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  • 1.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Driver behaviour models and accident causation1989Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Representation of large-scale environments1989Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to, through a literature study, shed some light on peoples’ representation of large-scale environments. This knowledge will make it possible to adapt the information from a navigation or route guidance-system to the drivers representation of the environment. In other words, if one knows how drivers are thinking about their environment, then it is possible to provide them with information that they understand and can use effectively during navigation.

    Before considering the question of how people represent large-scale environments it seems necessary to briefly analyse the task of navigation. The reason is that the navigation task will, to some extent, determine what type of information a driver needs from the environment.

  • 3.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafik- och boendemiljö vid Turistvägen i Järvsö: En förmätning1988Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile phones: A simulator study1991Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile phones: A simulator study1994Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile telephones: A simulator study1991Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The effects of a mobile telephone task on driver behaviour in a car following situation1996Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Järmark, Stina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Savelid, John
    Hennings, Ulf
    The effects of landmark presentation on driver performance and uncertainty in a navigation task: A field study1992Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Subjects reports of own speed a function of various instructions and environmental factors: a pilot study1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One crucial aspect of car driving is the drivers' choice of speed in different situations. The speed level chosen will strongly affect the demands on the drivers' level of attention, quality of decision making, ability to react quickly etc. There is a quite extensive knowledge about the effects of some factors on drivers choice of speed. For instance, Armour (1983) showed that sight distance, width and presence of police have an effect on drivers' choice of speed on local streets. Galin (1981) showed that a driver's age, purpose of the trip, and vehicle age have some effect on the speed chosen in rural settings. This is, of course, a promising start, but it seems likely on intuitive grounds that more factors (or cues) exist that are important for a driver's choice of speed- level. Examples of factors the effects of which are not known, are the driver's estimates of risk, and the effect of being in a hurry. These are examples of factors which cannot, in an easy way, be estimated by observations in traffic.

    Another type of problem which has not been studied so far, is how drivers combine the effects of different factors. It is also, to a large extent, unknown, what relative weights the drivers attach to the different factors.

    To investigate this, laboratory research has to be carried out. For instance, to study how drivers integrate, or combine, different factors, it °is necessary to vary these factors in a systematic manner. In real traffic situations factors never present themselves systematically. There is, of course, problems with working in the laboratory. Generally speaking, you will always have uncertainties with the validity of your studies. But - in this case there does not seem to be any option. The only way to investigate these things systematically is in the laboratory.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effects of a vision enhancement system on drivers' ability to drive safely in fog1996Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effects of mobile telephone use on elderly drivers' behaviour - including comparisons to young drivers behaviour1991Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Elderly people and mobile telephone use effects on driver behaviour?1991Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Janssen, Wiel
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Collision avoidance systems: Effects of different levels of task allocation on driver behaviour1993Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted vehicles2002In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health and the workplace / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Jan Moraal, & Antonella Toffetti, Maastricht, 2002, p. 81-97Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was set-up to investigate different joystick designs based on steer-by-wire technology. The experiment was carried out in a driving simulator. Both driving behaviour and perceived control of the car was registered and analysed. All participants had a SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) at cervical level, i.e. drivers with tetraplegia. Two types of joysticks were tested, one conventional (similar to what is used with computer games) and one modified with which the driver could control speed and steering independently. Both joysticks were tested with and without active feedback. The driving task consisted of rural road driving and a manoeuvre test with a double lane-change. The results presented here should be considered as preliminary and the study as a pilot study, which will be completed with a lager set of participants. So far 8 subjects have completed the experiment. The preliminary results cannot be used to draw any definite conclusion on which system design should be preferred. There was some evidence that active feedback provided a better lateral control and the drivers drove with larger safety margins with the modified joystick. However, the drivers’ opinion seemed to be more in favour of the conventional passive joystick.

  • 15.
    Törnros, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Harms, Lisbeth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The VTI driving simulator - validation studies: paper presented at DSC 97 - Driving Simulation Conference, Lyon, France, September 8-9,19971997Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Vogel, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Traffic sense: which factors influence the ability to predict the development of traffic scenes?2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 749-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to evaluate the skill to predict the development of traffic situations. A stop-controlled intersection was filmed over several days, and 12 scenes with varying traffic complexity were selected. In half of the scenes, the traffic rules were violated, in half of the scenes, the rules were observed. A total of 36 participants were asked to watch the scenes and predict how the scene would most likely develop in the 2 s after the film was paused. Additionally, the participants rated how certain they were about their prediction, and how complex and dangerous they assessed the scenes to be. With the method used here, experienced drivers were not found to make more correct predictions of situational development, and no difference in skill to predict could be found between genders. Nevertheless, more experienced drivers were more certain in their judgements and evaluated the situations on average as less complex and dangerous than did less experienced drivers. Scenes in which the traffic rules were violated were more difficult to predict correctly. The scenes in which the participants predicted violations were rated as more complex and dangerous. It is concluded that the low-cost method used here is more useful for examining which scenes are generally easy or difficult to predict and how they are experienced subjectively than to investigate differences in performance for different driver categories.

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