braking systems was tested regarding the acceptance of potential buyers. The study was run for five days in a row for each participant to be able to judge the behaviour in a comuting situation.

    Two studies focused on longitudinal scenarios. Both studies followed the same design, but one was conducted on a test track and the other one in a simulator. The main objective was to investigate drivers reactions to FCW warnings and Active Steering interventions in critical VRU scenarios in case of a distraction of the driver. Additionally, the test track study was used to validate the results from the simulator study.

    The results of those studies are the basis for a wide acceptance evaluation of the systems. No system is an asset in increasing road safety if it is not accepted by the user and therefore turned off, if it is not required the system to be default on in consumer tests. Complemented by an additional acceptance study where the participants had to give their opinion of those systems after they watched videos of dangerous situations, the acceptance was analyzed based on questionnaires developed in PROSPECT and reported in Deliverable 7.2. This wholistic approach allows an expert discussion on the potentials of the PROSPECT functions in the future.

  • 18.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Marin-Lamellet, Claude
    IFSTTAR.
    SAFE Move for older drivers: A French-Swedish research initiative2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with the aging of the population, it is crucial for older drivers to keep driving in order to ensure their mobility and autonomy in daily life as long as possible. Driving is an important aspect of maintaining mobility and independence. Driving is a complex task, requiring a range of visual, psychomotor and cognitive abilities. The regulation of driving activity is crucial for continuing to drive in a safe manner. The SAFE MOVE project is based on the hypothesis that a correct estimation of one’s driving ability is necessary to drive safely. The project has identified groups of estimators (correct/under/over) of driving ability by means of questionnaire and driving on-road. Two interventions were tested: simulator-based training program and use of Advanced Driving Assistances Systems (ADAS) on-board vehicle. Both training and the development of ADAS might be two options to support older drivers and prolong their time as active safe drivers.

  • 19.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Marin-Lamellet, Claude
    IFSTTAR.
    SAFE Move for older drivers: A French-Swedish research initiative2016In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 51, p. 1144-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    A Brief Report on Young Adults Views on Automated Driving2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Karlsson, I. C. MariAnne
    Chalmers.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    End Users’ Acceptance and Use of Adaptive Cruise Control Systems2016In: Human Factors in Transportation: Social and Technological Evolution Across Maritime, Road, Rail, and Aviation Domains / [ed] Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Di Vallicelli, Andrea; Stanton, Neville A.; Landry, Steven J., Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016, p. 243-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Karlsson, I.C. MariAnne
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    End-users’ Acceptance and Use of Adaptive Cruise Control Systems2014In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics AHFE 2014, Kraków, Poland 19-23 July 2014 / [ed] Ahram, T., Karwowski, W., & Marek, T., 2014, p. 3680-3689Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An online survey was distributed to end-users of adaptive cruise control (ACC). In total 90 drivers answered the questionnaire, which covered e.g. ACC usage and how such use affects driver behaviour. According the responses: the ACC is used primarily on roads with higher speed limits; the end-users trust the system even though it has some functional limitations; they have a very positive attitude towards the system; and positive effects on comfort and safety are observed including reduced inclination to overtake and increased compliance with speed regulations.

  • 23.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, I.C. MariAnne
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lena, Nilsson
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Semi-automated versus highly automated driving in critical situations caused by automation failures2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vehicle automation and automation failures on driving performance. Previous studies have revealed problems with driving performance in situations with automation failures and attributed this to drivers being out-of-the-loop. It was therefore hypothesized that driving performance is safer with lower than with higher levels of automation. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that driving performance would be affected by the extent of the automation failure. A moving base driving simulator was used. The design contained semi-automated and highly automated driving combined with complete, severe, and moderate deceleration failures. In total the study involved 36 participants. The results indicate that driving performance degrades when the level of automation increases. Furthermore, it is indicated that car drivers are worse at handling complete than partial deceleration failures.

  • 24.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Division design & human factors, Chalmers.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Driving with failing automatisation in longitudinal control: a driving simulator study2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems2011In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores end-user experiences of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. A qualitative approach has been applied and data have been collected by means of focus group interviews. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to analyse and interpret collected data. In total the study consists of three focus group sessions with five to seven participants in each. Themes explored include interaction between user and system, functional limitations and trust, and system effects on driving behaviour. Key findings include reported driving behaviour changes as, for instance, an increasing tendency to stay in the right lane as well as users' conception of system functionality from which it can be concluded that end-users of ACC carry rough mental models of the system. A potentially hazardous situation for other road-users following the use of ACC is highlighted and discussed. In addition, some features desired by the end-users are discussed, for example, the call for conventional cruise control functionality when owing to weather conditions functional limitations are apparent.

  • 26.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Division Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Exploring end-user experiences: self-perceived notions on use of adaptive cruise control systems2011In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores end-user experiences of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. A qualitative approach has been applied and data have been collected by means of focus group interviews. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to analyse and interpret collected data. In total the study consists of three focus group sessions with five to seven participants in each. Themes explored include interaction between user and system, functional limitations and trust, and system effects on driving behaviour. Key findings include reported driving behaviour changes as, for instance, an increasing tendency to stay in the right lane as well as users' conception of system functionality from which it can be concluded that end-users of ACC carry rough mental models of the system. A potentially hazardous situation for other road-users following the use of ACC is highlighted and discussed. In addition, some features desired by the end-users are discussed, for example, the call for conventional cruise control functionality when owing to weather conditions functional limitations are apparent.

  • 27.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Josef
    SP Tech. Res. Inst. of Sweden.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    Division Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Interaction with and use of driver assistance systems: a study of end-user experiences2011In: Proceedings of the 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems Orlando, 2011, Washington, 2011, , p. 12Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    A case-study on drivers' mental model of partial driving automation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this case-study was the development of driver's mental models of partial driving automation. For an adoption decision to be made, and to facilitate use of driving automation mental models are important. Systems such as Volvo´s Pilot Assist has been included as standard equipment in recent cars and drivers has the option to incorporate these systems in their driving. In our study drivers were interviewed when they had decided to buy a new car, at the delivery, one week after delivery, and finally after four months of owning it. The results suggest that mental models develop over time and may explain behaviour outcomes (system usage). Prior knowledge and the interplay between theoretical and practical experience are important factors for the development of the mental model and to help the driver over a threshold. A tentative conclusion is that drivers could be supported when introduced to automated driving systems.

  • 29.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Kagawa University.
    Suzuki, Keisuke
    Kagawa University.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Development of a safe driving guidance system that targets 30 km/h zones2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents between vehicles and vulnerable road users, and the senior part of the population particularly, is a traffic safety problem that must be addressed continuously. A safe driving guidance system such as an intelligent speed adaptation system that suppress the speed to prevent and mitigate accidents is an important measure that can address this traffic safety problem. In specific, the accidents targeted in this paper are those that appear in intersections. An intelligent speed adaptation system with acoustic and graphical information that is adapted to the driver’s characteristics to increase the compliance with the guidance provided by the system is developed. Two driving simulator studies were conducted as part of the development procedure. The results of these experiments indicated that a speed restraining effect could be determined of the system and different human-machine-interfaces were compared. The safe driving guidance system was also optimized to driver characteristics and a target value was presented with an optimal value. Implications for system design and human-machine-interaction is discussed.

  • 30.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Synförmågans mätbarhet och inverkan på säker bilkörning: en litteraturstudie2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of vision abilities that are important for safe driving. Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on driving have proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measure vision in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen is that the traditional vision tests more and more are supplemented by cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of vision abilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about vision abilities that are essential for safe driving, which tests are available and how they are used, and the existing evidence for these tests. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provide an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Furthermore, the results were presented according to different vision abilities which are described along with an account of diseases that may affect the ability, which tests that are available and the evidence for these, and how the ability is important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the strong support found in the literature and these were (1) contrast sensitivity, and (2) Useful Field of View. Based on the results it was concluded that testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, the most common measure, visual acuity that is, is not sufficient for safe driving, and that tests that includes cognitive aspects can improve the assessment of vision related to safe driving.

  • 31.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving: a literature review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have been proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measuring visual function in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests are increasingly supplemented by cognitive tests.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests.

    The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; available tests and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review: contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View.

    It was also concluded that 1) testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, 2) good visual acuity is not alone sufficient for safe driving, and 3) tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.

  • 32.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving: a literature review2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measure vision in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests increasingly are supplemented by cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests. The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; which tests that are available and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review and these were contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View. It was also concluded that 1), testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, and 2), visual acuity is not sufficient for safe driving, and 3), tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.

  • 33.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine attitudes among older adults in Sweden as regards a possible legislation for medical assessment at license renewal depending on their health status (vision and hearing) and gender.

    Methods: A questionnaire study measuring attitudes towards medical assessments at license renewal and an examination of vision, hearing, and cognitive abilities was conducted by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. 109 participants older than 60 years participated in the study (58 women, 51 men). They were categorized into four groups according to their health status: (1) without any visual or hearing impairment, (2) visual impairment, (3) hearing impairment, and (4) visual and hearing impairment. All data collection was performed in a driving assessment situation.

    Results: The answers showed positive attitudes towards recurring vision test (94% positive) and recurring medical assessments (93% positive). A majority wanted to include tests of visual acuity, contrast vision, and visual field. The most common choice was a starting point of 70 years and an interval of 2–3 years. Gender effects showing that woman were more positive towards some assessment and shorter time intervals between them was revealed. No significant effect of hearing or vision decline was found. Better results on cognitive tests was associated with positive attitudes towards medical testing.

    Conclusions: The participants were positive towards medical assessments at license renewal, indicating that there is an acceptance in the population for such legislation. Even short intervals such as every two or three years were accepted.

1 - 33 of 33
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