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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Räfflor i mitten av körfältet: ett försök i Skaulo2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the study was to evaluate the effects on road user behavior when using milled rumble strips in the centre of the lane on a road 6.5 meters wide. The evaluation included measurements of speed and lateral position. Measurements were done before and after milling, and focus group interviews were perfomed with motorcyclists and truck drivers after realisation. The results of the measurements of speed and lateral position showed that milled rumble strips in the middle of the lane do not affect car drivers. A slight increase in the standard deviation of the lateral position for passenger cars may be noted. Truck drivers were affected slightly more: significantly lower speed was detected as well as that trucks moved closer to the road centre, and the standard deviation of lateral position increased. This is not what the drivers themselves report to experience. They say that their choice of speed is unchanged. All in all truck drivers were negative to the rumble strips in the centre of the lane. One argument was that they disturbe the "line" during the drive and make it difficult to choose the placement they want to have. Truck drivers do not believe that they, in case of falling asleep, (in contrary to expectations) would have time enough to act in order to aviod a crash, since the roads are too narrow. Also the motorcyclists are negative to the centre lane location of rumble strips. They agree, however, that rumble strips in the centre of the road and in the roadside are postitive in terms of traffic safety.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikanternas uppfattning om frästa räfflor i mitten på 2-fältsväg: fokusgrupper med motorcyklister och pendlare samt vägkantsintervjuer2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of crashes caused by driver sleepiness or driver distraction is high. Rumble strips (milled) could be an alternative countermeasure on narrow roads where fences are not possible to be used. The Swedish Road Administration has initiated an evaluation of the effects of the use of milled rumble strips in the road centre on narrow roads. The evaluation includes crash studies, measurements of speed and lateral position in traffic flow and the drivers' opinions about the measure. This study focuses on the drivers' opinions. Discussions within focus groups with motorcyclist and commuters have been performed, but also road side interviews with 360 drivers at spots along roads where rumble strips are used. The results from the discussions within focus groups indicate that rumble strips are not a problem for either the motorcyclists or the commuters, taking into account both traffic safety aspects and accessibility. The motorcyclists do not seem to be influenced at all, in opposite to commuters who discussed the influence on speed and lateral position. The results from the road side interviews show that the majority (85%) do not think they reduce speed because of rumble strips. The majority of the drivers (58%) said that they do not change the distance to the centre of the road because of the rumble strips. In conclusion 90% of the drivers reported that they thought that the rumble strips will contribute to increased traffic safety. From the drivers' point of view we recommend further use of rumble strips in the centre of the road on roads with a lane width of around 9 meters.

  • 3.
    Bjørnskau, Torkel
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Assum, Terje
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Personvern og ITS-baserte trafikksikkerhetstiltak: en studie av streknings-ATK, automatisk fartstilpasning (ISA) og atferdsregistrator (EDR)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Nye ITS-baserte trafikksikkerhetstiltak som kan brukes til å registrere og regulere uønsket atferd i trafikken, har et stort potensial for å øke trafikksikkerheten. Men de kan komme i konflikt med personvernet. Streknings-ATK og EDR har klare implikasjoner for personvernet og at ISA kan ha det om data fra ISA-systemet lagres. Konsekvensene for personvernet er tolket ulikt i Norge og Sverige. Prøvedrift med streknings-ATK på flere strekninger er startet opp i Norge, men i Sverige er dette ikke aktuelt pga. hensynet til personvern. I begge land installeres ISA i offentlige tjenestebiler. EDR har fått liten oppmerksomhet i begge land. Bileierne er overveiende positive til både streknings-ATK og ISA. Jo større forståelsen for at fart er en risikofaktor, desto større er aksepten for slike fartsregulerende tiltak. Bileierne er mest skeptiske til atferdsregistratorer som i dag er lite kjent. Atferdsregistratorer, som ?event data recorder? eller ?black box?, er imidlertid i ferd med å bli svært vanlige i moderne biler ? og stadig mer data fra kjøretøyene lagres. Bileiere bør derfor i større grad få informasjon om dette og tilgang til de data som registreres.

  • 4.
    Engström, Inger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ungdomars uppfattningar av trafiksäkra förare och förarutbildningens utformning2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    An interview study was carried out with a phenomenographic approach, aimed at finding the variation of experience of a specific phenomenon. The prime objective was to find the variations of perceptions between young people who are learning to drive, and those who have recently acquired driving licences regarding what characterises a safe driver. The second objective was to find variations in perceptions as to how driving instruction should be organised. The third objective was to make a comparison between the perceptions of the two groups. In all, 37 interviews were carried out: 19 with 17 year-olds who held provisional driving licences, and 18 with 18 year-olds who held full driving licences. The interviews were of semi-structured character; all those interviewed were asked the same initial questions but after that the interviews were adapted to each respective respondent's replies. The result showed four joint categories of description for the groups as regards their perceptions of what a safe driver is; manoeuvring, obeying the law, adaptation and experience. Additionally, the 17 year-olds had self-awareness and the 18 year-olds had self-confidence, concentration and commitment. One interpretation of the difference is that the 18 year-olds have undergone driving instruction and have therefore thought more about what driving a car involves, how to behave on the road, etc. There were two joint categories as regards perceptions of how driving instruction should be formulated; flexibility and professional instructors. Additionally, with the 17 year-olds there were experience and order, and with the 18 year-olds the categories of risk-awareness, lifelong learning and sequence. The 17 year-olds primarily discussed the form of the instruction while the 18 year-olds were more focused on the content of the instruction in combination with its form. The 18 year-olds attached importance to individual responsibility, as regards both the arrangement of the instruction and the actual learning process for becoming a safe driver.

  • 5.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Elkehag, Kerstin
    Elm, Charlotta
    Gustafson, Pamela
    Åkerberg, Pia
    Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts: ur barnens perspektiv2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    School transportation should be safe, secure and accessible for all children entitled to such transportation, regardless of any disability. On a daily basis, 440,000 children utilise school transportation, several thousands of them having some sort of disability. Laws, rules and regulations concerning school transportation do not take the children's perspective into account. Moreover, they do not explicitly define where and when a school transport actually starts and ends. For these reasons, more knowledge was needed in order to fully understand why school transportation incidents take place. The aim of the project was thus to describe and understand children's (with and without disabilities) thoughts and experiences concerning safety and security in school transportation, from a "door-to-door" perspective. The number of individuals affected by school transportation incidents is, luckily, limited in relative terms, and quantitative methods do not fully catch the reasons behind children's involvement in these incidents. Instead, qualitative approaches have been applied, gaining a rich and deeper insight into the problems studied. In order to get as broad and full picture as possible, the project was divided into four subprojects: 1. Focus groups with children, drivers, staff and parents. 2. Interviews with children suffering from neuropsychiatric disabilities. 3. Interviews with children involved in school transportation incidents. 4. Field observations and interviews with children who are in extensive need for technical aids.

  • 6.
    Forsberg, Inger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Vectura.
    Svensson, Helena
    Vectura.
    Det nya hastighetssystemet: fokusgruppsintervjuer på landsbygd och i tätort2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rules governing the regulation of driving speed in Sweden have been in force since 1971 outside the urban area, and since 1955 in urban areas. In order to better adapt the speed limits to the current situation and in accordance with the Vision Zero, the Parliament decided in 2007 to introduce a more flexible speed limit system with ten steps (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120 km/h). The purpose of the new speed limit was that it would be perceived as more logical than before. This should in itself increase its acceptance among road users. If all road users respect the speed limits then approximately 150 lives would be saved each year. In addition to saving lives, a reduction in speed would reduce the emission of carbon dioxide by about 700 000 tonnes. Work to review and implement the new speed limits began in 2008 and will affect about 20 000 km of roads. The present study aimed to elicit the views of different road user groups and residents along the roads using a qualitative approach. The study was conducted in rural and urban areas where the new speed limits had been implemented. Questions were: 'What is the experience of the new speed limits?' 'Is there a difference of opinion between road users in rural and urban areas?' and 'Is there a difference of opinion between road user groups?' Two focus groups were conducted with residents in rural areas. The first focused on vulnerable road users and the other on the situation of the residents. In an urban area three focus groups were used that discussed a speed limit reduction from 50 to 40 km/h. The focus groups involved vulnerable road users, bus drivers and taxi drivers.

  • 7.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
  • 8.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tjänstemännen och trafiksäkerheten i kommunerna: föreställningar, roller och beslut2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the present study is to describe and analyze the attitude of local government officials to traffic safety and to their roles in the decisions being made with regard to traffic safety measures. The purpose is also to give an overall picture of the decision-making processes in connection with specific traffic safety measures in two municipal authorities. The study has been divided into two parts. The first part was an interview study in which twenty local government officials in eleven municipal authorities were subject to in-depth interviews. The second part consists of case studies of the planning and decision-making processes with regard to traffic safety matters in two municipal authorities, where the source material in each case consists of written documentation.

  • 9.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mopedungdomars trafiksäkerhet: föräldrars ansvar och engagemang2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the importance of parents in young moped riders’ behaviour in traffic. The study consists of three parts; a literature review, a survey and an interview study. In the survey, 440 parents of teenagers (who had passed their test for mopeds) participated. In the interview study, 10 of the parents who took part in the survey were interviewed. The results from the literature review show that parents play an important role in young people’s perceptions, attitudes, norms, and behaviours associated with moped driving. Parents can also get involved in different ways to help in improving their teenagers’ knowledge and behaviour in traffic. In general, the review show that parents need support in order to be able to take control, and they also need support from other parents. The main results of the survey show that parents have great faith in the teenager when it comes to their knowledge and behaviour in traffic. In general, the results show that moped driving is not a topic being discussed very much. Some parents have implemented restrictions and the most common ones are related to alcohol and the usage of a helmet. In this study, less than ten percent wanted some form of support from others. Those who need help do not to the same extent as the others, believe that their teenager behave properly in traffic and they also believe that they are more influenced by social media. The study also found that the perception of boys and girls differ. Girls are considered to be safer on the roads but despite this, they have more restrictions placed on them than boys. Even if women value the teen’s knowledge and behaviour in traffic higher than men, they also have imposed more restrictions. In the family, women are talking more about risks in traffic than men are. The results from the interview study show that very few parents are in need of support when it comes to their children’s moped use. More detailed analyses of the interviews, however, reveals that parents would appreciate various forms of assistance, such as written information, training and/or information sessions as well as Internet-based parental forums. Implications of the current finding for the development of methods to increase parental commitment and engagement are presented.

  • 10.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utlandsföddas trafiksäkerhet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish traffic accident statistics have previously shown that involvement in accidents differs for people born in Sweden and people born abroad. The main aim of this report is to further illuminate this area through the use of four different studies. The introductory study is a literature review examining ethnicity and different aspects of traffic safety, focussing primarily on speed, accidents, use of seatbelts, alcohol and vulnerable road users. The term ethnicity was defined in different ways in the literature, if it was defined at all, and the term ethnic minorities was used as a collective term. The ways those terms are used complicate comparisons. Nevertheless, certain conclusions could be drawn. For example, the traffic behaviour of immigrants bore the imprint of the traffic norms prevalent in the country in which they grew up. Cultural values, the importance of language and socio-economical factors are dimensions of interest with regard to measures that can improve the traffic safety of immigrants living in Sweden. The second study identified the risk of a traffic accident for people who are born abroad but registered residents of Sweden. The results show that if the population is divided into nine zones, based on the country of birth, there are groups both with a higher risk of accidents than the Swedish-born and groups with a lower risk. Thus, immigrants should not be viewed as a homogeneous group. Furthermore, large parts of the differences can be explained by exposure, education, age and gender, through the use of logistical regression. In the third study a survey based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict the intention to speed, use seatbelt and use child restraints. The results show that previous behaviour and the perception of how others behave in traffic were the variables that best explained the intent to break speed regulations. This survey also indicates differences between groups, where the intent to use the seatbelt and protect children in the car was lower amongst some of the immigrants, while the intent to respect the speed limit was lower among the Swedish-born. The results of the survey could thus not unequivocally explain why certain groups identified by the accident analysis ran greater risks. In the fourth study interviews were carried out with seven men born in Iran but residing in Sweden. The subjects discussed were driving, speeding, alcohol and seatbelt use. The results showed that they experienced cultural differences in attitudes and behaviour in traffic, but that these differences gradually faded away. They showed zero tolerance when it came to drinking and driving. However, when it came to speeding and the use of seatbelts this was seen as unacceptable only in some contexts. Based on the compiled results recommendations are given, detailing specific actions that may increase the level of traffic safety among immigrants living in Sweden.

  • 11.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Säkerhet och arbetsmiljö vid väg- och spårarbeten: implementeringsprocessen av nytt regelverk och dess effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was, through the use of interviews, case studies, and a reference group meeting to describe and analyze the implementation process of new and revised regulations. This applies to both road and track in their administrative and operational activities within the Swedish Transport Administration and their contractors. The aim was also to analyze the effects the new and revised regulations had on roles and responsibilities but also their own and others' safety. For work on the road, new rules and regulations were established, which became effective as of 1st of January 2013. With regard to rail, a number of measures were implemented in 2011 to improve safety that included changed rules for work on and beside the tracks.

  • 12.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av en ny obligatorisk riskutbildning för motorcyklister2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November 2009 a new risk education program for all students learning to ride a motorbike was introduced in order to enhance their perception of risk. The training is both theoretical and practical. The aim of the study is to evaluate if motorcyclists' perception of risk changed as a consequence of the new training program. The study used a internet survey and two different groups were compared: motorcyclist learner drivers who had completed their training before the implementation of the new program and those who had completed their training after the 1st of November 2009. In the study 1,472 people participated (before study=541; after study=931). The mean age was 30 years and the proportion of women was 20 procent. The results showed relatively small changes in the motorcyclists' attitudes, norms and intentions before and after the new training program. However, the difference was mainly in the "right" direction which indicated a greater understanding of risk. Some negative changes were also observed but most frequently amongst the youngest age group (16-20 years old). These negative changes were related to their perception of speeding, alcohol, fatigue and of their own ability to drive a motorbike if compared with other motorcyclists. In conclusion, the results suggest that further research in this area is needed which looks at the effect of training but also the content and how training is being conducted with regard to methods used and how specific groups are being targeted. Implications of the current findings for the development of educational programs for motorcyclists are discussed.

  • 13.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekten av de nya reglerna för AM-behörighet (moped klass I): en för- och efterstudie2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Class I moped license (AM) to drive a Class I moped (“EU moped”), that included a practical and theoretical course, was introduced on 1 October 2009. The aim of this study was perform a before and after study in order to assess the effects of this new driver training course. The survey was based on two theories: the theory of planned behaviour and the prototype willingness model. A further aim of this study was to describe the way in which young people regard risks and the factors that affect their actions. The participants in this study were 15-–24 years of age; 901 in the before study and 946 in the after study. The results indicated fairly small differences before and after the new regulation. The attitude towards driving at a speed of 65 km/h in an urban area showed that people in the after study were less inclined to believe that their friends would drive at a speed of 65 km/h in an urban area, and that they did not feel as safe at a speed of 65 km/h as at 45 km/h. The significant differences noted for statements linked to the alcohol scenario were that mopedists in the follow-up study were less concerned about being stopped by the police or having a traffic accident. From a traffic safety viewpoint, the results were less favourable in this case. Overall, the new AM training programme was well received – the young people considered it positive, and ment that they had learned a lot. What they had learned consisted primarily of traffic rules and regulations. The results from the prototype willingness model showed that respondents who wanted to speed or drink and drive were more likely than others to consider that such persons were cool, confident and clever. A model which was based on the two theories was tested. The results indicated that the model explained 52 per cent of their willingness to exceed speed limits and 19 per cent of their readiness to ride home from the party.

  • 14.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • 15.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Körkort med villkor automatväxellåda: finns det skäl och möjligheter att underlätta körkortsprocessen?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the present study is to investigate whether there are reasons for making it easier for driver trainers, both during their education and when taking the test, to use a car with automatic transmission. The study aims to answer two questions: 1) Can learning to drive become easier with an automatic transmission and at the same time provide the same training in traffic safety as when driving a car with a manual transmission? 2) Can a shorter driver training time due to automatic transmission have a negative impact, or can a reduced focus on handling the car increase the focus on other factors related to traffic safety? Several methods have been used to achieve the purpose of this study.

    Firstly, a literature review presents studies that examined the importance of automatic transmission during driver training and when taking the test. The same overview also includes a statistical accident analysis that compares automated cars with cars using a manual transmission. Thereafter, an interview study is presented, involving four traffic instructors and a survey of 34 traffic instructors on their view of training to drive with a car which have an automatic transmission. Finally, a survey was conducted including 949 people aged 18 to 25 who had just received drivers licence.

  • 16.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nordström, Mattias
    Sweco.
    Wallmark, Cecilia
    Sweco.
    Wiberg, Erik
    Vätgas Sverige.
    Wolf, Sven
    Inflow Consulting AB.
    Förnybara drivmedel: möjligheter och hinder sett utifrån privatbilisters och aktörers perspektiv2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project included three different studies with a view to providing an in-depth understanding of user needs and attitudes to alternative fuels and vehicles, such as: battery electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and cars using biogas. In addition the studies also examine attitudes to cars in general and climate change as well as exploring likely prospects for such cars in the future. The studies used three different methods; focus group, survey and interviews. The focus groups included six people, the survey 487 randomly selected road users and the interview study nine different stakeholders from government agencies, industry, branch organizations and the media. The results show that when purchasing a car safety and reliability are more important than the emission of CO2. The perception of cars powered by alternative fuels (electric, fuel cell, biogas), does not differ markedly. The price people are willing to pay for such a car is significantly lower than what these cars cost at present. In general, it could be argued that consumers want a car powered by alternative fuels to be similar or better than, a conventional car. The interview study also shows that politicians have an important role to play in the development of alternative fuels and the related infrastructure. According to the interviewees, the biggest challenge is not the technology, but rather how to provide an infrastructure for these vehicles. The industry is an important player who is willing to invest if the business can be profitable. Long-term is a keyword and is mentioned both in terms of policy instruments and information dissemination. In the latter case, since studies show that there are large gaps in the overall knowledge and understanding by the general public as well as considerable distrust of information presently available. Finally, the results also shows the need for a holistic approach where the focus is not only on fuel, but also on the development of attractive and accessible cities which reduce transport demand and provide for increased transport efficiency.

  • 17.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    NTF.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Den svenska förarutbildningen: dagsläge och framtidsutsikter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to provide a deep and broad understanding of current practice of driver training. Based on the results of four in-depth studies, the project attempts to identify the need for improvement. Furthermore, and in order to improve driver training some essential actions will be presented. Several methods have been used to achieve this aim. The report starts with a literature review looking at various aspects which can influence young driver trainer’s ability to drive safely but also literature looking at deficiencies and needs for change. The following chapter presents accident statistics which includes current data on young drivers’ accident involvement and how this has changed in recent years. That is followed by a summary of statistics on driving license tests and retests. The project also includes an interview study in which eleven professionals were interviewed (politicians, government officials, researchers and representatives of driving schools and race tracks). The purpose of this study was to discuss their views on the current driver training in Sweden but also their own suggestions for change. Two surveys were then carried out. The first was aimed at new drivers of different ages about their driver training and the other was aimed at driving instructors. The general conclusion of this study is that the general discussion of driver training focuses too much on time and cost rather than quality which does not favour traffic safety. The recommendation is therefore that there is a need for a more fundamental change of driver training. To realise this, some of the teaching methods used need to be improved. These methods can then be applied to “risk education” and to the more general driver training. Other areas which are in need for improvement focus on; private practice and a closer contact with driving schools, enhancing the quality of compulsory training and introduce more parts, more frequent quality assurance of driving schools and increased supervision and collaboration between stakeholders, a development of driving licence testing and a better consensus between the objectives, content/process and driving test, a clearer division of responsibilities regarding research and development and a better coordination of the various elements of driver training. Finally, there is a need to highlight best practice which can only be done if evaluation becomes common practice.

  • 18.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Förarprov för personbil: orsaker till den sjunkande godkännandegraden och förslag på åtgärder2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study had four objectives using both quantitative and qualitative methods: 1) to gather knowledge by means of a literature review of research, documented good examples, and proposals concerning ways of handling problems associated with retesting; 2) to examine, through two interview studies and one survey study, the reasons for the declining passing rate among those seeking class B driving licences; 3) to determine whether any specific groups of licence applicants have exhibited lower passing rates; and 4) to propose, based on the results, remedial measures to address the preparation and training of licence applicants before testing. In general, the results show that licence applicants who fail the tests many times lack the ability to assess their own abilities since they believe that they are well prepared. Even if the test then is harder than anticipated they do not feel that they had made any major mistakes, instead it is the examiner who was too strict. Therefore, they often scheduled their retests immediately after their unsuccessful attempts, meaning that some are unable to practice much or at all before the retest. Based on the results of this study, a number of remedial measures are suggested that could reduce the proportion of retests in the future.

  • 19.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Unga mopedisters olycksinblandning: orsaker och konsekvenser2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to increase knowledge about the processes leading to accidents. This was done with a knowledge review, an in-depth study of moped crashes with serious injuries and an analysis of teenagers’ discussions on the internet about moped riding. Moped accidents are most common among young men. A number of different contributing factors have been identified as important for the possibilities to drive safely and avoid accidents. In addition to skills to maneuver the moped in traffic, other aspects important for motivation and choices before and during driving are presented. This may for example be age, sex, personality, group affiliation, socio economic standing and brain maturation. The statistics on moped sales show that fewer and fewer mopeds are sold in Sweden. The reduction in sales of class I is largest. There are several possible reasons for this, such as new rules for licensing or low economic growth. The reduction is also reflected in a reduction of the number of accident and injured persons over time. The domination by accidents involving 15-year-olds are also decreasing. From the interviews, it is obvious that riding moped in gangs is something that mainly boys are doing. Riding in gangs is also age related since when they are continuing to the gymnasium (high school), other interests than moped riding are taking over, occupying evenings and weekends. From the Internet analysis, it is clear that young people are discussing mopeds and moped riding in many different forums. The topics are spare parts, technical matters, tuning, speeding, helmet use, police chases etc. The discussions may be regarded as a basis for the development of role models and ideal for different subcultures within the moped world. Measures were discussed in the areas of police, rules and regulations, age limits, technical aspects, insurance, education, parental engagement, information campaigns, internet, vehicle classifications, infrastructure and future technical support systems.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program which applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders whom have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program. Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of an interview study with a total of 31 drivers who had committed a drink driving offense. They were interviewed both at a meeting, and at follow-up telephone interviews. The drivers are 11 people who participated in the two-year program, 10 people who participated in the one-year program and 10 people who did not participate in the interlock program.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    SMADIT ur den misstänkte rattfylleristens perspektiv: en intervjustudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMADIT, Joint action against alcohol and drugs in traffic, is a method where the police offer suspected drunk drivers contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, who can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment. In the present study, 14 suspected alcohol drunk drivers were interviewed about their perceptions and experience of the SMADIT method. The results show that the incident with the drunk driving and its consequences have been a turning point in the suspected drunk drivers' lives. Most of the informants have completely opted out of the alcohol, and in addition, family relationships and life situations have improved. The majority of the informants do not think they will drive drunk in the future. Overall, informants think that SMADIT is a good method in its efforts to prevent drunk driving. Informants' narratives show that the police attitude is very important as most felt that they were in a disgraceful situation. The interviews show that the police attitude and the informant's drinking habits can be crucial to the acceptance of SMADIT. There are also respondents who believed that by accepting the help through SMADIT they would retain the driving license and get alcohol interlocks. The study points out some suggestions that could improve the SMADIT method. It is important that the police always provide the suspected drunk driver with sufficient and accurate verbal information about SMADIT and hand over the written information leaflet with contact information for local social treatment services, even to people who have been free from suspicion of drunk driving. In addition, it is important that a person who answered no to the SMADIT-offer is asked a second time, preferably by a call from the police, or that the suspected drunk driver is asked again when the car key is retrieved. Furthermore, it appears that it is not necessary that the first contact with social treatment services takes place within twenty-four hours. Several of the informants state that they need time for reflection, however, it must not pass too many days before a first contact and meeting is held. Finally, the police motivation to work with SMADIT can be maintained if the social treatment services ask the suspected drunk driver for permission to give a feedback to the police about the person's contact with the social treatment service.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    The Swedish Joint Action Method against Drink Driving: A Study of Suspected Drink Drivers' Own Experiences2016In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a joint action method called SMADIT is in use, where the police quickly offer help from the social services or the dependency care and treatment service to suspected drink drivers. One conclusion from this paper is that SMADIT, as an innovative method that can be deployed more rapidly than other alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures, should be considered as a good complement to conventional methods to deal with drink driving.

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the experiences of suspected drink drivers who accepted the offer of help, and what it meant for them. To enable comparisons over time, in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve suspected drink drivers on two occasions with one year between.

    To varying degrees the informants knew about their alcohol problems, but were unsure if they would have sought help by themselves. Therefore, the original ideas of the method with an initial contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service within 24 hours, was found to be important. However, the results also showed that some of the informants needed some time before the first meeting as they were in shock from the drink driving incident or in need of sleep.

    Results also shows that an encouraging attitude among the police, the social services, and the dependency care and treatment service is important for the success of the SMADIT method. The informants are satisfied with the method, and in retrospect the incident and the SMADIT offer of help are described as a turning point in their lives. One year after being offered help the informants had gained insights into the harm they could have done to other road users when they drove while drunk.

  • 23.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Samordning av trafik- och bebyggelseplanering: förutsättningar för hållbar mobilitet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The way buildings are positioned relative to the design of traffic systems influences the public?s travel patterns and their choice of transport mode. It is therefore important that building layout and traffic are coordinated in order to create sustainable mobility. Sustainable mobility is an umbrella term for measures that reduce the number and length of car journeys and the need to travel at all. The aim of this study is to shed light on the conditions under which local authorities coordinate building development and traffic issues with respect to sustainable mobility. This investigation is based upon a pair of case studies, and examines the handling of building and traffic issues during the planning of two residential areas, one in Lund and one in Trelleborg. The results show that where coordination has worked, three factors have combined to create what may be termed a strategic decision-making and planning process. The three factors can be summarized as (i) long-term visions for the town?s development, (ii) long- and short-term actions, and (iii) public support for the long-term vision. It is important that coordination is made a tool for the implementation of the long-term vision. Politicians and officials must be in agreement if real influence is to be brought to bear on long- and short-term actions. Swedish local authorities should therefore develop mechanisms to enhance mutual understanding between politicians and officials on the basic principles of sustainable mobility. Public support of long-term visions and goals is also important. Without public support it becomes hard to make the occasionally difficult political decisions that affect the public?s travel behaviour.

  • 24.
    Hylen, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Barta, David
    CDV.
    Czermański, Ernest
    Dickinson, Joanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Vesela, Jirina
    CDV.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Dębicka, Olga
    Brand, Ralf
    Rupprecht Consult.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrebicek, Zdenek
    CDV.
    Eriksson, Claes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Kressler, Florian
    ATE.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Weiss, Lucas
    ATE.
    Challenges and barriers for a sustainable transport system: exploring the potential to enact change2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is divided into three parts; the first part summarizes the results from a workshopconducted within the TRANSFORuMproject. The second part presents the results of interviewscarried out with different experts discussing the different goals and their perceptionsof what might prevent or delay appropriate implementation. The third part is based on a literature reviewdiscussing how to overcome or remove the various barriersand challenges. The overall aim ofthe studies presented in this report is to identify barriers but also to present necessary steps which need to be takenin order to help achieving the goals.The term "Barrier" relates to something which prevents some form of progress or movement, while "Challenge" can be something difficult but also something which is regarded as stimulating; or an opportunity.

  • 25.
    Hylen, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Barta, David
    CDV.
    Czermański, Ernest
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Vesela, Jirina
    CDV.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Dębicka, Olga
    Brand, Ralf
    Rupprecht Consult).
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrebicek, Zdenek
    CDV.
    Eriksson, Claes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Braun, Marcel
    Rupprecht Consult.
    Challenges and barriers for a sustainable transport system: state of the art report2014Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    Dahl, Emmy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    WSP.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engelbrektsson, Elina
    WSP.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Bilagedelen: Genusperspektiv på utveckling av kollektivtrafik: hållbar jämställdhet vid planering av framtidens kollektivtrafik i Malmö2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Består av 1) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Lägesrapport 1a: Rapportering från fokusgrupperna, av Lena Levin, Emmy Dahl och Malin Henriksson. 2) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Lägesrapport 1b: Resultat av innehålls- och bildanalys, av Charlotta Faith-Ell och Susanna Nilsson. 3) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Dokumentation från workshop 11 februari 2010, av Susanna Nilsson, Lena Levin, Charlotta Faith-Ell, Emmy Dahl och Malin Henriksson.4) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Observationer och utvärdering av dialogmöten i Malmö stad, av Jonna Nyberg, Elina Engelbrektsson, Susanna Gustafsson, Lena Levin och Charlotta Faith-Ell. 5) Jämställd stadsplanering i Malmö - hur gör vi nu då? slutseminarium & workshop 26 november 2010, dokumentation: Lena Levin, Elina Engelbrektsson, Charlotta Faith-Ell och Lennart Skoglund.

  • 27.
    Lewin, Catharina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utlandsföddas mobilitet och resvanor i svensk trafikmiljö2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to increase knowledge concerning the situation of foreign-born in the Swedish transportation system and analyze their mobility and travel patterns. Foreign-born are defined as people born in another country than Sweden, but who have received residence permit and are registered in a Swedish municipality. The results are based on a literature review, register data, group interviews as well as a comprehensive survey. Approximately 12% of Sweden's inhabitants were born in another country. Register data show that the proportion of foreign-born that possess driver's licences and vehicles is lower than among Swedish-born, which limits the ability to travel among this group. The target group for the survey was foreign-born men and women who had relatively recently arrived in Sweden. The survey studied such factors as how they travel on short and longer trips in Sweden, their possession of vehicles and driver's licences and their feeling of safety when using different travel modes. The survey was answered by 3,215 students at special courses in Swedish for immigrants (svenska för invandrare, sfi) from 34 municipalities in different parts of Sweden. Half of the respondents came to Sweden less than two years prior to answering the survey in 2005. The respondents represented 136 different countries of origin. Comparisons have been made both between men and women, and between eight different zones with regards to where the respondents were born. Of the respondents, approximately 60% were women and almost half were 25-34 years old. Results show that approximately 45% of the men surveyed had a driver's licence that was permitted to be used in Sweden, compared to one in five women. The survey showed that the largest obstacles to getting a Swedish driver's licence was that it was expensive and that the language is difficult. Whereas 35% of the women answered that they did not know how to ride a bicycle, only 5% of the men provided this answer. Nearly eight of ten respondents claimed they need to learn more about traffic rules and behaviour. They would like information about this in Swedish. The respondents also stated that they prefer written information on signs at bus stops and train stations, as well as on busses and trains instead of only receiving information by loudspeaker. Many of the respondents feel unsafe in various traffic environments; as pedestrians, bicyclists, car drivers, and as passengers on public transportation.

  • 28.
    Lindgren, Anne-Li
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Andersson, Martin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportsystemets kunder: en kritisk kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this literature review has been the customers of the transportation system identified by the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). One aim was to identify theoretical and methodological problems and the gap of knowledge that could be linked to the SRA use of the concept customer. Another aim was to identify important needs of knowledge. The literature review has been based on earlier research related to the use of the concept customer within different areas and disciplines: the public sector - health and medical service - child research, economics, consumer and consuming psychology, pedagogy and ethics. The discussion takes a perspective from bottom to top. This means that the discussion is focused on the consequence in first hand from the customers' perspective. Within this frame the SRA customers have been treated both from an individual perspective and a perspective of the industry. The literature review has shown that the use of the concept customer is complex and that it most truly includes different meanings and will raise different feelings when it comes to the definition of the concept customer, how it should be understood and used, but also if it is suitable to be used at all. The crucial point of the use of the concept customer and customer oriented work within the SRA will be the employees' definition, thoughts and attitude to the use of the concept customer. It could be questioned if it really contributes to the holistie approach the SRA aiming at. This needs further investigations. A conclusion is that there is a need for developing new tools in order to support and optimize well balanced decisions and actions both related to the desires of the customers and service to the customers.

  • 29.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters singelolyckor: analys av olycks- och skadedata samt djupintervjuer2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to study single bicycle accidents, to see how these can be avoided and how the injuries due to these can be alleviated. The in-depth studies of fatal accidents by the Swedish Traffic Administration, and hospital reported accidents in the database Strada have been analysed. The focus was on the single bicycle accidents resulting in death or serious injury, and the data for 2007-–2011 were included. In addition, 32 seriously injured cyclists were interviewed about the accident in which they had been involved. Of all the cyclists who need emergency treatment, eight out of ten had been injured in a single accident. In addition, on average five cyclists were killed every year in a single bicycle accident. In all, during the five-year period studied, 125 cyclists were killed. Of the 1,274 seriously injured in single bicycle accidents, 27 per cent can be related to operation and maintenance, 20 per cent to road design, 27 per cent to cyclist-bicycle interaction, 15 per cent to the behaviour and state of the cyclist, and 11 per cent to the interaction of the cyclist with other road users. Older age groups are involved to a greater extent than the young, in both the fatal accidents and the serious accidents – more than 40 per cent among those killed and seriously injured were 65 or older. The serious injuries among older people are characterised by injuries to the hips. In other respects, head injuries dominate among the seriously injured cyclists, and head injuries were the cause of death in 70 per cent of single bicycle accidents.

  • 30.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. VTI.
    Välfärdskonsekvenser för individer med återkallat körkort på grund av synfältsbortfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To suddenly lose a driving license because of a physical impairment, may well have dire consequences for the individual welfare. This report investigates its effect on a person’s circumstances, in particular with regard to visual field loss.

    The empirical material consisted of responses to a questionnaire and to various written materials (letters; attached copies of medical certificates and/or appeals) from a previous project regarding a simulator-based test method for assessing driving ability at visual field loss. In this material, the participants had in several cases, on a voluntary basis, described how a license withdrawal affected their lives. Further, consideration has been given to material collected in conjunction with the request for consent for the current study. In total, material from 169 individuals has been analyzed.

    In the first phase, the empirical material was analyzed by content analysis, in a thematic manner. In the second phase, the material was further analyzed using the Capability approach (CA). In short, the CA allows investigations of individuals' opportunities and freedoms to choose to live the life they want to live, illustrating the interactions between individual conditions, resources and contextual factors (e.g. social, political, cultural).

  • 31.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Motorcykelkultur och motorcyklisters syn på trafikrisker och åtgärder: en litteraturstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years motorcycling has become more and more popular. As the number of motorcycles on the roads has increased, the number of motorcyclists killed in traffic has increased as well. To decrease the number of accidents and to direct the safety measures towards the right groups there is a need for better knowledge of the opinion of motorcyclists on traffic safety and traffic safety measures taken to avoid accidents. The aim of this literature review is to obtain better knowledge of the attitudes and the behaviour the motorcyclists have concerning motorcycling and their own traffic safety. Following research fields are being focused on: the culture of motorcycling - habits, valuations, identity; opinion concerning risks and behaviour; view on policy measures. A literature study has been accomplished concerning literature about motorcycling, the culture of motorcycling and the existing attitudes towards motorcycle traffic among the motorcyclists published between the years 1990 and 2008. In the literature different groups of motorcyclist are described according to what motorcycling means to them, the importance of group affiliation and age. Fellowship and solidarity are important for motorcyclists, but at the same time different subgroups exist depending on identity, lifestyle and what kind of motorcycle one has. Furthermore, it is obvious that the motorcycle has several functions: it is a practical vehicle and economically profitable; driving motorcycle gives a feeling of freedom and excitement; it is a nice activity in itself. The risk that is included in driving a motorcycle is also an important ingredient; the risks are a part of the enchantment. Concerning the opinion of the motorcyclists on handling risks it appears that experience is the most important source of knowledge. It is assumed that theory does not prevent accidents but experience is important for learning to know one's own capacity, one's own limits and for achieving control. Some researchers think that in order to attract young motorcyclist to further training there should be entertaining and exciting activities without emphasising safety aspects. At the same time it should be kept in mind why people drive motorcycles, i. e. it is not the risks that discourage them to drive. Following research needs have been identified in connection to the literature study: better knowledge of social and behavioural factors that influence the attitude to risks and safety; the opinion of the motorcyclists concerning the measures to decrease the number of accidents of different groups of motorcyclists; the importance of motorcycle clubs concerning the forming of attitudes towards risks and traffic safety and finally how to design the education and training of motorcyclists in order to contribute to decreased risk taking in traffic.

  • 32.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Piloters arbetsmiljö ur jämställdhetsperspektiv: en litteraturstudie2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this literature study has been to summarize research results concerning gender equality among pilots in their working environment both from Swedish and international perspective. Both male and female pilots are of the opinion that gender does not make any difference for being a pilot. At the same time there is ambivalence in the interviews; female pilots sometimes describe how they have been the object of discrimination in various forms. Women handle this with different strategies, for exampel a female pilot adjusts herself as well as possible to the existing male norms in the cockpit. The profession of a pilot has been facing new demands and changes, a fact that changes the male identity of the profession. Male pilots are able to handle this by creating new forms of male identity. The physical environment in a cockpit by its design also reflects that the cockpit is an environment for men. In international studies there are descriptions how the cockpit is built according to male standards. In Sweden, the research concerning the working environment of pilots from a gender equality perspective is almost non-existent. Research is needed concerning the experiences and attitudes of female pilots from the gender equality perspective.

  • 33.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Förändringar inom den svenska förarutbildningen: delstudie 3: processutvärdering av kursplan B2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On March 1, 2006, a new Swedish national curriculum for private car (class B) driving license was introduced. A more general and easily comprehensible curriculum is expected to increase creativity, engagement and a wish for renewal among the actors who take part in the education processes for obtaining driving license. In the new curriculum there is also a greater focus on the student's self-knowledge. The design of the new curriculum is based to the so called Goals for Driver Education matrix, GDE. The GDE matrix defines which competences a driver should be in command of in order to be a safe driver. The matrix even points out that driving a car is a process where the driver interacts both with the traffic environment and the vehicle. At the same time driving a car also implies interaction between the driver's capabilities and motives. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there have been changes in driver education in Sweden through e.g. a new and modified focus since the new curriculum was introduced. The study consists of four sub-studies, each of which consists of an initial investigation and a follow-up ("before and after study"). The first sub-study concerns the curriculum itself, in which a content analysis is performed both concerning the old and the new curriculum. The second sub-study focuses on content analysis of education plans (i.e. approved plans of the education in the driving schools). The third sub-study consists of observations of theoretical and practical driving lessons in four driving schools. The fourth sub-study consists of interviews with individuals that recently received their driving license. Each of the sub-studies has been analysed with the help of the GDE matrix.

  • 34.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vidareutbildning för äldre bilförare: en översikt2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In the future the number of the older people, and older car drivers, will increase markedly. It is of great importance that older people have the possibility to retain their idenpendent mobility for as long as possible. However, old people have an increased risk to get severely injured or killed in a traffic accident because they are frailer due to their age. Getting older may also mean for example impaired hearing, eyesight and ability to react, something that might create problems for older car drivers in complex traffic situations. Degrading ablities often develop slowly and changes can be diffcult to embrace. Thus, mobility demands could be in conflict with traffic safety. Extensive experience can to some extent compensate high performance and refresher courses might be the way to both sustained mobility and traffic safety. The aim of this study was to make a survey of existing refresher courses for older car drivers in Sweden: Which further education possibilities do exist and which teaching material is used? Are the needs recognized? How is the education managed? What does it include and how is it organized? Who are the teachers? Who are the participants? How do the experiences look like and how is the education evaluated? How extensive is the education? What are the plans for the future? Telephone interviews have been performed with eleven experts, active in motor organizations and organizations of retired people. Furthermore, a survey of the course material, used according to the interviewees, has been performed. The most frequent refresher course according to the interviewees is called "65+". The purpose of the course 65+ is to give a better insight into which impact getting older has on car driving and by which means it is possible to continue to drive safely for as long as possible. The refresher course materials used are based on research results, accident statistics and the knowledge of traffic expertise. 65+ is designed in cooperation with a motor club, a traffic safety association and retired people's associations. The results of this study show that the design and performance of the refresher course is made locally, often in cooperation with an educational association. The course content and execution often depend on the individual leader's commitment, knowledge and interest, locally within an organization. Despite the course 65+, the organizations have mentioned a course called 'Older and wiser', which has its focus on influencing the public opinion concerning the elderly, their mobility and traffic safety. 'Correct and sensible in traffic' is another refresher course that includes advice and regulations to avoid traffic accidents. This latter material is, however, directed towards all road user groups and not only for older car drivers. There is, further, the book 'Confident Senior' (Swedish Road Administration), but this material has not been mentioned by the interviewees.

  • 35.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Strandberg, Thomas
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Aretun, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Welfare consequences for individuals whose driving licenses are withdrawn due to visual field loss: A Swedish example2019In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 14, article id 100591Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Det nya hastighetsgränssystemet: regionala beslutsfattares syn, problembilder och erfarenheter efter etapp 22012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the new speed limit system in Sweden on the basis of decision-makers perspective on regional and municipal levels for Stage 2 of the implementation process. The study focuses on the regional perspective and assesses regional impacts of changes in speed limits on national roads outside urban areas. To obtain the data sets needed to describe and analyse decision makers', in different regions of Sweden, views on the new speed limit system, qualitative interviews was selected as the method. The interview responses show that the implementation process in Stage 2 has been developed and improved in comparison with the corresponding process in Stage 1. The better link that many stakeholders called for between changing speed limits and measures in the investment planning has been improved during Stage 2. The Transport Administration has in the proposals for reduced speed limits indicated which deficiencies in road design justifying the lowered speed limit, and what steps need to be taken to remain at the current level. However, many respondents still believe that the Transport Administration does not sufficiently take into account that at the regional level, the issue of speed limits to a great extent is a politically charged issue caused by the assumed relationship between speed, accessibility, travel times and regional development. Regional associations, municipalities, counties, etc. need time to anchor political issues and allow politicians to get the time to familiarize themselves with the changes and take clear political decisions and positions in political assemblies of boards andcommittees on the issue of changing speed limits.

  • 37. Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kommunpolitikers syn på trafiksäkerhet: en intervjustudie2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Qualitative in-depth interviews have been carried out with 20 municipal politicians responsible for road safety matters in 13 municipalities. The purpose was to elucidate the attitude of the municipal politicians to road safety, and work with road safety, and to see how the attitudes of the politicians were reflected in the decision-making process as regards road safety questions. The purpose was also to see if there were any differences between large and small municipalities. Several of those interviewed thought road safety was important, and that it involved all road users, but that road safety questions were often not given priority. The approach to road safety became clear in the views of the municipal politicians regarding road measures, for example, speed reduction measures. About half of those interviewed considered that speed is best reduced by physical impediments being built in, while others emphasised working with trying to change the behaviour of people and their attitudes on the road. Most of those interviewed considered that the idea of zero vision was good, but that it can never be achieved. Others thought that it was the only possible goal. A few saw nothing positive about the zero vision, as it is only a vision. As regards the view of road safety and the zero vision, there were no great differences between large municipalities and small ones. The decision-making process appeared to be the same in the municipalities, but the small municipalities most often had a short decision-making timeframe. Several politicians, irrespective of size of municipality, felt some frustration about the meagre financial resources for road safety work, which could also cause delays to the decision-making process. Only one of the politicians from the small municipalities said that they had any cooperation or exchange of ideas with politicians from other municipalities. On the other hand, in most municipalities civil servants had considerable responsibility for collecting information and exchange of information with other municipalities, and politicians relied on their work to a considerable extent.

  • 38.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i introduktionsutbildningen för privat övningskörning: en kvalitativ studie av innehåll och effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a qualitative analysis of the introductory courses was carried out. Observations and interviews with teachers at the course were made during 18 different training sessions. In addition to this, 32 instructors and 34 pupils were interviewed over the phone. The purpose of this study was to observe how the course affected their understanding of the problem as well as their attitudes and behaviour.

    The results showed that the time devoted to the environmental parts of the introductory courses varied a great deal, from 3 to 35 minutes (out of three hours). However, to only count minutes will not present the whole picture, the commitment of the instructor and the pedagogical approach are of more importance. Analysis of the course material revealed that the content of the courses varied a great deal. The instructors and the pupils were contacted some months later and most of them remembered that environmental issues related to driving was discussed on the introduction course.

    The part which they remembered mostly was the one about eco-driving, but also the environmental effects of starting a cold engine and standing still with the motor running, as well as maintenance of the cars. They remembered less regarding the environmental issues not directly linked to practicing driving, which can be seen as a sign that these issues were less frequently discussed during the course. Both instructors and pupils were positive about environmental issues being in the course. The majority wanted to drive in an environmentally friendly way, whether this depended on the introduction course or something else is difficult to say. It could not be concluded if their driving behavior had changed to drive in an eco-friendlier way.

  • 39.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Alkohol och cykling: en multidisciplinär studie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies have shown that alcohol impairment can be a contributing factor in cycling accidents, there is currently relatively little knowledge of the connection(s) between alcohol and cycling. The overall aim of this study was therefore to increase the knowledge of alcohol associated with cycling. The study is divided into two different parts; an analysis of the Swedish Road Administration’s in-deep data on killed cyclists and an interview study analyzed from three different perspectives; a social psychological, an emotional sociological and a phenomenographic. While the analysis of the in-deep data resulted in detailed statistics on the accidents involving alcohol impaired cyclists, the interview study resulted in a deeper understanding of cyclists' beliefs, emotions and perceptions regarding alcohol and cycling. Based on these results, information and/or campaigns to reduce the prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling as well as the amount of alcohol associated with cycling, is recommended. However, the introduction of a legal alcohol limit or improved public transport is not recommended in order to reduce the number of cyclists affected by alcohol and/or to improve the safety of those bicycling during alcohol impairment.

  • 40.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fyrhjulingsförares beteenden och felhandlingar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As quadbikes are becoming more and more common the number of accidents also increases. The first aim of this project was therefore to increase our knowledge of the accidents whilst the second aim was to increase our knowledge of how and where quadbikes are used, the mistakes and violations that are made and what situations and behaviours drivers consider as risky. The project was divided into two sub-studies. In the first sub-study 51 road traffic accident registered in Strada-police were analyzed and in the second 7 injured drivers (involved in any one of the 51 road accidents registered in Strada) and 22 non-injured drivers were interviewed. The results show that quadbikes are popular vehicles with many capabilities; as tools, as recreational vehicles and as vehicles for transport. Inexperienced drivers’ lack of knowledge, alternatively experienced drivers’ stress and/or carelessness combined with the quadbikes special characteristics; underage drivers; quadbike-driving under the influence of alcohol and excessive speed may however lead to accidents. Without a helmet the consequences of an accident might become more severe. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend a series of measures to reduce the number of serious quadbike accident.

  • 41.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    A behavioural study of quadbike drivers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As quadbikes are becoming more and more common in Sweden the number of accidents also increases. The first aim of this study was therefore to increase our knowledge of how and where quadbikes are used, the mistakes and violations drivers make and what situations they consider as hazardous. The second aim was to increase our knowledge of the accidents. Seven injured and 22 non-injured quadbike drivers were interviewed. The results show that quadbikes are highly appreciated as tools, as vehicles for recreation and as means of transport. Inexperienced drivers’ lack of knowledge, alternatively experienced drivers’ stress and/or carelessness combined with the quadbikes special characteristics; underage drivers and passengers; quadbike-driving under the influence of alcohol and excessive speed are all factors that could contribute to accident involvement; and without a helmet the consequences of these accident might become more severe. To combat these problems, and to reduce the number of quadbike accidents, the authors suggest changes to the law for helmets, a short specialized course focusing on practical quadbike driving in combination with a theoretical education focusing on risk awareness as well as a national mobilization against quadbike driving under the influence of alcohol and underage drivers.

1 - 41 of 41
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