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  • 1.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Strategi för utveckling av en samhällsekonomisk analysmodell för drift, underhåll och reinvestering av väg- och järnvägsinfrastruktur2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to make structured decisions about the optimal funding for operation, maintenance and renewal of roads and railways is currently limited. This creates significant risks that the funds are used in an inefficient manner. It is therefore important that the Swedish Transport Administration develops a transparent model for decision support in this field. VTI has undertaken a review of the state of knowledge in various areas required to bring about an economic analysis of operation, maintenance and renewal. The review shows that there are good prospects to produce a decision basis within a relatively short time. This makes it possible to answer at least some of the issues formulated. The review indicates that there are great opportunities to move forward both in road and railway areas. Five specific projects have been suggested, of which three are short term and two are long term. The aim in the long run is to make transparent and structured decisions on funding needed from an economic perspective on various road and railway sections.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Fotgängares värderingar av gångvägar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is an inquiry by the Swedish Transport Administration to develop methods for benefit-cost analyses for pedestrians’ appraisals of their walking environment and how different improvements in the environment affect decisions to walk. The issues studied are: 1. What type of road do pedestrians prefer when they choose which route to walk? 2. What is the willingness to pay to get more attractive footpaths? 3. How many persons will start to walk if it is built more attractive footpaths? The third issue was unfortunately not possible to answer because of the low response rate in that part of the study. One result from the study is that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. The visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing was not nearly as important. Finally, it seems not impossible to investigate individuals' appraisals for various types of footpath attributes and choice of footpath using stated preference methodology. However, the interest in walking issues seems not to be high and many of the questions in the questionnaire seemed to be difficult to answer. To make it easier to clarify some of the ambiguities, future studies about pedestrian appraisals should involve some kind of interview methodology.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Marginalkostnader för reinvesteringar i järnvägsanläggningar: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Reinvesteringar i järnvägsanläggningar påverkas av trafik och utgör därför en komponent i marginalkostnaden för nyttjandet av infrastrukturen. Tidigare studier har traditionellt fokuserat på reinvesteringskostnader i banöverbyggnad. I denna studie skattas separata marginalkostnader för reinvesteringar i Bana (banöverbyggnad, banunderbyggnad, bangårdar), El, Signal, Tele och Övriga anläggningar. Trots att slitage av exempelvis signal- och teleanläggningar inte torde variera med trafik, finner vi statistiskt signifikanta samband mellan trafik och reinvesteringar i samtliga anläggningar. En förklaring är att trafikökningen innebär en ökad störningskostnad, även i frånvaron av ett trafikberoende slitage, och därmed att reinvesteringen tidigareläggs. Analysen visar även att de skattade effekterna främst kommer från jämförelser mellan bandelar, vilket innebär en risk att de (delvis) är korrelationer och inte kausala samband mellan trafik och reinvesteringar. När marginalkostnaderna för anläggningsgrupperna läggs samman hamnar de på 0,0141 kr per bruttotonkilometer och 4,4520 kr per tågkilometer.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Liss, Viktoria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Regelförändringar i transportsektorn – effekter av omregleringar inom inrikesflyg, taxi, kommersiell tågtrafik och bilprovning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Konkurrensverket (the Swedish Competition Authority) has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to provide an overview of the consequences of four regulatory reforms in the transport sector during the past 20 years. In brief, the following core observations are made. The market for domestic flights was opened for entry in 1991. After a few years with prices going both up and down, the last 10 years or so have seen prices increase much faster than the consumer price index. After a peak in 1990, patronage first stalled and has subsequently decreased. Much of this can be explained by a number of external changes, i.e. it does not seem to be directly related to the way in which the market is organised. The taxi market was deregulated in 1990. Prices for private users have subsequently increased at twice the speed of consumer prices; negotiated prices for tendered services providing disabled persons etc. with taxi services has not increased at the same pace. After the reform, the number of vehicles has increased by 22 per cent. As a result, waiting times have been reduced. The market for domestic railway services was opened for entry in late 2011. The degree of entry has since been small, and it is too early to see any consequences for ridership and prices of the reform. The annual, compulsory vehicle control was previously provided by a national monopolist. This market was opened for entry in 2010. While accessibility for consumers has improved slightly since some additional inspection sites have been established, it is too early to see any major consequences in terms of entry. The government is, however, partitioning the incumbent and gradually selling it on commercial terms.

  • 5.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Behov av statistik om godstågens tillförlitlighet: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the official statistics on rail traffic in Sweden only comprise passenger trains. The reliability of freight trains should also be included in the statistics. This leads to questions on which information should be included and how it should be described. This pre-study is a knowledge base of the necessary development of the official statistics in Sweden, and is centered on the users’ current and potential needs of statistics on freight train reliability.

    In this context, reliability is the ability of a transport system to follow the timetable, upon which users have organized their activities. A traffic disturbance, such as delays or cancelled trains, creates unreliability in the transport system, which should be characterized in more ways than the frequency of the disturbances in order to meet different users’ needs of statistics. To produce the necessary statistics, one must answer the following questions. Which units and variables should be included? Which domains should be included? Which statistical measures should be presented?

    This study shows that the relevant units are vehicles and traffic disturbances. The necessary variables are scheduled, arrived and cancelled vehicles, as well as vehicles that are adjustments/late changes of the timetable. Variables on timetable deviations for vehicles running on the network are also necessary. In this aspect, there are differences between passenger and freight trains as the latter group relatively often depart or arrive ahead of schedule, which is also important to capture with statistics.

  • 6.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Benchmarking in a publicly owned monopoly: estimating the dual-level cost efficiency of railway maintenance in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Contract design and performance of railway maintenance: effects of incentive intensity and performance incentive schemesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Contract design and performance of railway maintenance: Effects of incentive intensity and performance incentive schemes2019In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the effect of contract design on the performance of railway maintenance in Sweden, using a panel data set over the period 2003-2013. The effect of incentive intensity is estimated, showing that the power of incentive schemes improve performance as measured by the number of infrastructure failures. In addition, we show that the structure of the performance incentive schemes has resulted in a reallocation of effort from failures not causing train delays to failures causing train delays, with a substantial increase in the former type of failures. This signals a deteriorating asset condition, which highlights the need to consider the long-term effects of this incentive structure. Overall, this work shows that the design of the incentive structures has a large impact on the performance of maintenance, and that the estimated effects are important to consider when assessing contract designs within this field.

  • 9.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Estimating the Impact of Traffic on Rail Infrastructure Maintenance Costs The Importance of Axle Loads2019In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 53, p. 258-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we estimate the impact of axle loads on rail infrastructure maintenance costs. The results show that cost elasticities with respect to traffic increase with axle load. Using these elasticities, we calculate marginal costs for traffic that are differentiated with respect to the trains' average tonnage per axle. The results are relevant when setting track access charges in Europe as well as for railway cost studies in general, considering that the empirical evidence in this paper gives support to the engineering perspective - that is, axle loads are important to consider when assessing the damage caused by traffic.

  • 10.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Marginalkostnader för järnvägsunderhåll: trafikens påverkan på olika anläggningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del av banavgiften för nyttjandet av infrastrukturen består av kostnader för järnvägsunderhåll som uppstår som en direkt följd av tågtrafiken. Då nedbrytning och slitage av vissa järnvägsanläggningar och komponenter inte påverkas av trafik, kan det göras gällande att underhållskostnader för dessa inte bör ingå i en marginalkostnadsbaserad avgift. I denna studie skattar vi kostnadselasticiteter med en ekonometrisk metod för att undersöka om och hur trafik påverkar underhållskostnader för olika grupper av järnvägsanläggningar. Resultaten visar att det finns statistiskt signifikanta samband mellan trafik och underhållskostnader för anläggningsgrupperna Bana, El, Signal och Tele. En förklaring till sambanden för exempelvis signal- och teleanläggningar är att mer förebyggande underhåll genomförs för att upprätthålla en viss tillförlitlighet hos anläggningen när trafiken ökar och därmed undvika en ökad kostnad för inställda och försenade tåg – en kostnad som kan öka oavsett om mer trafik orsakar en ökad nedbrytning eller inte.

  • 11.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Reforming a publicly owned monopoly: costs and incentives in railway maintenance2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway system is often considered to be an industry where a monopoly occurs “naturally”, which can explain the public ownership and the use of regulations. However, railways in Europe have been subject to reforms during the last three decades. The use of tendering has increased, which is a way of introducing competition for the market in absence of competition within the market. Still, contracting out services previously produced in-house places a heavy burden on the client, where contract design and its incentive structures can be decisive for the outcome of the reform.

    This dissertation provides empirical evidence on costs and incentives in a publicly owned monopoly that is subject to reforms, namely the provision of railway maintenance in Sweden.

    Essay 1 estimates the effect of exposing rail infrastructure maintenance to competitive tendering. The results show that this reform reduced maintenance costs in Sweden by around 11 per cent over the period 1999-2011, without any associated fall in the available measures of quality.

    Essay 2 estimates the relative cost efficiency between and within maintenance regions in Sweden. The results indicate considerable efficiency gaps together with economies of scale not being fully exploited.

    Essay 3 analyses the effect of incentive structures in railway maintenance contracts. An increase in the power of the incentive scheme reduces the number of infrastructure failures according to the results. In addition, the estimated effect of the performance incentive schemes suggests that more effort towards preventing train delays is made at the expense of preventing other failures.

    Essay 4 comprises an estimation of marginal costs of rail maintenance. The static model produces slightly lower marginal costs compared to previous estimates on Swedish data. The results from the dynamic model show that an increase in maintenance costs in year t - 1 predicts an increase in maintenance costs in year t. Indeed, there is an intertemporal effect that depends on the performed maintenance activities (governed by the contract design).

    List of papers
    1. Assessing the Cost Impact of Competitive Tendering in Rail Infrastructure Maintenance Services Evidence from the Swedish Reforms (1999 to 2011)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Cost Impact of Competitive Tendering in Rail Infrastructure Maintenance Services Evidence from the Swedish Reforms (1999 to 2011)
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, p. 93-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first paper in the literature to formally study the cost impact of competitive tendering in rail maintenance. Sweden progressively opened up the market for rail maintenance services, starting in 2002. We study the cost impacts based on an unbalanced panel of thirty-nine contract areas between 1999 and 2011, using econometric techniques. We conclude that competitive tendering reduced costs by around 11 per cent. Importantly, this cost reduction was not associated with falling quality; quite the reverse. We thus conclude that the gradual exposure of rail maintenance to competitive tendering in Sweden has been a success.

    Keywords
    Cost, Deregulation, Railway network, Maintenance, Competition, Sweden, Quality
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J12 Railway: Organization and administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10123 (URN)000370560500006 ()
    Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Benchmarking in a publicly owned monopoly: estimating the dual-level cost efficiency of railway maintenance in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benchmarking in a publicly owned monopoly: estimating the dual-level cost efficiency of railway maintenance in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Railway track, Maintenance, Performance, Economic efficiency
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J01 Railway: Railway track; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12478 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Contract design and performance of railway maintenance: effects of incentive intensity and performance incentive schemes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contract design and performance of railway maintenance: effects of incentive intensity and performance incentive schemes
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Railway track, Maintenance, Contract, Incentive (reward), Performance
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J01 Railway: Railway track; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12477 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Estimating the marginal maintenance cost of rail infrastructure usage in Sweden: does more data make a difference?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating the marginal maintenance cost of rail infrastructure usage in Sweden: does more data make a difference?
    2015 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    This paper updates knowledge about the marginal cost of railway maintenance. Using a panel dataset comprising 16 years, we test whether more data makes a difference to conclusions. In contrast to previous estimates using a shorter panel, maintenance costs are now demonstrated to exhibit a positive dynamic effect; an increase in maintenance cost during one year indicates the need for more maintenance also the next year. Moreover, the marginal cost from the dynamic model is larger than its static counterpart. We conclude that the use of dynamic models on longer time series may have charging implications in several EU member states, considering that their track access charges are based on econometric studies that use static models and short panel datasets.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Economics of transport, Input data, Maintenance, Cost, Mathematical model
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11887 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2017.05.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019555205 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2017-10-31Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The impact of cumulative tonnes on track failures: an empirical approach2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis is often used in appraisal of rail infrastructure investments. A corresponding decision support is, however, not available for rail infrastructure maintenance and renewal. To for example decide whether to renew or continue to maintain an infrastructure asset, a relationship between cumulative traffic and infrastructure failures is required. This relationship is established in this paper, using an empirical (top-down) approach on Swedish data for years 2003 to 2016. It is shown that the average elasticity for track failures with respect to cumulative tonnes is 0.32, and that the elasticity varies for different levels of traffic and for different infrastructure characteristics. The results in this paper can for example be used to calculate the impact cumulative tonnes have on train delay costs, which together with a relationship between cumulative traffic and infrastructure maintenance costs are essential in an economic optimization of maintenance and renewal activities.

  • 13.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Boysen, Hans. E.
    KTH.
    Railway line capacity utilisation and its impact on maintenance costs2018In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse how railway maintenance costs are affected by different levels of railway line capacity utilisation. Previous studies have focused on the wear and tear of the infrastructure, while this paper shows that it is important to also acknowledge the heterogeneity of the maintenance production environment. Specifically, we estimate marginal maintenance costs for traffic using econometric methods on a panel dataset from Sweden and show that these costs increase with line capacity utilisation. The results are significant considering that current EU regulation (2015/909) states that track access charges can be based on marginal costs, with the aim of achieving an efficient use of available infrastructure capacity.

  • 14.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter med en kombitransport: beräkningar på järnvägsvagnen Flexiwaggon2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and the EU, there is a stated need to combine more freight transports on road with railway. The aim is to reduce emissions of climate gases, as well as noise and other external effects such as congestion, accidents and wear and tear of the road. New innovations and transport solutions can be necessary to increase the number of combined road and railway freight transports. The transport solution analyzed in this study is a new railway wagon that can transport trucks at the speed of 160 km/h. The purpose of the study is to calculate the economic effects the new railway wagon can generate if it is used on a route where rail can be a viable alternative to road transport. In this, the environment and energy effects are studied, as well as the commercial cost.

    To define the contestable market between transport modes in a certain situation can be a challenging task, as there are many – and often interacting – factors that determine the mode choice. However, the literature states that route distance and the characteristics of the goods being transported are crucial factors for mode choice, where examples of the characteristics of goods are its value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, and weight (these can to a large extent be captured by the type of good). Freight transport on rail are often considered to be a viable approach on distances over 300 kilometres. In this study, we use three project cases with the route distances 280, 420 and 670 kilometres. We assume that distinct groups of goods are transported, as this will have an impact on the calculations.

    The base cases (with the abbreviation JA in the study) comprises road transport carried out by trucks with a trailer. A major part of the distance in the project cases (abbreviated UA) is covered by trains on which the trucks have been loaded. There are no truck drivers on the train transport.

    The environment and energy effects (exclusive noise) are calculated using a tool provided by the Network for Transport Measures (NTM). Differences in carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter are presented, where the project cases have lower emissions than the base cases. Moreover, a lower amount of energy is consumed in the project cases compared to the base cases.

  • 15.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Modellering av järnvägstransporter: en översikt kring datakällor2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on freight and passenger flows is vital for advancing knowledge on railway transport. In addition to providing a description of the current use of railway transportation, the flows of freight and passengers can be used in transport models to make transportation forecasts. Such forecasts can, for example, be used to evaluate infrastructure investments, or to analyze the impact of new restrictions or new policies. The transport statistics in Sweden are, however, quite aggregate, which makes forecasts and other types of estimations rather uncertain. There is therefore reason to describe the current modelling of railway transport, as well as its development and potential in combining different (and new) data sources to provide the information on railway transport that is requested.

    Sampers and Samgods are the national models in Sweden for freight and passenger transports, respectively. Three types of data are used in Sampers: data describing travel behavior, information about the transport network and public transport services, as well as attraction measures for trips to the different geographical zones in the model. The output from the demand model are passenger flows for each transport mode and destination. Train passengers are distributed on the railway network based on current traffic flows, while anticipated timetables are used in the forecasts. This generates information on the number of trips for each railway link during a year (that is, between stations or nodes on railway lines), as well as the number of embarking and disembarking passengers on the railway stations. These results need validation, which inter alia is performed by regions within the Swedish Transport Administration, using passenger statistics.

    Data inputs for Samgods are information on the transport network, cost data, regulations, production and consumption data and goods flows. The data on goods flows are gathered from foreign trade statistics and the national commodity flow survey. The production and consumption data are used together with the goods flows data to calculate the transported volume of 34 different commodity types between 464 zones (of which 290 are municipalities in Sweden). A separate tool called Bangods is used to generate rail freight transport on the different track sections comprising the railway network. This is based on rail traffic data, which however lacks information on the type of freight trains as well as commodity type and volume of goods per train. At present, the output for rail freight transport consists of goods flows during a year on the different track sections (about 300), segmented into different types of freight trains and 12 groups of commodities.

    Transport modelling approaches are becoming more disaggregate. More specifically, there is a development towards activity-based models for passenger transport, while modelling of logistic choices at company level is becoming more common for freight transport. This development requires more disaggregate data, in both time and space. The rapid technological development has provided new opportunities in collecting disaggregate data, notably through low prices and improved performance of the technical units required to record and communicate information on the positioning of people, goods or vehicles. Examples on data sources are data from radionavigation-satellite services (Global Positioning System, GPS), cell phone data, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) or other types of sensors (for train weight or number of embarking and disembarking passengers).

    There are pros and cons with these different data sources in transport modelling; one type of data source cannot cover the information needs. A combination of data can therefore be a solution. For example, GPS data and cell phone data can be good complements, as the former have a higher level of detail while the latter have larger blind spots. Still, a general problem with the automatic collection of data is that only a sub-sample of the trips are captured; even though it generates more detailed information on the position and timing of trips compared to traditional travel surveys, it is still based on a sub-sample of the trips made, which can create a selection bias. Moreover, this type of data lacks information on socio-economic aspects and the purpose of the trip. However, information on work and home location can be derived from mobility patterns based on GPS or cell phone data, which in turn can be linked to socio-economic information (at least at an aggregate level). Nevertheless, information on passenger and freight flows can be useful in the calibration and validation of the transport models. For instance, train payload measurements can be used to derive information on the number of passengers on each train (potentially between all stations if the train has a weighing capability, or if enough stationary weight detectors are installed on the infrastructure). Moreover, even though the weight of a freight train does not reveal the commodity type, it can be used in the calibration of Samgods and provide a more accurate flow of goods on different trains and track sections. In other words, new technology and data collection methods provide a significant potential for generating more disaggregate data on transport flows.

  • 16.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Estimating the marginal maintenance cost of rail infrastructure usage in Sweden: does more data make a difference?2015In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper updates knowledge about the marginal cost of railway maintenance. Using a panel dataset comprising 16 years, we test whether more data makes a difference to conclusions. In contrast to previous estimates using a shorter panel, maintenance costs are now demonstrated to exhibit a positive dynamic effect; an increase in maintenance cost during one year indicates the need for more maintenance also the next year. Moreover, the marginal cost from the dynamic model is larger than its static counterpart. We conclude that the use of dynamic models on longer time series may have charging implications in several EU member states, considering that their track access charges are based on econometric studies that use static models and short panel datasets.

  • 17.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Underhåll i egen regi?: metod och databehov för en utvärdering av järnvägsunderhåll2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of the state-owned railway network in Sweden is currently tendered in competition. However, during 2016, the infrastructure manager Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration) was commissioned by the Swedish government to analyze and present appropriate measures to organize and produce rail maintenance in-house. This includes an investigation that is based on an inhouse production of maintenance in at least two geographically defined areas, with the aim to compare it with maintenance tendered in competition. This memorandum describes the method and data needs for an evaluation of whether in-house production is preferable to maintenance tendered in competition or not.

    This type of evaluation should measure potential differences in socio-economic efficiency between the organizational alternatives. How in-house maintenance affects costs for production and administration should therefore be determined together with its impact on cost for delays. A challenge is to isolate the effect from differences in preconditions for the maintenance production, such as differences in infrastructure characteristics and in traffic. A comparison should for example consider economies of scale and economies of density as the size of maintenance areas and the traffic volume differs. This implies that key performance indicators such as cost per ton-km is not suitable in this case. An ideal comparison should also consider that possible savings (cost increases) can lead to losses (gains) in the long run, which means that the effects should be assessed over a longer period.

  • 18.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Price elasticities of demand for (garage) parking in Stockholm2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is scope for generating welfare effects by changing parking fees, where knowledge on price elasticities are central elements in the implementation of an efficient parking policy. In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand for five parking garages in the central business district of Stockholm, using transaction data and a price increase implemented in January 2017. The econometric results for the purchased parking hours show an average elasticity estimate at -0.60, while the effect on the decision to park is -0.45. These elasticities vary for the different parking garages, showing that there is a considerable heterogeneity between garages, even within the central business district, which needs to be considered for an efficient parking policy. Based on our estimated elasticity for garage parking (-0.60) and a willingness to pay a premium for curbside parking in previous research, we calculate a proxy for the elasticity of curbside parking in Stockholm, which is found to be -0.39.

  • 19.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Smith, Andrew S. J.
    University of Leeds.
    Assessing the Cost Impact of Competitive Tendering in Rail Infrastructure Maintenance Services Evidence from the Swedish Reforms (1999 to 2011)2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, p. 93-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first paper in the literature to formally study the cost impact of competitive tendering in rail maintenance. Sweden progressively opened up the market for rail maintenance services, starting in 2002. We study the cost impacts based on an unbalanced panel of thirty-nine contract areas between 1999 and 2011, using econometric techniques. We conclude that competitive tendering reduced costs by around 11 per cent. Importantly, this cost reduction was not associated with falling quality; quite the reverse. We thus conclude that the gradual exposure of rail maintenance to competitive tendering in Sweden has been a success.

  • 20.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Smith, Andrew S.J.
    ITS Leeds.
    Assessing the cost impact of competitive tendering in rail infrastructure maintenance services: evidence from the Swedish reforms (1999-2011)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first paper in the literature to formally study the cost impact of competitive tendering in rail maintenance. Sweden progressively opened up the market for rail maintenance services, starting in 2002. We study the cost impacts based on an unbalanced panel of contract areas between 1999 and 2011, using econometric techniques. We conclude that competitive tendering reduced costs by around 12%. This cost reduction was not associated with falling quality as measured by track quality class, track geometry or train derailments. We conclude that the gradual exposure of rail maintenance to competitive tendering in Sweden has been beneficial.

  • 21.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Wheat, Phill
    Dynamics in rail infrastructure provision: Maintenance and renewal costs in Sweden2018In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we extend to the literature on marginal wear and tear cost estimation in railways, by applying a panel vector autoregressive model to rail infrastructure renewals and maintenance costs, using an extensive dataset from Sweden. This study is significant given the inherent difficulties in modelling the substantial renewals element of infrastructure costs, as well as the need to account for the dynamics in renewals and maintenance. The dynamic model allows us to estimate equilibrium cost elasticities with respect to train usage, which are significantly larger than their static counterparts. Overall, this work highlights that dynamics in rail infrastructure costs are important to consider when setting track access charges with respect to the wear and tear caused by traffic. This is particularly important given several countries, for example France, Sweden and Switzerland, are now setting access charges at marginal costs based on econometric studies.

  • 22.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    Riksrevisionen.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The marginal cost of track reinvestments in the Swedish railway network: using data to compare methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the difference between survival and corner solution models in estimating the marginal cost of reinvestments. Both approaches describe the reinvestment process in rather intuitively similar ways but have several methodological distinctions. We use Swedish railway data on track segment and section levels over the period 1999-2016 and focus on reinvestments in track superstructure. Results suggest the marginal costs from survival and corner solution models are SEK 0.0041 and SEK 0.0103, respectively. The conclusion is that the corner solution model is more appropriate, as this method consider the impact traffic has on the risk of reinvestment as well as on the size of the reinvestment cost. The survival approach does not consider the latter, which is problematic when we have systematic variations in costs due to traffic and infrastructure characteristics.

  • 23.
    Smith, Andrew
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Iwnicki, Simon
    University of Huddersfield.
    Kaushal, Aniruddha
    University of Huddersfield.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Wheat, Phill
    University of Leeds.
    Estimating the relative cost of track damage mechanisms: combining economic and engineering approaches2017In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 231, no 5, p. 620-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new, two-stage methodology to estimate the relative marginal cost of different types of vehicles running on the rail infrastructure. This information is important particularly where the infrastructure managers wish to differentiate the track access charges by vehicle type for the purpose of incentivizing the development and use of more track-friendly vehicles.

    EU legislation requires that the European infrastructure managers set the access charges based on the incremental (marginal) cost of the running trains on their networks. The novelty of the approach derives from the combination of: (1) engineering simulation methods that estimate the track damage caused by the rail vehicles; and (2) econometric methods that estimate the relationship between the actual maintenance costs and the different damage mechanisms. This two-stage approach fills an important gap in the literature, given the limitations of the existing single-stage engineering or econometric approaches in obtaining the relative marginal costs for different types of damage.

    The authors demonstrate the feasibility of the method using 45 track sections from Sweden, for which the data on maintenance costs are available together with relevant track and vehicle data for 2012 (supplied by the Swedish Transport Administration). The authors demonstrate the feasibility of producing summary, section-level damage measures for the three damage mechanisms (wear, rolling contact fatigue, and track settlement), which can be taken forward to the second stage. The econometric results of the second stage indicate that it is possible to obtain sensible relationships between cost and the different damage types, and thus produce relative marginal costs by the damage mechanism and in turn the vehicle type. Based on this feasibility study, tracksettlement has been found to be the most expensive (in terms of maintenance cost) of the three mechanisms, followed by the rolling contact fatigue and then the wear. Future applications should focus on larger datasets in order to produce the required degree of precision on the estimation of the marginal cost.

  • 24.
    Smith, Andrew S. J.
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Kaushal, Aniruddha
    University of Huddersfield.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Iwnicki, Simon
    University of Huddersfield.
    Wheat, Phill
    University of Leeds.
    Estimating the damage and marginal cost of different vehicle types on rail infrastructure: Combining economic and engineering approaches2015In: Stephenson Conference Research for Railways 2015, Institution of Mechanical Engineers , 2015, p. 265-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU legislation requires that European infrastructure managers set access charges based on the marginal cost of running trains on their networks. Two methods have been used in the literature for this purpose. Top-down methods relate actual costs to traffic volumes. Bottom-up methods use engineering models to simulate damage and then translate damage into costs based on assumptions about interventions and their unit costs. Whilst top down methods produce sensible results for marginal cost overall, they have struggled to differentiate between traffic types. The challenge for bottom-up approaches is how to translate damage into cost, with numerous assumptions being required which may be invalid. This paper proposes a new, two stage approach to estimating the marginal cost of rail infrastructure usage. The first stage uses engineering models to simulate damage caused by vehicles on the network. The second stage seeks to establish a statistical relationship between actual costs and damage. It is thus possible to convert damage estimates into costs using actual cost data, rather than through a set of potentially invalid assumptions as in previous approaches. Only the first stage is implemented in this paper. We show that it possible to produce total (annualised) damage measures for three damage mechanisms on five actual track sections in Sweden. Once extended, it will be possible to model the relationship between damage and actual costs for the first time; and thus better understand the relative costs of the different damage mechanisms and in turn inform the level and structure of track access charges.

  • 25.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Effects of Eurovignette directive Dir. 1999/62/EC as amended by Dir. 2006/38/EC: country report Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for the national report is the request in article 11 of the Eurovignette directive (Directive 1999/62/EC as amended by Dir. 2006/38/EC). "No later than 10 June 2011, the Commission shall present a report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation and effects of this Directive, taking account of developments in technology and the trend in traffic density, including the use of vehicles of more than 3,5 and less than 12 tonnes, and evaluating its impact on the internal market, including on island, landlocked and peripheral regions of the Community, levels of investment in the sector and its contribution to the objectives of a sustainable transport policy. Member States shall forward the necessary information for the report to the Commission no later than 10 December 2010." In the country report for Sweden the question catalogue developed by the Commission has been followed.

1 - 25 of 25
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