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  • 1.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A crack in the Swedish welfare façade?: A review of assessing social impacts in transport infrastructure planning2018In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of social impact categorisation in strategic planning across European Union Member States shows that Sweden neither categorises nor breaks down categories of social impact in areas such as transport infrastructure development. This article accordingly studies how social issues are handled during transport infrastructure planning. An analysis of different source materials will answer four research questions:

    1. To what extent are social impacts integrated into environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports?
    2. Are social impacts sufficiently integrated and/or does this treatment simply amount to ‘good practice’?
    3. Can any trend be detected over time in terms of addressing social issues in impact assessments?
    4. What key measures could increase the influence of social impact issues on transport infrastructure planning practice?

    The study involved a content analysis of six EIA handbooks and EIA statements (EISs) for 18 large transport infrastructure projects. The concepts searched for in these documents largely apply to issues of vulnerability, health, social problems, perceived safety, and alienation. Our data were interpreted through the theoretical lens of institutional interplay. We found that though social aspects are not new considerations in EIA research, they are included in only a small proportion of the 18 Swedish EISs, mostly in connection with health and accessibility. We also found that the more recent documents allotted less space to social issues. It is unlikely that most individuals in the organisations that order EISs, or the consultancies that write them, are unaware of the broader interpretation of ‘human beings’ which includes social aspects.

    The conclusion is that in the absence of a government initiative to clarify how social impacts can be addressed in transport infrastructure planning, there is a need for an external network for organisations involved in transport infrastructure EISs.

  • 2.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Äldres vardagliga resor: val av färdmedel och erfarenheter av kollektivtrafik2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of how older women and men are using public transport, but also enhance the understanding of whether they are using other means of transport and what is the basis for their choice. The study’s interest is in variations among older people’s narratives. To grasp the heterogeneity "among older people" the subjects involved were recruited from both urban and rural areas. They have different backgrounds, age and gender. The majority of them are ethnic Swedes, however, the study also included people with different ethnic background. The study includes 30 qualitative interviews with older people from two regions: Östergötland and Jönköping, 18 women and 12 men.

    The respondents often transported themselves by walking, sometimes even by bicycle; actually many chose walking or bicycling before bus or car. They stressed the importance of coming out and meeting other people, and moving around in different environments. They even referred to the importance of health reasons.

    Elements of restrictions appear in some of their stories which are not always by their own choice and must therefore be considered in future planning so that these individuals are not left out of the contexts they need and want to participate in. Examples of restrictions might be long distance to the bus stop, stairs, travel centers and other interchanges at different levels/floors, timetables that are not synchronized or buses at times that do not fit older people’s daily activity patterns. Except from deficiencies in public transport, it can also be about cycle paths or sidewalks that abruptly end at a difference in level, or stairs to the next available accessible area. When the whole chain of movements in the transport environment is not available, problems may occur. For the oldest respondents, it is particularly important that the 'whole journey' works. It is more common that the younger respondents travel by car and the interviewees also refer to car driving as an activity when one is reasonably young and healthy. But a lot of them are still driving at the age of 80-–90, some even after the 90th birthday, which indicate that it is not until you can no longer drive a car as you become more dependent on society's resources and of other people. The women in the present study describe the bus in more positive terms than men. Many of those who want to travel by bus believe that the bus is a good means of transport and describe it in certain ways: efficient, safe, environmentally friendly and economically efficient. More women than men in the study also describe that they are happy to choose other means of travel instead of the car in order to be able to relax, watch and meet other people, but also to have some time for themselves.

  • 3.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    "I want complete freedom": car use and everyday mobility among the newly retired2015In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate car use among newly retired people, to explore to what extent car transport is used for everyday mobility and how it is valued in comparison to other transport modes.

    The data consists of travel diaries and qualitative interviews with 24 individuals, aged between 61 and 67, living in a middle-sized Swedish city. The informants filled in a travel diary during 1 week that were analysed by VISUAL-TimePAcTS, an application for visualising and exploring activity diary data. The semi-structured qualitative interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    The car was used for several trips daily and often for short trips. The informants had a lot of everyday projects that they would not be able to perform if they did not have access to a car. The informant’s social context implies new space-time constraints. Commitments to family members, engagement in associations and spouses’ occupations affect how much and when they use the car, and their overall mobility.

    In contrast to much research on older people’s mobility that has studied slightly older people, this study have focused on a specific group that are relatively healthy, well-off, and have the possibility to choose between different modes of transport. By combining travel diaries and qualitative interviews, we have explored how newly retired people reason as regard their travel behaviour but also how they actually travel.

  • 4.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Mobility in the transition to retirement: the intertwining of transportation and everyday projects2014In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, no 38, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through travel diaries and interviews with newly retired urban residents in Sweden our aim was to explore (1) mobility patterns in the transition to retirement, (2) the influence of space-time restrictions and resources on mobility and (3) the meaning and embodied experience of mobility. This time-geographic study contributes with knowledge on how mobility is influenced by individual, social and geographical contexts. Illustrated by four cases, our result show that retirement changes the preconditions for mobility and creates new space-time restrictions. To spend more time on projects that were previously carried out outside working time, such as caring for grandchildren, volunteer work and household responsibilities, influenced the informants' demands for mobility and choice of transport mode. However, the informants have resources that can be seen as strategies to overcome space-time restrictions. Most of the informants found it important to structure the day, to some it was vital to have something to do during the day while others enjoyed the possibility to take each day as it comes. Everyday mobility was a way of forming a structure by getting out of the house, either just for a walk or for making errands. The informants' embodied experiences of mobility influenced their choice to walk and cycle for transport for the reasons of comfort, get fresh air, or simply to get out of the house. The daily mobility pattern that was established was a result of individual preferences and resources as well as negotiations with family members. We conclude that the transition to retirement is a period when new mobility patterns are considered, evaluated and practiced.

  • 5.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Time to spare: Everyday activities among newly retired people in a middle-sized city2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement has recently been studied as a complex process that affects people’s lives in many different ways (Teuscher 2010; Grenier 2011; Halleröd, Örestig and Stattin 2013). Retirement implies changes in time-space use, interruption in routines and changed social patterns. Leisure activities, shopping, errands and rest are no longer determined by the working life rhythm. New time-space constraints might at the same time occur that limit the individual’s actions, such as reduced income, new or increased commitments towards children and grandchildren, involvement in associations or part-time work (Kleiber and Nimrod, 2009; Szinovacz et al., 2001; Van den Bogaard et al., 2013).

    A vast amount of research from different fields has focused on the implications of retirement for wellbeing (Bender 2012; Wang 2007), adjustment (Van Solinge and Henkens 2008), identity (Teucher 2010), volunteering (Van den Bogaard et.al., 2013) and physical activity (Lahti et al. 2011). So far, only a few studies have investigated everyday activities and timespace use among older people in general and the post-World War II generation in particular (Chatzitheochari and Arber 2011; Gauthier and Smeeding 2003). In many studies of  time-space use, the aim has been to illuminate the juggling of everyday activities that occurs and to deal with the balance between work, leisure and family (Schwanen and de Jong 2008; Kwan 2000; Scholten, Friberg and Sanden 2012). Naturally, retired people have not been included in those studies, although many older people play an important role in the lives of families with small children (Schwanen 2008) and seek supporting and leading roles as citizens (cf. Gagliardi, et al. 2007; Leinonen 2011; Liechty, Yarnal and Kerstetter 2012; McCormack et al. 2008; Nimrod and Adoni 2006; Sperazza and Banerjee 2010). Little is known about the expectations this generation has on retirement and its demands for activities. The aim of this study is therefore to explore newly retired peoples everyday activities. What activities do they take part in and where are these activities carried out? In what respect, and for what reasons, do activities change or stay the same upon retirement?

    The remaining of this paper begins with a discussion of the implications of retirement on everyday activities in accordance to previous research. The time-geographical perspective and concepts used here for studying activities is then presented. That is followed by a description of methods, data and analysis, before the empirical analysis of travel diaries and qualitative interviews is given. The paper ends with a discussion of the results in relation to previous research.

  • 6.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Kollektivtrafikens roll i resenärens vardagsliv: Litteraturöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande litteraturöversikt visar på i första hand bredden i tidigare och pågående forsknings- och utredningsarbete om resenärer i kollektivtrafiken. Översikten tar avstamp med ett kapitel om studier av resenärers beteende, preferenser och attityder.  Där beskrivs studier av beteendevetenskaplig karaktär om bland annat kvalitet i kollektivtrafiken och om välbefinnande hos resenärer, baserade på resenärers utsagor och beteenden. Därefter kommer ett kapitel som beskriver studier om resandet och vardagslivets komplexitet, vilket bland annat handlar om resande och tid, samt aktiviteter i samband med kollektivtrafikresor och vad människor gör när de reser med kollektivtrafik (utöver att förflytta sig från en plats till en annan). Vidare beskriver vi i ett kapitel studier om tillgänglighet. Dels handlar det om fysisk tillgänglighet med fokus på fordon, stations- och hållplatsmiljöer; dels handlar det om sociala aspekter på tillgänglighet och om resenärers upplevelser och erfarenheter av tillgänglighet i och till kollektivtrafiken.

    Ett kapitel beskriver olika resenärsgrupper och deras erfarenheter, vilket är ett omfattande område där flera olika sätt att kategorisera resenärer går att skönja i tidigare studier; såsom ålder (barn, unga, äldre), kön (jämställdhet), resenärer med funktionsnedsättningar, pendlare, arbetsresor, skolresor, fritidsresor. Vidare följer ett kapitel om studier av trygghet och säkerhet i kollektivtrafiken och dess miljöer samt ett kapitel om metoder och prognosmodeller som används i planeringen.

    I ett avslutande kapitel diskuterar vi vad som framträder via den forskning och utredningsverksamhet som kartlagts i litteraturöversikten. Vad behöver beforskas mer och hur ser kunskapsluckorna ut? Hela resan är ett område som vi ser har utvecklingspotential i förhållande till tidigare studier. Likaså tror vi att man inom kollektivtrafiken behöver öka kunskapen om resenärerna för att kunna möta behoven i deras vardagsliv. Utvecklingen av komplementära metoder och modeller för prognoser i planeringen är också ett angeläget område, liksom att planera för hållbart resande.

     

  • 7.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Showing where you're going. Instructing the accountable use of the indicator in live traffic2018In: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0802-6106, E-ISSN 1473-4192, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 248-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes an interest in how students at a driving school are instructed how to make the car's behaviour intelligible (accountable) to other road users in traffic. Taking the indicator as an example, the analytic focus is on the ways in which the indicator's relevance is instructed and its timely activation practiced, and how activating the indicator is instructed as part of more encompassing turning procedures. The indicator is one of the central resources built into cars for displaying to others a driver's intention about where to go next. Although indicating does not, in itself, affect the movement of the car, activating the indicator is crucial for allowing others to anticipate a car's movement in space, and coordinate themselves with it. The analysis shows how instructors manage trainee drivers' instructed actions during driving by providing descriptions of what using the indicator accomplishes before a directive to turn (a), after a directive to turn (b), and as accounts for initiating correction of trainee driver car control activity (c).

  • 8.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping Universitet.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Telling the Other's side. Formulating others' mental states in driver training2018In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines ascriptions of mental states to other road users in live traffic driver training. Through this practice, instructors formulate how others make sense of the trainee driver's car. Using multimodal conversation analysis, we demonstrate how others' side formulations support trainee drivers' communicative handling of the car during ongoing coordination events. In contrast, formulations occurring after coordination events serve educational ends, yielding the generic inferential practices by which competent drivers make contextual sense of others' actions. Therefore, others' side formulations comprise an important instructional resource for introducing neophyte drivers into the real-world theorizing, rendering traffic its orderly social character.

  • 9.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Jakob, Cromdal
    Linköping University.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Starting out as a driver: Progression in instructed pedal work2017In: Memory practices and learning: Interactional, institutional and sociocultural perspectives / [ed] Mäkitalo, Åsa; Linell, Per; Säljö, Roger, IPA Publisher , 2017, p. 113-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dahl, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings universitet.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Konstruktioner av maskulinitet i samtal om kollektivtrafik2012In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 160-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights how environmental issues influence transport planning, and how they make transport planners rethink previous categorizations of user groups. The introduction of an environmental discourse leads to a questioning of men’s travel activities, i.e. car driving. However, the critique against men’s travelling does not address all men. Instead, two types of masculinities are constructed in the local planning discourse: the first one is a ‘problematic’ obsolete old driver. The second one is a young ‘quality conscious’ man who opts for new technological solutions. The relationship between these two constructions of masculinities is hierarchical.

    The transport planners interpret it as their responsibility to make sure that public transport is regarded as attractive to younger men and their imagined ‘needs’. The elderly men however, are made scapegoats and are blamed for their unsustainable travelling. These rather stereotypical constructions of men also include a negative perception of elderly men. The analysis is based on discussions in eight focus groups, accomplished in 2009 with 36 transport planners and politicians (24 men and 12 women) working with the planning of the future public transport system in Malmö city in the south of Sweden.

  • 11. Deppermann, Arnulf
    Mondada, Lorenza ()
    Broth, Mathias (Contributor)
    Cromdal, Jakob (Contributor)
    de Stefani, Elwys (Contributor)
    Haddington, Pentti (Contributor)
    Levin, Lena (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nevile, Maurice (Contributor)
    Rauniomaa, Mirka (Contributor)
    Overtaking as an interactional achievement: video analyses of participants' practices in traffic2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we pursue a systematic and extensive study of overtaking in traffic as an interactional event. Our focus is on the accountable organisation and accomplishment of overtaking by road users in real-world traffic situations. Data and analysis are drawn from multiple research groups studying driving from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic perspective. Building on multimodal and sequential analyses of video recordings of overtaking events, the article describes the shared practices which overtakers and overtaken parties use in displaying, recognising and coordinating their manoeuvres. It examines the three sequential phases of an overtaking event: preparation and projection; the overtaking proper; the realignment post-phase including retrospective accounts and assessments. We identify how during each of these phases drivers and passengers organise intra-vehicle and inter-vehicle practices: driving and non-driving related talk between vehicleoccupants, the emerging spatiotemporal ecology of the road, and the driving actions of other road users. The data is derived from a two camera set-up recording the road ahead and car interior. The recordings are from three settings: daily commuting, driving lessons, race-car coaching. The events occur on a variety of road types (motorways, country roads, city streets, a race track, etc.), in six languages (English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, and Swedish) and in seven countries (Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK). From an exceptionally diverse collection of video data, the study of which is made possible thanks to the innovative collaboration of multiple researchers, the article exhibits the range of practical challenges and communicative skills involved in overtaking.

  • 12.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elderly transportation and society: design, mobility and education2009In: Proceedings of the 4th Japanese-Nordic Symposium of Traffic Psychology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jämställdhet och genus i infrastrukturplanering: en studie av tillämpningen inom järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present the results of the research project Gender equality in railway planning. Furthermore, the report aims to contribute with a suggestion of how different transport authorities can systematically work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning. The research

    project was conducted on behalf of the Swedish Rail Administration (Banverket) which changed into the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) after the reorganisation of the Swedish transport authorities. The project relies on established gender theory and social science research methodology. The research project was implemented through three sub-studies that were carried out successively: 1) knowledge-building study based on case studies of existing practice in railway construction in Svealandsbanan and Mälarbanan and a literature review; 2) development of a proposed method for implementation of gender equality in railway planning, 3) implementation study in Simrishamnsbanan

    and Sydostlänken. Finally, an evaluation of methods and analyses was carried out. Three main themes were identified as key areas for the Swedish Transportation Administration's work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning:

    • To work with gender equality objectives
    • •Tools and methods aimed at leading the organization's work on the basis of specific goals
    • •Tools and models for impact assessment of gender equality.

    One conclusion of the research project is that although the Swedish Transportation Administration has initiated work with gender equality in transport planning, the authority needs to work more on developing both policy and planning. Transport planning should have the means to do social impact assessment, which is a methodology that the present research project suggests for the area of gender equality and other social aspects in transport planning and which is also perceived absent of officials, politicians and planners. This report proposes a method with different steps from procurement to implementation and evaluation (different parts corresponding to the transport authorities' internal and external gender equality).

  • 14.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kön i trafiken: jämställdhet i kommunal transportplanering2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jämställdhetsintegrering ska ofta ses som en strategi i det vardagliga arbetet inom kommuner, landsting och regioner. Samtidigt finns det en osäkerhet hos många projektledare och planerare om vad jämställdhet egentligen handlar om och vad som förväntas av dem. Denna skrift är en vägledning och inspiration till arbete med jämställdhet i transportplaneringen på lokal och regional nivå. Den har tagits fram för att ge en vägledning till hur man systematiskt kan arbeta med att integrera jämställdhet i planeringen. Skriften vänder sig framförallt till tjänstemän och politiker i kommuner och regioner som arbetar med transportplanering.

  • 15.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engelbrektsson, Elina
    WSP.
    Dahl, Emmy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    WSP.
    Yazar, Mine
    Södertörns högskola.
    Jämställdhet i samrådsprocesser vid svenska vägprojekt: genusperspektiv på annonsering, deltagande och mötesinteraktion vid samråd med allmänheten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender equality and transportation has to a small amount studied participation of women and men in public hearings concerning large infrastructure projects. Previous measures show that men dominate the hearings and that the average age among the participants is high. Public participation is a process that starts in the beginning of the planning of a road project and should run through the whole planning process.  Among the basic principles of public participation it is argued that public participation should be inclusive and equitable. The aim with the public hearings is also to take care of various arguments and ideas about the new road. The public hearings are often carried out as large information meetings or open house meetings.

    The aim of the current research project is to investigate how the hearings in Swedish road planning are practiced, who are attending the meetings and how do they express themselves at the meetings. The research project studied participation of women and men on totally 16 meetings arranged by the Swedish Road Administration during 2007 and 2008. The aim is also to increase gender equality in the public participation process. The project contains three different studies:

    1. An explorative study which shows that 26 per cent of the participants were women. The women who attended the meetings were more active than the men; they asked more questions in proportion to the number of attending women. Both women and men said they were confident with the information at the meetings. Counting the spoken time (of questions and answers) in seconds shows that men who talked at the meetings did longer speech turns and argued a lot more for their opinions.
    2. A separate study was created to investigate the announcements to the meetings. The announcement study showed that most of the announcements were created from a template that was rather technically oriented.
    3. In an intervention study that finished the project, the researchers interacted and changed the form of the announcements to a more dialogically oriented approach. Thus a few more women attended the meetings (32 per cent). Also, more middle aged and older people attended the meetings in the intervention study.
  • 16.
    Hallin, Jon
    et al.
    Tyréns.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport.
    Transportplanering i förändring: En handbok om jämställdhetskonsekvensbedömning i transportplaneringen2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på att belysa sociala konsekvenser i samband med trans­portplaneringen växer allt mer i Sverige (Trafikverket, 2014). Ett exempel är tunnelbaneutbyggnaden i Stockholm där sociala konsekvensbeskriv­ningar varit en del av processen vid sidan av järnvägsplan och miljökon­sekvensbeskrivning (MKB). Två andra exempel är miljöbedömningarna för Stockholm stads nya översiktsplan och för Regional Utvecklingsplan för Stockholmsregionen (RUFS) som görs i form av hållbarhetsbedöm­ningar där utgångspunkten är social hållbarhet. Göteborgs stad har också arbetat fram ett verktyg för social konsekvensanalys som används i många av kommunens stadsutvecklingsprojekt.

    Den sociala miljön består av många aspekter, exempelvis jämlikhet, och det är en relevant fråga varför handboken fokuserar på en delaspekt av jämlikhet, det vill säga mellan kvinnor och män, och inte tar ett hel­hetsgrepp. Svaret är inte att jämlikheten mellan män och kvinnor är vik­tigare än den mellan andra grupper. Anledningen är att det redan finns etablerade verktyg för exempelvis barnkonsekvensanalyser. Tillgänglig­hetskrav för personer med funktionsnedsättning och äldre är också väl etablerade. Däremot saknas ett etablerat verktyg för att analysera hur en förändring påverkar kvinnor och män. Vår uppfattning är också att me­toden för social konsekvensbeskrivning är en processorienterad paraply­metod, likt MKB, under vilken det ingår flera aspekter som vart och ett är att betrakta som ett expertområde med specifika analysmetoder. Jäm­ställdhet är ett sådant expertområde och JKB är den analysmetod som i dagsläget saknas i transportplaneringen.

  • 17.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Challenging situations, self-reported driving habits and capacity among older drivers (70+) in Sweden: a questionnaire study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the survey study in Sweden was to investigate health issues, driving habits and use of a car. The researchers were also interested in which traffic situations were judged as difficult or dangerous, avoidance strategies adopted for such situations, type of car used, equipment (ADAS systems) and its frequency of use. Respondents were asked to report any accidents in the previous two years, and to self-estimate their cognitive functioning and driving ability. Target population: Persons born in 1941 or earlier (aged 70 years or more in the year 2011), living in the county of Västra Götaland in Sweden, holder of a driving licence for category B, passenger car and still driving. This resulted in a target group comprising 1,362 active drivers. The overall picture of an older driver emerging from this study is one who enjoys car driving, uses the car often and is not particularly occupied by thoughts about stopping driving. Possible bias in this picture of older drivers may be due to the fact that those most interested in car driving were also those most interested in the study and thus in answering the questionnaire. There are several “truths” about older drivers reported in the literature that are questionable in the light of the present study. It is sometimes said that older people drive old cars, but this phenomenon is not supported by the questionnaire data in our study. The changes in driving behaviour often attributed to ageing drivers, e.g. driving more slowly, less frequently and over shorter distances, are applicable in the case of about one-third of the drivers in the present study. Analyses of this study confirm that health status is not the only reason someone stops driving; being less confident/apprehensive in the context of car driving may result in driving cessation. Findings indicate that preventive action, such as retraining sessions or developing driver assistance systems, will have to be taken into account if the risk associated with certain situations is to be reduced.

  • 18.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    TØI, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Siren, Anu
    DTU, Copenhagen.
    Mobility in different generations of older persons: The development of daily travel in different cohorts in Denmark, Norway and Sweden2010In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 624-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the proportion of older people in the total population is expected to reach about 25% in 2060. The ageing of the population has a variety of social implications. One aspect of population ageing that has relatively little attention in the Scandinavian countries is the question of everyday mobility. The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of the activity and travel patterns of different groups of older people, examine how travel- and activity patterns are developing during the life course, study the changes over time and how the "new" generations of older people behave compared to the older ones. The method used is cohort analysis of National Travel Surveys from the three countries in a 20 years perspective. Results show a significant period effect in car ownership and use among older people in Denmark. Norway and Sweden with a clear increase during the past 20 years. This is especially true for women. The increase in the number of driver's licence-holders and car availability is reflected in travel mode choice among older people: both men and women maintain their car-use habits at old age. Another clear finding is that older people today travel more than the comparable age groups 20-25 years ago: everyday trip rates are higher and activities outside home are more common. While commuting and work-related trips decline after retirement, shopping and leisure trips do not start to decline before high age. From the cohort analysis we see that leisure and shopping trips are maintained in the period after retirement, and the car is important to reach shopping malls, health service, leisure activities, visit relatives and other social company.

  • 19.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Vågane, Liva
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Siren, Anu
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Institut for Transport.
    Ulleberg, Pål
    Universitetet i Oslo, Psykologisk institutt (PSI).
    Eldres mobilitet og velferd: utvikling, reisebehov og tiltak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of older people state that access to transport is essential to their welfare and quality of life. Nevertheless many older people in Norway today are facing an unsatisfactory transport supply. Not all of them want to or are able to use a car, and many live in areas with low public transport quality. The knowledge of the Special Transport Service is low, and only one third of those who use it state that their transport need is met. With an increasing share of older people it is important to develop a transport policy adjusted to this change. It will mean greater independence for older people and help them to stay longer in their homes, contributing to improved welfare and quality of life.

  • 20.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    TØI, Oslo.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    TØI, Oslo.
    Vågane, Liva
    TØI, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Siren, Anu
    DTU, Copenhagen.
    Ulleberg, Pål
    University of Oslo.
    Eldres mobilitet og velferd: utvikling, reisebehov og tiltak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of older people state that access to transport is essential to their welfare and quality of life. Nevertheless many older people in Norway today are facing an unsatisfactory transport supply. Not all of them want to or are able to use a car, and many live in areas with low public transport quality. The knowledge of the Special Transport Service is low, and only one third of those who use it state that their transport need is met. With an increasing share of older people it is important to develop a transport policy adjusted to this change. It will mean greater independence for older people and help them to stay longer in their homes, contributing to improved welfare and qualityof life.

  • 21.
    Lallemand, Sylviane
    et al.
    IFSTTAR, Lyon.
    Paire-Ficout, Laurence
    IFSTTAR, Lyon.
    Chavoix, C
    Lafont, Sylviane
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Fabrigoule, Colette
    Université de Bordeaux.
    Identification of the potential discrepancies of challenging situations/scenarios according to crash studies and drivers themselves: Literature review2013Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Analys av integreringen av jämställdhet i regional transportplanering i Dalarna: Regional systemanalys Dalarna och Länsplan för regional transportinfrastruktur Dalarna 2018–20292019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study, which is reported in this publication, was to analyse the integration of the transport policy’s equality objective in the regional transport planning in Dalarna. The project was carried out based on qualitative content analysis of the two documents "Regional system analysis Dalarna - basis for transport infrastructure planning" and "County plan for regional transport infrastructure Dalarna 2018–2029" and interviews with eight key persons who participated in the work processes in developing the two documents. The documents show a good picture of the transport infrastructure in the region, but a quite general picture of the population – there is some statistics but no distribution between different population groups. The researchers suggest that the knowledge that exists about the transport infrastructure and the population regionally, should be used more systematically to analyse different groups (such as women and men, older and younger) as transport users, their power of the transport system and their opportunities to influence their own mobility. It appears from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity mainstreaming are perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience are needed. It is pointed out that there is some knowledge but that there are no structures for how it can be incorporated into the planning process. Some statements indicate that pioneering work is ongoing. Gender equality and diversity are described by some as "new" elements in regional transport infrastructure planning, compared to issues such as accessibility, growth and the environment. Interviewees said they lacked developed routines for integrating gender equality and diversity into their work processes. Regarding gender equality a clearer focus is required – for example, to integrate gender-disaggregated statistics at regional level and analyses of the region linked to the target formulations at national level (the transport policy and the national gender equality goals). An example of a method could be gender equality impact assessment (GIA), but also a broader social impact assessment (SIA) where different groups are included based on the Discrimination Act.

  • 23.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Elderly, Transportation and Society: Mobility, Design, Education 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Elderly women and men in public transport: Comparative study on mobility and transport mode choice for elderly people in different areas2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gender equality and safety, a challenge for transport planning: Moving away from stereotypes and stereotypical attitudes and habits2015In: Safety and Security in Transit Environments: An interdisciplinary Approach / [ed] V. Ceccato and A. Newton, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    How may public transport influence the practice of everyday life among younger and older people and how may their practices influence public transport?2019In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines public transport use through the lens of practice to understand the perspectives of two categories of public transport users: Younger and older people. In taking this approach, we assume that the forms of mobility in a society are dependent on citizens' everyday practices and on the structures of the cities, landscapes, etc. Transport needs and accessibility may vary depending on contexts (i.e., where and how we live) and on the various resources of groups of citizens. Results indicated that younger people are repeatedly referred to public transport to meet their mobility needs, while older people are more often car-dependent. Local variations, among both younger and older people, indicate higher confidence in public transport in big and medium-sized cities and a greater desire for car ownership in small cities. For the transition to sustainable mobility, e.g., public transport, transport associations and local governments should be responsive to the practice of everyday life among citizens: e.g., younger people's leisure activities in afternoons and weekends, and older people's wish for accessible transport service outside the dominant flow of passengers and their daily commuting practice. The data come from Sweden, specifically from focus groups with teenagers aged 14-16 years and retired people aged 63-97 years.

  • 27.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag , 2019, p. 393-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transport is one of the key challenges of the UN and EU to ensure to meet society’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising undesirable impacts. Sustainability planning may require changing the way we solve transportation problems. From the perspectives of the sustainability, we may assume that the emphasis should move in direction to changing the practice: but exactly what practice and who’s practices are to be changed? One way is to investigate gendered mobilities. The main differences in mobility patterns between women and men at a general level, are found in modal choice and travel distance. Women’s practices tend to be related to the most sustainable means of transport, while men’s practices are related to more un-sustainable transport. Relying on studies on transport planning including focus groups, interviews and workshops in Sweden, this paper ties the concepts of gender equality, to contemporary planning and sustainable “smart” mobility, and investigates in what way knowledge about gender equality is elaborated in regional planning practice. It appeared from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity were perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience were needed. It was pointed out that there existed some knowledge but that there were no structures for how it could be incorporated into the planning process. Noticeable are conflicting practices, while policy on gender equality are attached to the planning there are still beliefs that transport planning can be gender neutral and free from social impacts. The smart mobility approach promises improvements of mobility and access opportunities for all.

  • 28.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Massmedialkategorisering av äldre i arbetslivet: Den som blir arbetslös vid 50 års ålder får räkna med att gå arbetslös fram till pensionen2009In: Åldrande, åldersordning, ålderism / [ed] Håkan Jönson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009, 1, p. 105-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel kommer att handla om kategorisering av ålder i arbetslivet med fokus på den "äldre" arbetskraften och hur den skildras av massmedier. Utgångspunkten är att åldersdiskriminering handlar om negativ särbehandling på grund av ålder. Om exempelvis tjänster eller arbetsuppgifter på en arbetsplats fördelas mot bakgrund av antaganden om att ålder och kompetens hör samman då har det tydliga ålderistiska inslag. Jag vill även hävda att beskrivningar av individer och grupper av individer kan omfattas av ålderismbegreppet och ha ålderistiska inslag, exempelvis massmediers skildringar av äldre personers prestationer eller tillkortakommanden i olika sammanhang. Omorganisation av arbetsplatser är tydliga exempel där ålder har använts (som en kategori) för att definiera människor som ska få tillgång till eller bör avvecklas från vissa tjänster/arbeten och när det har ansetts att personalen behövt föryngras har man exempelvis satt ett ålderstak och erbjudit tidig avgång med pension för dem som hamnat över ålderstaket (t.ex. 50, 55, 60 år). Vid försvarsomvandlingen 1999–2000 infördes så kallad särskild pension (SP) för officerare 55+ och för civilanställda 58+. Även om ålder inte får utgöra grunden för uppsägning kan åldern ha betydelse för hur man resonerar på ledningsnivå, fackligt och i olika arbetsgrupper. Vissa kategoriseringar kan få ålderistiska inslag och kan genom sådana särskilda pensionsåtgärder få fäste i en organisation och även sippra ut i en så kallad "offentlig diskurs". Inte minst i massmedier av olika slag kan kategorierna få fäste.

  • 29.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Measures to promote older people’s mobility: A critical review from Sweden, Denmark and Norway2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobile older citizens: with or without a car2014In: Proceedings from Fit-to-drive, Conference 8-9 May 2014 in Warsaw Poland., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility in Later Life: Time, Choice and Action2009In: The Cultures of Alternative Mobilities: Routes Less Travelled. / [ed] Vannini, Phillip, London & New York: Ashgate, 2009, p. 141-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility patterns among older people in Sweden: a study of women's and men's experiences and modal choices from a life course perspective2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , p. 10p. 1-10Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe people in urban areas, generally have access to some sort of public transport (PT). Sweden is one of the European countries with high level of ambition trying to increase the proportion of the older and impaired travelling with PT. Since a few years ago there is a programme about to increase accessibility and user-friendliness, and the program declares PT should be accessible for all older and impaired persons. However, this is not yet the case. Still many older persons (65+) do not use ordinary PT at all. The purpose of the present study is to investigate older people’s visions of their opportunities to use various transportation modes for daily travel and especially their experiences of PT.

    Methods and materials: in total 30 individual in depth interviews and 9 focus groups with older people. The youngest is about 62 and the oldest is 93 years.

    The study shows there are pertinent gendered variations in the use of transportation modes. The differences are not always due to issues of accessibility, but rather to habits and life course trajectories. According to the stories told by older informants from both urban and rural areas, it is concluded that habits and experiences during the life course influence the travel mode choice and options in later life. Previous mobility patterns have an effect on mobility patterns today. It was also found that the informants in this study travelled a lot more than expected from the researchers in the beginning of the study.

  • 33.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility patterns among older people in Sweden: A study of women’s and men’s experiences and modal choices from a life course perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden: studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Äldre kvinnor: osynliga i statistiken men närvarande i trafiken2008In: Resande, planering, makt / [ed] Mats Brusman,Tora Friberg & Jane Summerton., Lund: Arkiv Förlag , 2008, 1, p. 23-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Convenient everyday transport: a way to avoid disadvantages of ageing2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility in Later Life: What does accessibility and Transport Choice mean for Older Women and Men? 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping Universitet.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping Universitet.
    Gazin, Anne-Danièle
    Utrecht University.
    Haddington, Pentti
    University of Oulu.
    McIlvenny, Paul
    Aalborg University.
    Melander, Helen
    Uppsala University.
    Rauniomaa, Mirka
    Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research on Intersubjectivity in Interaction.
    Unpacking corrections in mobile instruction: Error-occasioned learning opportunities in driving, cycling and aviation training2017In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 38, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchanges. Through detailed multimodal analysis of participants’ actions, it is shown how instructors systematically elaborate their corrective instructions to include relevant information about the trouble and remedial action – a practice we refer to as unpacking corrections. It is proposed that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction and mobility, as well as to ongoing work in ethnomethodology and conversation analysis on teaching and learning as members’ phenomena.

  • 39.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sagberg, Fridulv
    TØI.
    Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden: studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous situations for older drivers and older drivers' accident involvement and visual behaviour in complex traffic situations have been studied in the reported research project. Three main methods have been used: 1) a thorough accident analysis of police reported accidents in Norway, 2) a literature study on existing research on older drivers' behaviour (i.e. cognitive aspects on car driving) and accident involvement, and 3) experimental studies comprising visual and perception tests accomplished in Norway and Sweden and a field study on the road, accomplished in Sweden. In the experimental study and in the field study it was found significantly more individual differences among the older than among the younger drivers in the samples from Norway and Sweden. From in depth analyses of fatal crashes in Norway during the years 2005-2007 it was found that tiredness was the most often suspected cause of the accident among the group aged 35-55 years (28 %) and the second most often suspected cause in the group aged 75+ (19 %). Illness could be the cause of the accident twice as often among the older drivers (28 %) as in the younger control group (14 %). Concerning suicide, the situation could be the reverse with more deliberate actions among the younger (11 %) compared to the older drivers (6 %)

  • 40.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Gender impact assessment in infrastructure planning2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Gender mainstreaming and GIA in infrastructure planning: a connection to SIA practice2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    Genusperspektiv på utveckling av kollektivtrafik: hållbar jämställdhet vid planering av framtidens kollektivtrafik i Malmö2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research project focuses on gender equality and sustainability in planning of public transport. It consists of four parts:

    1. Mapping the current status in the organisation - focus groups with planning staff and content analysis of texts and images produced within the project concerning future public transport in the city of Malmö
    2. Seminars and workshops
    3. Study of the practice of public consultations and the participation of citizens in the planning process
    4. Evaluation and compilation of results and effects.

    The point of departure for the evaluation of the results is the four national objectives for gender equality formulated by the Swedish Government and Parliament, which Malmö City has chosen to include in their own policy. The objectives have not hitherto been properly developed and operationalized in the local context of transport planning in Malmö. The following local adaptions are suggested:

    1. Equal distribution of power and influence. There would be equal distribution of power and influence between women and men in decision making and implementation processes in the public transport planning in Malmö
    2. Economic equality. Public transport in Malmö would contribute to equitable opportunities for women and men to education and paid work which gives economic independence
    3. Equal distribution of unpaid care and household work. Public transport in Malmö would contribute to the establishment of equal distribution between men and women regarding the responsibility for unpaid housework and the ability to give and receive care
    4. Security. Increased security by minimising the risk and eliminating the fear of being subjected to gender-related violence and crime in connection with travel by public transport
  • 43.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    How to apply gender equality goals in transport and infrastructure planning2019In: Integrating Gender into Transport Planning: From One to Many Tracks / [ed] Christina Lindkvist Scholten, Tanja Joelsson, Palgrave Macmillan , 2019, p. 89-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working systematically on gender mainstreaming in transport infrastructure entails implementing a gender perspective in all stages of decision-making, planning and execution. In light of the sustainability goals introduced through the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this chapter presents a model of how to address gender mainstreaming in transport planning in a more systematic way. Previous research has addressed the gender-equality goals in Sweden; now, we suggest how to explore the model in an international context. Our research is influenced by the fields of social impact assessment (SIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), which we have combined into a model for integrating gender equality into transport planning. We call it gender impact assessment (GIA). The model has been developed over ten years of research into how gender-equality goals are implemented in transport planning. The model is objectives-led, goal-oriented, and adapted to planning practice.

    We argue that an objectives-led approach to GIA could further develop transport planning with regard to gender mainstreaming. First, this approach to GIA could improve the outcomes of transport planning and second, this model of GIA would provide an assessment of whether or not various strategic actions are moving in the desired direction. This means that transport planners would be able to evaluate the fulfilment of the 2030 Agenda goals or national gender-equality goals. Third, GIA would establish assessment criteria to be used for testing the effects on gender equality of strategic actions of transport plans. Fourth and finally, this approach to GIA also highlights potential goal conflicts.

  • 44.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    How to operationalize SDG 5 in impact assessment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Methods and tools for gender mainstreaming in Swedish transport planning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender mainstreaming has been the Swedish government's strategy for gender equality policies since the Government Bill Shared Responsibility came into effect in 1993–1994. A transport policy objective of gender equality was introduced in 2001 and modified in 2009. How gender equality in transport should be interpreted and clarified has been discussed and studied by various operators since its introduction. A characteristic feature in many discussions has been a focus on differences in men's and women's travel patterns. Differences in travel patterns have been interpreted to mean that women and men have different values and needs. However, these over-simplifications both of men’s and women’s travel patterns and of their mobility needs often result in stereotypes.

    The aim of this paper is to bring in a critical approach to generalisation of men’s and women’s travel patterns. The purpose is to present a method of how to work with gender mainstreaming in transport planning, and to provide tools to make systematic gender impact assessments adapted to the Swedish context of gender mainstreaming.[1]

    The method we propose is based on methods and quality requirements similar to those existing in the fields of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and social impact assessment (SIA)[2]. That is: the method should be appropriate, effective, knowledge-based and open to participation and criticism.• Appropriate means it should be useful as a knowledge base for planning and decision. Consequences should be discernible, and key issues (project-based and business-based) should be clearly defined. • Effective means it can be implemented systematically, and can be structured with the intention of affecting the planning and project solution. It also means that resources should be available in terms of time and money.• Knowledge-based means that it should be based on rationality and professionalism. It should be designed according to good scientific practice and implemented using methods and techniques that are applicable. • Open means that discussions should take place both within the project organization and in open consultation. These discussions should be included in the reports produced and in the decision making process.

    [1] Faith-Ell, C., & Levin, L. (2013). Kön i trafiken. Jämställdhet i kommunal transportplanering [Gender Mainstreaming. Guidance for Regional and Local Transport Planners]. Stockholm: SKL, Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting.

    [2] Vanclay, F. & Esteves, A.M. (2012). New Directions in Social Impact Assessment. Conceptual and Methodological Advances. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar.

  • 46.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    Dahl, Emmy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    WSP.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engelbrektsson, Elina
    WSP.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Bilagedelen: Genusperspektiv på utveckling av kollektivtrafik: hållbar jämställdhet vid planering av framtidens kollektivtrafik i Malmö2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Består av 1) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Lägesrapport 1a: Rapportering från fokusgrupperna, av Lena Levin, Emmy Dahl och Malin Henriksson. 2) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Lägesrapport 1b: Resultat av innehålls- och bildanalys, av Charlotta Faith-Ell och Susanna Nilsson. 3) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Dokumentation från workshop 11 februari 2010, av Susanna Nilsson, Lena Levin, Charlotta Faith-Ell, Emmy Dahl och Malin Henriksson.4) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Observationer och utvärdering av dialogmöten i Malmö stad, av Jonna Nyberg, Elina Engelbrektsson, Susanna Gustafsson, Lena Levin och Charlotta Faith-Ell. 5) Jämställd stadsplanering i Malmö - hur gör vi nu då? slutseminarium & workshop 26 november 2010, dokumentation: Lena Levin, Elina Engelbrektsson, Charlotta Faith-Ell och Lennart Skoglund.

  • 47.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Lindqvist Scholten, Christina
    Malmö högskola.
    Aretun, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Halling, Jon
    WSP Samhällsbyggnad.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Att integrera jämställdhet i länstransportplanering: Slutredovisning av forskningsprojektet Implementering av metod för jämställdhetskonsekvensbedömning (JKB) i svensk transportinfrastrukturplanering2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to develop and test the model for Gender Equality Impact Assessment as proposed in the report Gender Equality in Traffic Planning. Principally the focus was on the Swedish national gender equality objectives of economic equality and the equal distribution of unpaid housework and provision of care. The project also aimed to identify the need for development of knowledge (of gender equality) and to develop an undergraduate training course for professionals in transportation planning.

    The departure of the project was taken in the objectives of gender equality in transport and the national gender equality objectives. Every fourth to fifth year a county transport plan is formed for each of the 20 regions of Sweden. These plans are the basis for investments in transport for 10–15 years in the future. The plans are used to prioritize the major transport infrastructure initiatives at the national, regional and local level.

    The research project was organised into five work packages, where researchers and planners collaborated. Initially the researchers analysed how gender came into account in the last two regional transport plans, and in focus groups and workshops with planners discussed their viewpoints on gender equality in the regional transportation planning. These analyses and discussions formed the basis for the two work packages with additional working sessions where a number of steps in a procedure were tested with the aim to further develop a working model for gender equality impact assessment.

  • 48.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Systemutformares syn på det delade ansvaret för trafiksäkerheten2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study is about how different players working with traffic safety interpret the Swedish Parliament´s decision in principle on shared responsibility for the safety of traffic (proposition 1996/97:137 Nollvisionen och det trafiksäkra samhället (Vision Zero for the Traffic-safe Community)), as well as how they feel they work with shared responsibility. The purpose was also to investigate how the different actors feel about an eventual introduction of a traffic responsibility law. The investigation is based on qualitative interviews with 23 system designers from the Swedish Road Administration, the Police, the municipalities, the haulage industry and the vehicle industry. The interviews were carried out during the year 2006. The study has, as a background for the understanding of the interview material, tried to summarize a portion of that discussion which has been carried out by the mass media, in other reports and evaluations; by politicians, researchers and community debaters during the last few years.

  • 49.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Journeys of life in a neighbourhood: mobility, life course stories and ageing2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Levin, Lena (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äldre i transportsystemet: mobilitet, design och träningsproblematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generally, more elderly will be travelling and be out on the roads as active road-users in the future. Research exists on the travelling habits of the elderly; but more in-depth knowledge on the elderly's preferences as license-holders, drivers, road-users and actors in public transport is required. The aim of this report is to give an overview of previous research as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly as actors within the transport system. The work has a clear multidisciplinary approach, with knowledge from social science, behavioural science and technical research on transport and the elderly. However, the main weight lays on social science and behavioural science issues. The report is divided into eleven chapters: 1) contains a short background, purpose and method questions; 2) discusses the project's scientific and social relevance; 3) provides theoretical background and theoretical concepts; 4) mentions previous research on the elderly as car drivers; 5) is a chapter on license-less vehicles; 6) discusses traffic and road design for the elderly; 7) discusses the elderly as pedestrians and bicycle road-users; 8) is about the elderly in public transport and 9) is about the training of elderly drivers. Chapter 10) consists of a final discussion and chapter 11) summarises point by point the need for research on issues which have come to light in the report

12 1 - 50 of 55
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