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  • 1. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was to describe the pattern of injuries and fatalities related to bus traffic. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible future measurements for improvement of passive safety in buses. Bus crashes were presented in international literature virtually in as many ways as there were articles on the topic. Hence, the authors used the term bus incidents, in order to cover all types of injuries related to bus traffic. In this review only M2 and M3 buses, i.e. buses over 3.5 tonnes were included. In the vast majority of OECD countries, less than 1 % of the vehicle fleet was constituted of buses. Bus passenger's average person kilometres represented 10 % of the total road vehicle person kilometres annually.

    The number of fatalities and injured in bus incidents have been stable recent years in EU. The fatality risk is ten times lower for bus passengers compared with car occupants. Of all traffic fatalities, bus fatalities represented 0.3-0.5 %. The most frequent injury localisations from all types of bus crashes were lower limb (35 %), upper limb (33 %) and head/face (28 %). Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe crashes. Projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanism. Three major injury groups in severe bus crashes were thoracic injuries, massive injuries and pelvic fractures.

    Heavy wind seemed to be capable of affecting the bus dynamics, particularly on highly built buses (e.g. as high as 4.3 meters). Unprotected road users were hit by buses in about 1/3 of all cases in Sweden. Side impact was most common for local buses (38 %). Boarding and alighting were contributing to injuries in about 1/3 of all cases. If the coach has more than one section it seems that the upper section is more exposed to risk for injuries than the lower section.

    Safety belts can improve the passive safety in buses. The 2-point belt prevents passenger ejection but in frontal crashes the jack knife effect could cause head and thoracic injuries. However, the 3- point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes, as it keeps the passenger remained seated.

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  • 2.
    Aldman, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Huvudstöd1971Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport anges frekvensen av och principerna för skydd mot skador på huvud och hals för förare och passagerare i bilar vid påkörning bakifrån. Resultaten av en undersökning över hur några av de vanligaste skyddssystem som f n finns i Sverige och Finland svarar mot dessa principer redovisas och diskuteras.

    Termen huvudstöd har, i analogi med utländskt språkbruk (eng headrests, ty Kopfstützen) , använts för sådana skyddssystem. Den i allmänt språkbruk vanliga benämningen nackstöd har undvikits då den i olika sammanhang bedömts vara mindre adekvat. Den alternativa benämningen nackskydd, som föreslagits i pressen, betecknar enligt svensk standard den del av klädseln på motoristhjälmar som täcker nacken och har därför bedömts som mindre lämplig för den typ av skyddssystem som här avses.

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  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

    Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

    • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
    • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
    • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
    • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
    • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
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  • 4.
    Järmark, Stina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ljungblom, Bengt-Åke
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Infant carriers: A trial in two counties1988Report (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Järmark, Stina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ljungblom, Bengt-Åke
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utlåning av spädbarnstolar: Ett försök i Blekinge och Kalmar1987Report (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Järmark, Stina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nolen, Sixten
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Försök med dubbelkuddar1986Report (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Lidström, M
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägräcken: Litteraturstudie rörande betongräcken och praktiska prov med betongräcket Tric-Bloc1978Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Lindberg, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Moren, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Protection of road-railway grade crossings by means of mobile barriers: Some preliminary ideas1991Report (Other academic)
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  • 9. Lowne, Richard W
    et al.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The development of a unified child restraint-to-car attachment system: A contribution to the ISOFix discussion1994Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10. Ross, Hayes E Jr
    et al.
    Alberson, Dean
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Comparison of occupant risk indices for crash tests of highway safety features1994Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Barriärkollision med ambulans1980Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child restraint systems: frontal impact performance1974Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child restraints: Some aspects on the degradation of polymer materials (Bilbarnstolar: Några aspekter på åldrande hos plastmaterial)1983Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Crash tests of the Tric-Bloc precast concrete median barrier1981Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Eftergivliga belysningsstolpar: Utveckling av en provningsmetod och förslag till krav1980Report (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Infant restraints: An investigation of some current systems and proposals for amendments to ECE-Regulation 44. ( Skyddsanordningar för spädbarn: En undersöking av några befintliga system och förslag till tillägg till ECE-Reglemente 44)1983Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Påkörningsskydd: Utvecklingsprovning av påkörningsskyddet "SAFEGUARD" (Impact attenuators development tests of the "SAFEGUARD")1985Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Simulerade älgkollisioner: En metodstudie (Simulated moose-collisions: A methodology study)1984Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Turbell, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skyddsanordningar vid motorbanor: Påkörningsförsök med upptagningsnät1978Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Aktuella säkerhetsfrågor för bussar1983Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Are air bags compatible with child restraint systems and roadside safety features?1994Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 22.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Barn i bil: Den internationella utvecklingen 1989-901991Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child restraints in Europe1989Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child restraints in Europe1988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Eftergivliga stolpar: Utvecklingsprövning av eftergivliga stolpar för trafiksignaler, belysta vägmärken m m (Yielding signposts: Development tests of a yielding post for traffic signals, illuminated road signs, etc)1986Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hållfasthet hos begagnade bilbarnstolar tillverkade av EPS1992Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Orienterande provning av prototyp till vägräcke1988Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sicherheit von Kindern im Kraftfahrzeug. Einsatz von Rückhalteeinrichtungen für Kinder in Schweden1991Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 29.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The effects of pyrotechnical seat belt pretentioners on child restraints1987Report (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Undersökningar i anslutning till ECE-GRSA (Bussäkerhet) 1981-861986Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Turbell, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Arnberg, Peter W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skyddssystem för barn i bilar1974Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Turbell, Thomas et al
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    ISOFIX: A new concept of installing child restraints in cars1994Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Turbell, Thomas et al
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Optimizing seat belt usage by interlock systems1997Report (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Turbell, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jeyes, John A
    ECE Regulation 44: An update on the current revision1994Report (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Turbell, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Peter
    How to optimize seat belt usage in Europe1998Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Turbell, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Pettersson, Hans-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bilbälten: vissa mekaniska skadors inverkan på den dynamiska hållfastheten hos nya bilbälten1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the purpose of determining the extent of strap damage which is acceptable for seat belts in annual automobile check-ups, three types of new three-point belts with emergency locking retractors were investigated with regard to the size of cuts in the upper part of the diagonal strap. The tests were carried out in accordance with ECE Regulation 16. A dummy with 50% extra weight was used for most of the testing in order to more accurately assess and measure breakage and breaking force. The results showed that several of the approved belts have a very small margin of safety against breakage at the standard Rl6 test and that a 10 mm cut in the belt reduces the breaking strength of the system with approx. 10%. Belts with cuts and holes up to 5 mm, however, since they did not reduce the protection performance to any significant degree, were considered acceptable in the annual check-ups.

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1 - 36 of 36
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