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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nybom, Per
    ITRA AB.
    Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the seat belt usage in buses, to evaluate to what extent information about the need to use the seat belt are provided and to understand travelers' incentives of seatbelt usage. Based on the results the aim was to propose measures to increase the use of a belt when traveling by bus.

    Methods used are observational studies, discussion within focus groups and a web questionnaire. The results from the observation study showed that passenger seat belt usage was 92% in charter service, 50% in commercial liner traffic and 27% in regional liner traffic. The drivers' use was correspondingly 100% in charter service, 79% in commercial liner traffic and 85% in regional liner traffic. The results from the web questionnaire show a lower level of usage. The conclusion is that measures are needed to increase the user rate, especially in line traffic.

    In the observation study, drivers were asked if they remind the passengers to use the seat belt, in the same way the passengers were asked if they have received information when going but charter service or commercial liner traffic. In charter service, 86% experienced they had received information, in commercial liner traffic it was 61% and in regional liner traffic it was 19%. The conclusion is that there are major shortcomings in the information on the belt, which should be addressed, especially in line traffic.

    The decision to use a belt or not is individual. Factors like how old you are, what experience you're having on a safe bus, what kind of road you travel, when you travel and how you're looking at safety generally plays a part.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 3.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mopedungdomars trafiksäkerhet: föräldrars ansvar och engagemang2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the importance of parents in young moped riders’ behaviour in traffic. The study consists of three parts; a literature review, a survey and an interview study. In the survey, 440 parents of teenagers (who had passed their test for mopeds) participated. In the interview study, 10 of the parents who took part in the survey were interviewed. The results from the literature review show that parents play an important role in young people’s perceptions, attitudes, norms, and behaviours associated with moped driving. Parents can also get involved in different ways to help in improving their teenagers’ knowledge and behaviour in traffic. In general, the review show that parents need support in order to be able to take control, and they also need support from other parents. The main results of the survey show that parents have great faith in the teenager when it comes to their knowledge and behaviour in traffic. In general, the results show that moped driving is not a topic being discussed very much. Some parents have implemented restrictions and the most common ones are related to alcohol and the usage of a helmet. In this study, less than ten percent wanted some form of support from others. Those who need help do not to the same extent as the others, believe that their teenager behave properly in traffic and they also believe that they are more influenced by social media. The study also found that the perception of boys and girls differ. Girls are considered to be safer on the roads but despite this, they have more restrictions placed on them than boys. Even if women value the teen’s knowledge and behaviour in traffic higher than men, they also have imposed more restrictions. In the family, women are talking more about risks in traffic than men are. The results from the interview study show that very few parents are in need of support when it comes to their children’s moped use. More detailed analyses of the interviews, however, reveals that parents would appreciate various forms of assistance, such as written information, training and/or information sessions as well as Internet-based parental forums. Implications of the current finding for the development of methods to increase parental commitment and engagement are presented.

  • 4.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • 5.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Unga mopedisters olycksinblandning: orsaker och konsekvenser2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to increase knowledge about the processes leading to accidents. This was done with a knowledge review, an in-depth study of moped crashes with serious injuries and an analysis of teenagers’ discussions on the internet about moped riding. Moped accidents are most common among young men. A number of different contributing factors have been identified as important for the possibilities to drive safely and avoid accidents. In addition to skills to maneuver the moped in traffic, other aspects important for motivation and choices before and during driving are presented. This may for example be age, sex, personality, group affiliation, socio economic standing and brain maturation. The statistics on moped sales show that fewer and fewer mopeds are sold in Sweden. The reduction in sales of class I is largest. There are several possible reasons for this, such as new rules for licensing or low economic growth. The reduction is also reflected in a reduction of the number of accident and injured persons over time. The domination by accidents involving 15-year-olds are also decreasing. From the interviews, it is obvious that riding moped in gangs is something that mainly boys are doing. Riding in gangs is also age related since when they are continuing to the gymnasium (high school), other interests than moped riding are taking over, occupying evenings and weekends. From the Internet analysis, it is clear that young people are discussing mopeds and moped riding in many different forums. The topics are spare parts, technical matters, tuning, speeding, helmet use, police chases etc. The discussions may be regarded as a basis for the development of role models and ideal for different subcultures within the moped world. Measures were discussed in the areas of police, rules and regulations, age limits, technical aspects, insurance, education, parental engagement, information campaigns, internet, vehicle classifications, infrastructure and future technical support systems.

  • 6.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nyman, Joakim
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

    To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

    With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

    To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

    An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

    An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

    In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

  • 7.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.32016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

    Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

  • 8.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Sweco .
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driving simulator-based training to improve self-rating ability of driving performance in older adults: a pilot study2019In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim was to investigate the potential of using simulator-based training (SBT) to improve older drivers' self-rating ability and to compare two forms of feedback; corrective versus corrective and rewarding feedback.

    Method The study was designed to study the possibility of training for self-rated driving ability in a simulator, and the impact of corrective (errors made) feedback versus corrective (errors made) and rewarding (correct behaviour) feedback during training. In total, 21 older drivers (mean age 78.5, SD=3.9 years) were trained and assessed in the driving simulator. Driving performance was assessed by penalty scores as well as self and expert ratings.

    Results The average deviation from correctly rated ability (own vs. expert) changed from -0.7 (under-rating) to 0.1 at the final training and assessment occasion; i.e., drivers ratings became more like the expert's rating or, in other terms, better calibrated. The individuals with the largest deviations from the expert's rating initially improved their self-rating ability the most. There were no differences between the two feedback groups in terms of their ability to self-rate, but rewarding feedback had a positive effect on penalty scores. The SBT showed positive training effects on the ability to self-rate one's driving ability, and rewarding feedback contributed to lower penalty scores. However, simulator sickness was a shortcoming that needs to be adressed, and the optimal form of feedback should be further investigated.

  • 9.
    Stave, Christina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Every Injured has a Story to Tell: analysing organisational preconditions for occupational accidents in the Swedish food industry2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing high frequency of occupational accidents in the Swedish food industry calls for new approaches in order to identify and describe the underlying factors. In the present thesis, therefore, occupational accidents were investigated from the operator’s perspective, in order to explore the organisational preconditions. Two studies were carried out based on 54 accidents involving to hand injuries. In-depth interviews were conducted with operators and their supervisors. 24 interviews were analysed using the qualitative grounded theory method. Two core categories were found. The first was the perception of the accident process at operative level. The second was organisational preconditions at strategic level, enhancing the risk for occupational accidents. These preconditions were represented by open factors, which were deficiencies in technical and human organisational systems, and concealed factors, represented by insufficient communication and learning, high responsibility in combination with low control, conflicting goals, and a gap between procedure and practice. The organisational preconditions affected the accident process and the workers’ perception leading to risk acceptance, resignation towards improved safety and overconfidence in one’s own ability. This was the background of ‘normal’ in which context the accidents occurred and safety was constructed. Through the analysis a five-step hypothesis was empirically generated. The second study was based on the injury reports of the same 54 accidents. Analysis revealed that 15% of the accidents were influenced by the technical design of the workplace, 17 % by safety equipment on machines and 30% by working methods. In 39% of the accidents no measures were taken to prevent further accidents. The injury reports complemented the interviews, confirming that the safety approach used by the companies to control production systems, safety equipment and safety rules were insufficient to reveal and reduce the risks and protect operators from injuries. A new perspective on safety w needs to be introduced in order to addressing the underlying preconditions and achieve effective safety management. A prerequisite for this is insight into norms and beliefs that influence risks and safety.

  • 10.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Processutvärdering av körkortsutbildning för EU-moped2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to decrease moped accidents a new driving license category AM for class I mopeds was introduced on October 1st 2009 in Sweden. A 12 hour mandatory training course was introduced including at least 4 hours of practical training. The study aim was to examine the education and which effects it might have on traffic behavior. A qualitative study using direct observations, checklists, interviews and a questionnaire were performed studying five different types of training courses. Results showed that most educators used teacher centered education based on PowerPoint presentations, sometimes engaging students in short group discussions. Teachers received good judgments from the students and had good study materials and a good teaching climate. There was much information in a short amount of time hence the students had to learn a lot by self-tuition. The main emphasis of the theory education was on regulations and traffic signs. The results indicated an improvement of the level of knowledge. However, risk awareness and attitudes towards speeding and alcohol probably remained unchanged. In order to make the educators focus more on these questions, the examination ought to include higher levels of knowledge in accordance to the national curriculum.

  • 11.
    Stave, Christina
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Safety as a process: From risk perception to safety activity2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of occupational accidents in the Swedish food industry and agriculture is high. This thesis has therefore explored the 'process of safety' in order to detect and analyse factors that either hinder or facilitate safety activity and to further develop intervention methods towards increased safety activity. The first study was based on in-depth interviews with 54 injured food-industry operators and their supervisors, exploring preconditions of accidents, using the qualitative method of grounded theory. Results showed that the accidents were embedded in the "normal" in which the accidents occurred without any warning. Preconditions of accidents were technical and organisational deficiencies such as insufficient communication and learning, high responsibility in combination with low control, conflicting goals, and a gap between procedures and practice. These factors influenced the safety culture toward risk acceptance and a normalisation of accidents. The second study tested a hypothetical model of the casual relationship between risk perception and safety activity as well as risk acceptance. Results were based on a cross-sectional questionnaire exploring the attitudes towards risk and safety of 315 farmers and farm workers. The results mainly confirmed two paths, one mediated by risk manageability and one by work stress, which counteracted each other The third study was an evaluation of a safety intervention methodology based on group discussions with three levels of structure. Eighty-eight farmers and farm workers divided into 9 groups gathered on seven occasions during one year. A pre-post questionnaire was used to evaluate the effects. The results showed a significant increase in safety activity. Stress as well as risk acceptance were reduced, but risk perception and perceived risk manageability did not change. The fourth study evaluated the process of the intervention. Results indicated good feasibility of the method. The social network was stated to be most beneficial and a time span was needed. The conclusions of the thesis were that the process of safety might benefit from reflecting and discussing incident experiences, detecting hindrances/facilitators to safety. Risk acceptance and normalisation of accidents may be influenced by focusing on work stress and the priority of safety, supporting a participative process of change with an honest climate.

  • 12.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Workshop om trafik och pedagogik: vilken forskning bedrivs inom området idag och hur vill vi att den ska utvecklas?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop initiated by the Traffic Education Group (TUG) at VTI on the theme "Traffic Education - What research is currently conducted in the field today and how do we want the field to develop" was held at VTI in November 2010. TUG was represented by six researchers and six visiting participants from The National Society for Road Safety (NTF), The Swedish National Association of Driving Schools (STR), Trivector Information and The Swedish Transport Agency participated. Initially a lecture was held on the topic of educational trends of today. The presentation focused on the relationships between learning goals, teaching methods and examination. The presentation was followed by a discussion presented in this report.

    A lot of research has been conducted in the field but has it been put into practice? Various methods have been tested but not yet used on a larger scale. A proposal about traffic education in the mandatory school has been developed but as the subject will not be compulsory it will probably have very low practical impact. Another important question is who is responsible for financing research in this field. It seems like this task has fallen through the cracks.

    The largest part of the discussion was devoted to driving license education and the question was raised whether or not there would be a revision of the whole system initiated by the politicians. The evaluation results of the new syllabus for driving license B indicate that little has changed within the driving license education and the question is whether the driving teachers need more support to transform the curriculum into practical education. The driving schools have to contend with a culture where as few lessons as possible is considered the best (cost and time), which makes it difficult to improve teaching quality.

  • 13.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Cykelturism: en litteratursammanställning och omvärldsanalys2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study begins with surveys, investigations and pronounced strategies, followed by a discussion on certification of cycle guides. The second part relates to different research areas:

    • infrastructure, transport, safety and measurement
    • bicycle tourism economy and entrepreneurship
    • travelers’ demands, attitudes and behavior
    • bicycle tourism for health and well-being
    • bicycle tourism for training and sports
    • bicycle tourism sustainability

    Finally, a geographical orientation on bicycle tourism in Sweden and other countries. The results showed a number of practical needs that are listed in the report and the following examples of research needs: Development of measurement and evaluation methods for specific destinations, higher quality of studies on bicycle tourism, qualitative as well as quantitative approaches, financing of studies with research objectives, access to statistics specifically for bicycle tourism, mapping of different groups of cyclists' needs, bicycle tourism and social sustainability, health effects (physical and psychological) of bicycle tourism, behavioral change for increased cycling through leisure cycling, cycling tourism and environmental awareness in transport to/from destinations, and finally more English-language literature.

  • 14.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    A case study exploring firefighters’ and municipal officials’ preparedness for electrical vehicles2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study presents a social perspective on new vehicle technology. It explores the self-reported preparedness of the fire departments (i.e., rescue services) in Sweden’s three largest cities regarding rescue operations involving electrical vehicles (EVs).

    Methods: In this multi-method study, in-depth interviews were performed with emergency service officers and municipal officers in each city.

    Results: The results indicate that firefighters have little experience of accidents with EVs and they are learning reactively. The risks were not clearly identified. More knowledge is needed of identifying and disconnecting electricity in EVs. A more efficient way to find information about new vehicles is vital concerning the safety aspect in rescue operations. The level of knowledge about new vehicle technology varied between departments. For the municipal officers, environmental aspects are of most interest, whereas safety and rescue operations involving EVs are rarely addressed. The responsibility for disseminating information about the safe handling of EVs was unclear.

    Conclusion: The fire departments need more resources for education and training to keep up with technical developments and to be proactive. Another desired development is a solution for easy access to vehicle information. Since the environmental issues are setting the agenda, not the safety issues, lesser environment risks could become greater safety risks. We stress the need for various occupational decision making at all levels of society to cooperate in order to take responsibility for the safe introduction for new more environmentally friendly transport vehicle technique and disseminating safety information in a collected and systematic way.

  • 15.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Kunskapssammanställning över introduktionen av elbilar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an overview of the field of electric driven vehicles, aiming to give an overview of the introduction of vehicles and supporting the development of the vehicle electrification. Some current technical solutions are presented, and a possible future is outlined, in the field of vehicles, batteries as well as infrastructure and power supply solutions. A brief overview of the system perspective on society, drivers and vehicles and the impact on the environment is given. Some electrification initiatives, realized or planned, are described with a major focus on the Swedish market, although a brief international view is presented. Governmental electrification targets and duly support is presented, as well as some examples of current research in this field. For this document, the electric vehicle is mainly to be understood as a passenger type vehicle with some type of electric power supply. Initially presented are various types of electric vehicles, EV, such as (pure) electric vehicles (with no alternative power), electric hybrid vehicles, plug-in (chargeable) hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. On the 30th of April 2014 there were 3714 vehicles named “plug-in” hybrid, with an option of external charging, registered in Sweden. Out of those there were 1 260 only electric powered and 2454 of the type chargeable hybrid vehicles. The most common battery type in the modern EV is the lithiumion accumulator. EV normally retain a high purchase price, mainly due to the cost of the batteries. The sustainability of the batteries will affect the overall cost. Second hand value is still very uncertain, as well as an uncertainty by the users about the EV functionality, i.e. the possibility to drive a certain distance. An often raised question is the lack of external vehicle noise, possibly making the EV a potential risk due to low hearing detectability. To be able to use an EV, batteries need to be charged. A survey by Transport Analysis (Sweden) shows that 70% of all transportation made by passenger vehicles in Sweden are shorter than 30 km, with the implication that most of these travels are well suited to be performed by an EV. In the report various solutions to the charging of batteries are presented and whether and how power could be supplied.

  • 16.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ansvar och roller vid skolskjutsning: en fördjupad analys genom gruppdiskussioner2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to increase knowledge about different actors' (municipality, school, bus driver/contractor and parents) view of their role in relation to school transport. The present study aims to create a more detailed description about the perception of responsibility for school transport of children, especially in situations where shared responsibility is possible. Results of the study intends to provide a starting point for guidance on what to consider in order to ensure a clear division of responsibilities between actors. The study was conducted in the form of focus group discussions with bus drivers, school staff, officers of the municipality and parents in an area in northern part of Sweden. If the topics discussed are summarized from a more general perspective it can be noted that there is a need for increased communication between the stakeholders, in order to ensure a clear understanding of who takes responsibility for what. This is evident both in the planning of the school bus transport and during the realisation of the transport. The result shows that if the different elements involved - from door to door - are broken down into who is formally responsible and who themselves feel that they take responsibility, there is a difference in these pictures. It is also noted that there are tasks where no one felt that they took responsibility.

  • 17.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    SLU.
    Göransson, Eva
    SLU.
    Barn och fyrhjulingar: riskacceptans och attityder kring fyrhjulingar på landsbygden ur ett föräldraperspektiv2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was aimed to explore attitudes and behavior among parents with children using ATVs, as well as their experience of incidents and injuries. The results will form the basis for the proposed measures for further actions by different stakeholders. Two focus groups, one with younger people and another with parents as well as an in-depth interview with a distributor of ATVs were performed initially. The interviews were analyzed and resulted in six themes that formed the basis of an interview guide that was used to make nationwide telephone interviews with parents and some of their children (with the permission from parents). 50 telephone interviews were conducted during the period from autumn 2015 to spring 2016. Of those interviewed, 41 were adults and 9 children aged 5–14 years.

    The results were analyzed and the answers for each question were compiled and presented in the report. The analysis revealed eight themes, which are described in the report: 1. The use of ATVs. 2. Risk awareness. 3. The information does not help – “Not us, but the other”. 4. The parents’ perception of children's abilities. 5. The children’s learning. 6. The children’s perspective. 7. Rules and responsibilities 8. What about the risk acceptance? The results showed, among other things the parents were aware of risks, and several showed a risk acceptance but also a strong commitment to children’s safety. A number of draft recommendations to increase the safe use of ATVs is presented in the end of the report.

  • 18.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i introduktionsutbildningen för privat övningskörning: en kvalitativ studie av innehåll och effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a qualitative analysis of the introductory courses was carried out. Observations and interviews with teachers at the course were made during 18 different training sessions. In addition to this, 32 instructors and 34 pupils were interviewed over the phone. The purpose of this study was to observe how the course affected their understanding of the problem as well as their attitudes and behaviour.

    The results showed that the time devoted to the environmental parts of the introductory courses varied a great deal, from 3 to 35 minutes (out of three hours). However, to only count minutes will not present the whole picture, the commitment of the instructor and the pedagogical approach are of more importance. Analysis of the course material revealed that the content of the courses varied a great deal. The instructors and the pupils were contacted some months later and most of them remembered that environmental issues related to driving was discussed on the introduction course.

    The part which they remembered mostly was the one about eco-driving, but also the environmental effects of starting a cold engine and standing still with the motor running, as well as maintenance of the cars. They remembered less regarding the environmental issues not directly linked to practicing driving, which can be seen as a sign that these issues were less frequently discussed during the course. Both instructors and pupils were positive about environmental issues being in the course. The majority wanted to drive in an environmentally friendly way, whether this depended on the introduction course or something else is difficult to say. It could not be concluded if their driving behavior had changed to drive in an eco-friendlier way.

  • 19.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Pousette, Anders
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    A model of the relations between risk perception and self-reported safety activity2006In: Occupational Ergonomics, ISSN 1359-9364, E-ISSN 1875-9092, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothetical model based on theories on stress, coping and motivation, describing the associations between risk perception and self reported safety activity, was tested. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 315 randomly selected Swedish farmers and farm workers. The results lent support for a model where the effects of risk perception on safety activity were mediated by two parallel paths, job stress and risk manageability. These two mediating mechanisms balanced each other out so that no direct influence of risk perception on safety activity was found. The results therefore suggest that, to increase and prioritize safety activity, efforts should be made to increase perceived risk manageability, supporting safety solutions simultaneously with efforts to reduce felt stress. Interventions focusing solely on risk perception, such as giving information about the negative consequences of risks, may result in little positive effect on safety activity. © 2006 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Pousette, Anders
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    From risk perception to safety activity2004In: Proceedings of the Nordic Meeting on Agricultural Occupational Health (NMAOH), 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs Universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Törner, Marianne
    Göteborgs Universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Risk and safety communication in small enterprises: how to support a lasting change towards work safety priority2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 195-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of occupational accidents in Swedish farming is high. An intervention methodology aimed at influencing safety attitudes and behaviour was previously tested. The aims of the present study were to evaluate long‐term effects of the intervention and to assess these results in relation to a randomly selected comparison group.

    The intervention was based on regular group discussions, focusing on dialogue and reflection in networks for social support. Eighty‐eight farmers and farm workers, divided into nine groups, participated. Each group gathered on seven occasions during one year, assisted by a process consultant, supporting safety communication and the change process. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the effects. The long‐term results of the intervention showed that safety activity increased significantly and risk acceptance (fearlessness) and work stress decreased. Measurements were made at T1, T2 and T3, i.e., pre‐, post‐ and long‐term, in the intervention group and at T1 and T3 in the comparison group.

    The results of the present study showed a long‐term effect of the intervention on safety activity and risk acceptance (fearlessness) in relation to the comparison group. However, the comparison group also showed a decline in work stress, which indicates that the stress reduction may have had other causes than the intervention.

  • 22.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Drivers’ knowledge and learning of advanced driver assistance systems2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed end-users’ knowledge of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the role of learning in relation to use of the systems. Therefore end-users’ perspective on the subject of the systems’ purpose, functions, potential risks and usefulness were explored, as well as motives behind choosing to use the systems. The study used qualitative/mixed methods through a combination of focus group interviews, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews. Results show that safety, technology interest and assistance were the main motives which influenced knowledge, learning and use of ADAS. Furthermore two groups of users were identified: drivers with special interest in car technology, and drivers with less interest in car technology. They had different needs and relations to the systems. An indication is that activities for learning could close the gap of knowledge and raise compatibility as well as value of ADAS, beneficial for both users and traffic safety.

  • 23.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    An intervention method for increased safety activity2005In: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Safety Conference (NoFS), June 8-10 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Exploring the organisational preconditions for occupational accidents in food industry: A qualitative approach2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 355-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing high frequency of occupational accidents in the Swedish food industry calls for new approaches to better understand the underlying factors. In the present study, 54 accidents involving hand injuries were investigated from the operators' perspective, to explore the organisational preconditions. In-depth interviews were conducted with operators and their supervisors, and 24 of these interviews were analysed using the grounded theory method. The core category 'safety as a process' was identified encompassing the perception of the process of the accident at operative level and organisational preconditions that increased the risk of occupational accidents. These preconditions were open factors: deficiencies in technical/physical environment and work organisation; and concealed factors: insufficient communication and learning, a high level of responsibility in combination with low control, conflicting goals and a gap between procedures and practice. These preconditions lead to risk acceptance, resignation towards improved safety and normalisation of risk. Through the analysis a five-step hypothesis was empirically generated. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Risk and safety communication in small enterprises: how to support a lasting change towards safety priority2006In: Proceedings of New Perspectives on Risk communication, a Multi-Disciplinary International Research Conference, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Eklöf, Mats
    Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    An intervention method for occupational safety in farming: evaluation of the effect and process2007In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 357-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase safety in Swedish farming an intervention methodology to influence attitudes and behaviour was tested. Eightyeight farmers and farm workers in nine groups gathered on seven occasions during 1 year. The basic concept was to create socially supportive networks and encourage discussions and reflection, focusing on risk manageability. Six of the groups made structured incident/accident analyses. Three of the latter groups also received information on risks and accident consequences. Effects were evaluated in a pre-post questionnaire using six-graded scales. A significant increase in safety activity and significant reduction in stress and risk acceptance was observed in the total sample. Risk perception and perceived risk manageability did not change. Analysing incidents/accidents, but not receiving information, showed a more positive outcome. Qualitative data indicated good feasibility and that the long duration of the intervention was perceived as necessary. The socially supportive network was reported as beneficial for the change process. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Older drivers’ needs for safety and comfort systems in their cars: a focus group study in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus group study with a total of 63 older drivers (70 years or older) in two rounds was conducted to identify needs and means for transportation as a passenger car driver. The aim was to understand attitudes to and use of advanced driver assistance technologies. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible differences between drivers in terms of correct assessment of own driving performance. All 63 participants had previously participated in an on-road driving assessment followed by an interview. The on-road assessment was done using a standardized protocol (expert assessment). The result was then compared to the driver’s subjective assessment of driving performance. It was found that experience of assistive technology was highly variable, from low technology systems to advanced automatic systems. However, there was a general interest in assistance systems among the participants. Most of them found the systems positive if they could improve safety. Those who were skeptical pointed to expected necessity to learn to use them, cost and need for repair.

  • 28.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    A case-study on drivers' mental model of partial driving automation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this case-study was the development of driver's mental models of partial driving automation. For an adoption decision to be made, and to facilitate use of driving automation mental models are important. Systems such as Volvo´s Pilot Assist has been included as standard equipment in recent cars and drivers has the option to incorporate these systems in their driving. In our study drivers were interviewed when they had decided to buy a new car, at the delivery, one week after delivery, and finally after four months of owning it. The results suggest that mental models develop over time and may explain behaviour outcomes (system usage). Prior knowledge and the interplay between theoretical and practical experience are important factors for the development of the mental model and to help the driver over a threshold. A tentative conclusion is that drivers could be supported when introduced to automated driving systems.

  • 29.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindström, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Simulatorbaserad träning för utryckningsförare: En förstudie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the pre-study was to investigate the conditions for simulator-based training of emergency driving and to initiate user-centered development of simulators for emergency driving. With the help of a close cooperation with emergency vehicle operators and the Traffic Safety Unit, the project aims to identify the need to be able to safely train emergency driving and to investigate how training of emergency driving in driving simulators can prevent incidents and accidents.

    An existing emergency scenario developed by VTI has been used to, together with staff from various emergency actors, identify wishes and requirements for different types of use. This R&D-oriented study has been supplemented with the development of simulator methodology. All results will form the basis for the development of simulation tools for training of emergency driving.

    The risks experienced by emergency drivers are strongly linked to the interaction with other road users, but also to their own knowledge of speeds, road conditions and darkness. The results point to the need for training emergency drivers in; how to make themselves visible and to show their intentions, understanding the effects of speed choices, road condition and darkness, on-road overtaking, red light driving, and also the need for training of surrounding traffic on how to behave, preferably during driver's license training.

  • 30.
    Törner, Marianne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Eklöf, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Stave, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Högre säkerhet i livsmedelsindustrin: Ett interventionsprojekt för bättre säkerhetsklimat2011Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Törner, Marianne
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet .
    Stave, Christina
    Arbetslivsinstitutet .
    Willquist,, Petra
    Arbetslivsinstitutet .
    Persson, Linda
    Arbetslivsinstitutet .
    Handolycksfall vid livsmedelsarbete: Analys av förlopp, avvikelser och ledningsstrategier2004Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Wallhagen, Susanne
    et al.
    NTF.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lundgren, Malin
    NTF Väst.
    Folkesson, Michael
    Stora Holm Trafikövningsplats.
    Riskutbildning för yrkesförare av tunga fordon2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafiksäkerhetsorganisationen NTF har tillsammans med Stora Holm Trafikövningsplats genomfört en riskutbildning för yrkesförare av tunga fordon. Totalt deltog 22 förare från fyra olika företag i Göteborgstrakten under två lördagar i oktober 2019. Utbildningen pågick under en heldag och innehöll både teoretiska och praktiska moment. Ingående områden var hastighet, trötthet, distraktion, stress, bältesanvändning, förarbeteende, säkerhetskultur med mera. I de praktiska momenten, bland annat på halkbana, fick förarna uppleva hastighetens betydelse genom olika övningar. Egen körning varvades med demonstrationer/ experiment och mellan övningarna fick kursdeltagarna reflektera och diskutera sina upplevelser. Riskutbildningen avslutades med en längre diskussion i grupp.

    Riskutbildningen har utvärderats dels genom att förarna innan riskutbildningen fick besvara en enkät med frågor om arbetsplatsens säkerhetskultur samt egen riskmedvetenhet och säkerhetsbeteende. En del av dessa frågor besvarades åter igen vid en uppföljande telefonintervju inom fyra veckor efter genomförd utbildning. Vid telefonintervjun ställdes frågor om riskutbildningsdagen och hur den påverkat förarnas kunskaper, insikter, attityder och beteende. I slutet av riskutbildningen genomfördes en gruppdiskussion som både kan ses som en del av riskutbildningen och en del av utvärderingen.

    Riskutbildning finns idag endast för de som tar körkort för motorcykel och personbil. Förarna som deltog i riskutbildningen var överens om att det finns ett stort behov av att ha en riskutbildning även för de som tar körkort för tunga fordon och/ eller att en riskutbildning med praktiska inslag ska finnas med i YKB, yrkesförarkompetensutbildningen. Även de som tar körkort för motorcykel och personbil skulle behöva mer kunskap, helst praktisk, om tunga fordons stora krafter, stoppsträckor, bromsfunktion, döda vinklar och platsbehov för att få insikt och förståelse som kan leda till bättre samspel i trafiken och minskat antal olyckor.

    Utvärderingens enkät visar att deltagarna några veckor efter genomförd riskutbildning rapporterar en förbättring när det gäller att ha tillräcklig utbildning i risker och säkerhet för sitt arbete. Förarna uppger en ökad bältesanvändning och minskade överträdelser av hastighetsgränser. De upplever sig också ha mindre svårt att åtgärda risker i arbetet. I högre grad anser deltagarna att de rapporterar tillbud samt att de lär sig av misstag de gör genom att gå igenom och se orsaker bakom dessa. Förarna anser sig också mer riskmedvetna och att de i större utsträckning kan bidra till ökad säkerhet itrafiken.

    I de uppföljande telefonintervjuerna framkommer att det främst är förarnas attityder till hastighet och avståndsbedömning som har påverkats. Flera uttrycker att deras beteende när det gäller att hålla avstånd har förändrats. Även att de kommer att sänka hastigheten ännu mer, framför allt när det är halt.

    Telefonintervjuerna visar att effekten av utbildningen fanns kvar även efter några veckor och fortfarande diskuterades på arbetsplatsen. Trots att en stor del av förarna redan innan utbildningen ansåg sig ha en hög grad av riskmedvetenhet framhåller de att riskmedvetenhet är en pågående process och att de gör små förbättringar hela tiden. Därför anser de att det är viktigt med de påminnelser man fick i riskutbildningen om att det är ett stort och tungt fordon man framför och att utbildningen gav en ”uppsträckning” och en insikt i sin egen och andra trafikanters sårbarhet.

    I gruppdiskussionerna framkommer även det stora ansvar som vilar på köpare av transporter och åkeriägare när det gäller att underlätta för förarna att kunna köra trafiksäkert, det gäller till exempel att möjliggöra en god arbetsmiljö utan stress och tillgång till tekniska hjälpmedel i fordonen. Likaså behövs en god säkerhetskultur där man kan prioritera säkerheten. Många deltagare såg inte att de kunde påverka riskerna och att de oftast låg hos andra i trafiken, detta synsätt behöver ytterligare påverkas.

    En konklusion från projektet är att riskutbildningen ger en trafiksäkerhetsnytta speciellt inom områdena hastighet och avståndshållning, områden som påverkat lastbilsförarna mest. För att riskutbildningen ska ge ytterligare trafiksäkerhetsnytta skulle delar av den även kunna finnas med i riskutbildningen till förare av lätta fordon.

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