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  • 1.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fischer, Martin
    DLR (German Aerospace Center, Institute of Transportation Systems) .
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV2014In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Paris, 2014, p. 4.1-4.7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VTI simulator IV (Sim IV) is the fourth advanced driving simulator designed and built at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The simulator, taken into operation 2011, has an 8 degrees of freedom (DoF) moving base, a field of view (FoV) of 180 degrees and features a system for rapid cabin exchange. With a budget of roughly 2,4 M euro; Sim IV was developed to provide VTI’s newly established Gothenburg office with advanced driving simulation capability, and to be a cost efficient complement to the Sim II and Sim III facilities in VTI’s Linköping office. This paper describes the design and technical performance of the facility. A brief summary of results and experience from validation studies for the first three years of operation is also presented.

  • 2.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    et al.
    Volvo cars.
    Engström, Johan
    Volvo technology.
    Viström, Matias
    Saab automobile.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Saab automobile.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of forward collision warning, initial time headway and repeated scenario exposure on driver response in emergency lead vehicle braking scenarios2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the research questions, acritical lead vehicle braking scenario and anFCW system was developed and pilot tested in Saab’s fixed based driving simulator in Trollhättan. After piloting, the scenario was implemented in VTI’s moving base simulatorin Linköping, and the effects,of FCW presence, two different initial time headways at visual distraction task onset and repeated scenario exposure, on driver response timeswere examined.The study showed significant effects of FCW and repeated scenario exposure on response times. Moreover, these effects were not additivei.e. a significant interaction between the two was found. There was also a significant effect on responsetimes ofinitial time headway at onset of the visual distraction task. In addition, an interaction between initial time headway and repeated scenario exposure was found for drivers with FCW, but not for drivers without FCW. A second objective of the project was to compare the extent to which the VTI moving base simulator with motion cues generates similar driver responses(quantitatively and qualitatively)as the static simulator set-up at Saab. In general, theresults from this project have important implications for the interpretation of driver performance in experimental settings, particularlywhen aiming toevaluate safety-related in-vehicle information and warning technologies. For onething,they pose a general question markaround the generalizabilityof results to real world events. Second, a future prerequisite for FCW studies should probably be that test drivers have a previous level of system exposure level which matchesthat of real world drivers encountering typical critical events. Also, tuning the initialtime headwayat distraction task onsetin the experimentalsetting to real world conditions is of critical importance.

  • 3.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andhill, Carl Johan
    Dynagraph.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication presents a project aiming to develop virtual representations of real roads for use in driving simulators. The development was done in order to enable assessments of new systems on existing and well known roads in a driving simulator, and will increase the external validity of virtual testing. Furthermore, the usage of the virtual model of such roads makes the simulator results better comparable to earlier performed or later following road tests. The roads connecting Göteborg-Borås-Alingsås-Göteborg were selected. The purpose for this is due to their proximity to the vehicle industry in west Sweden and to the test tracks “Hällered” and “AstaZero”. However, the tools and methods developed can be used to build a virtual representation of any other road through a surrounding landscape and/or more urban environment. The project was carried out in steps, starting with data collection (investigation and assessment of available data from different sources as well as measurement of road properties) followed by data treatment (remove irrelevant data and errors, filtering, etc.), modelling (mathematical description of road properties) and simulation (selection of data formats for real time simulation).

  • 4.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nyman, Joakim
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

    To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

    With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

    To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

    An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

    An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

    In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

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