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  • 1.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser av svenska väg- och järnvägsprojekt2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser har blivit allt vanligare sedan 1995. Det ständigt pågående utvecklingsarbetet med uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser, vid Vägverket och Banverket, visar många positiva resultat. Bland annat har flera genomgripande uppföljningsprogram tagits fram för några vägobjekt, även om enstaka uppföljningsformuleringar i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) och arbetsplaner/järnvägsplaner fortfarande dominerar.

    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) har studerat ca 70 uppföljningsarbeten, producerade under 1990-talet, huvudsakligen från 1996 och framåt. Materialet har eftersökts vid Vägverkets regionkontor Sydöst, Väst och Mitt samt inom hela Banverket. Det har varit svårt och tidskrävande att få tillgång till relevant material. För att underlätta eftersökningen har dessutom en rad initierade personer vid Vägverkets regionkontor kontaktats.

    Några av de viktigare slutsatserna är att:

    • det sedan 1995 har blivit vanligare med uppföljningsformuleringar, 
    • uppföljning inte självklart omfattar såväl byggskede som tiden efter färdigställande,
    • uppgifter om före-data är ovanliga,
    • de vanligaste uppföljningsparametrarna är vatten, buller, djur och landskapsbild,
    • mätmetoder sällan anges,
    • kompetenskrav sällan anges,
    • fastställda statistiska krav sällan anges,
    • syftet med uppföljningen sällan anges, och att
    • kommunikation med olika aktörsgrupper såsom allmänhet är en ovanlighet.

    Det material som insamlats, även om det är magert, kommer att kunna användas som en utgångspunkt i såväl upprättande av en handbok för uppföljning i samband med MKB, som vid utvecklandet av ett informationssystem om uppföljning.

  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportrelaterad miljökvalitet: rapport från workshop den 10-11 september 20012001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 10–11 september 2001 möttes 31 representanter från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället på Scandic hotell Hasselbacken i Stockholm för att lyssna till föredragningar om och diskutera kring begreppet transportrelaterad miljökvalitet.Initiativet till workshopen togs av VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut) genom en delansökan i en bred ansökan kallad Tema miljökvalitet ställd till Vägverket, Banverket och KFB.Workshopens syfte var att diskutera begreppet miljökvalitet i relation till transportsektorn och att rekognosera intresset för bildandet av ett nätverk för transportrelaterad miljökvalitet. För att underlätta urvalsarbetet och göra workshopen hanterbar inbjöds ett antal gäster från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället som alla hade relevanta kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området.

  • 3. Bergkvist, Bo
    et al.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Soil acidification and element fluxes of a Fagus sylvatica forest as influenced by simulated nitrogen deposition1993Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Bergkvist, Bo
    et al.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The influence of tree species on acid deposition, proton budgets and element fluxes in south Swedish forest ecosystems1995Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Saltpåverkan på vegetation, grundvatten och mark utmed E20 och Rv 48 i Skaraborgs län 19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The influence of de-icing salt on vegetation, groundwater and soil along Highways E20 and 48 in Skaraborg County during 19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The influence of de-icing salt on vegetation, groundwater and soil along two highways in the south-western part of Sweden during 19941997Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sustainabililty and Energy Efficient Management of Roads: Final Report2014Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    The application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two studies of the implementation of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts. It aims to examine the fulfillment and follow-up of the requirements, the client intentions behind the requirements, and factors influencing the contractors' environmental performance. The study shows that a serious effort to integrate environmental aspects into the contracts has been made. However, the application of the requirements is hampered by deficient information transfer to key actors and a lack of systematic follow-up of the requirements. In order to make green procurement effective, simpler and clearer requirements and effective follow-up routines are needed

  • 10.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ecological adaptation of roads: Discussion of possible ecological impacts and their mitigation as applied to a road project in Sweden1996Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ekologisk anpassning av vägar: diskussion av bedömningsunderlag och åtgärder utifrån exemplet Rv 31 Bogla-Öggestorp1996Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Environmental effects of highway runoff water: A literature review1994Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kumulativa effekter och konsekvenser: behandling i miljöbedömning och miljökonsekvensbeskrivning för vägar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish transport infrastructure planning, cumulative effects are not given the attention demanded by the Swedish Environmental Code and the European so-called SEA and EIA directives (Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment, respectively). In the Environmental Code, the formulations concerning cumulative effects are vague. The EIA handbook of the Swedish Road Administration does not give much guidance. There is thus a great need for development of procedures and methods adapted to Swedish road planning. The overall aim of the report is to contribute to the development of the treatment of cumulative effects in SEA and EIA of road planning in Sweden. Specific aims are to describe the concept of cumulative effects and to give advice on approaches and methods that can be used in cumulative effects analysis and assessment. The report mainly builds on American and Canadian literature. "Cumulative effects" are changes to the environment that are caused by an action or measure together with other past, present and future actions and measures.

  • 14.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Miljö- och hälsoeffekter av dubbdäcksanvändning: Litteraturöversikt1992Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Miljöeffekter av vägdagvatten: Litteraturöversikt1994Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Spridning och effekter av tungmetaller från vägar och vägtrafik: litteraturöversikt2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Large amounts of heavy metals originating in the road transportation system enter the environment. Vehicles, traffic, cargo, pavement material, road equipment and road operation and maintenance activities are important sources. Tyre rubber contains much zinc, brake linings much copper. Corrosion of vehicle components introduces iron, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, vanadium, tungsten and zinc, etc into the environment. Galvanised road equipment is a source of zinc. Heavy metal fluxes are governed by the volume and composition of traffic, pavement type, runoff handling, topography, weather conditions, vegetation structure, etc. Snow lying in urban environments accumulates heavy metals that will be introduced into ecosystems serving as snow deposits. Car wash facilities discharge large amounts of heavy metals. Many heavy metals are constituents of enzymes necessary for life. Heavy metals, also the essential ones, are toxic in high concentrations. Metal mobility in soils is governed by many soil factors. Cadmium and zinc are mobile whereas lead is immobile. The uppermost soil layer close to roads has elevated heavy metal concentrations. Animals in roadside habitats can have high levels of heavy metals. Sediments in watercourses which receive runoff are often metal polluted. The health effects of engine exhaust lead are well documented. Owing to the phase-out of petrol lead, the lead load on humans and the environment has decreased considerably. Heavy metals in high concentrations cause damage to the respiratory organs and the neural system. Catalytic converters contain platinum, palladium and rhodium. Of these, palladium has the highest soil mobility but all three are relatively biologically inert and accumulate in the soil surface. The health effects of catalyst metals have not been documented so far, but little is known about long-term health and environmental effects. The review primarily concerns palladium, platinum, rhodium, antimony, lead, cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium and zinc but also cerium, iridium, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, thallium, tin, vanadium, bismuth and tungsten. Gaps in knowledge have been identified.

  • 17.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av naturmiljöeffekter i MKB för väg- och järnvägsprojekt: utgångspunkter och uppläggning1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring is a neglected area in the work on environmental impact assessments (EIA) for road and rail projects in Sweden. The intention of the report is to contribute to development of methodology for EIA follow-up in the road and rail sector by discussing the need for EIA follow-up and the considerations on which this should be based. The work is confined to the natural environment and is not concerned with monitoring the economic sense.

    Effect monitoring may be carried out in order to check that the environmental effects are acceptable and in line with sustainable development; to note the risk of unforeseen effects; to protect and develop natural values and ecological interactions; to enhance the reliability of the decision base; to enhance the effectiveness of environmental measures taken; to raise the environmental awareness of the players involved, and to provide feedback of experience data for future infrastructure planning. The need for monitoring should be assessed on the basis of a holistic perspective where the follow-up activities provide a comprehensive idea of the environmental effects of roads and railways. The construction phase and irreversible effects may require special attention. Methodology should be developed for the way qualitatively expressed monitoring data can be treated in relation to quantitative data. Good baseline data must be secured and existing survey material subjected to critical appraisal. The do-nothing alternative must be treated in the same way as the construction alternatives. The report discusses effect monitoring concerning fauna, vegetation, soil, water and landscape, and the interaction between these. The treatment of cumulative effects is also discussed.

    The aim of process follow-up is to scrutinise the effectiveness and appropriateness of EIA work. Follow-up may for instance examine how decisions with environmental implications are implemented in later planning stages.

    Quality appraisal often focuses on the EIA document, for instance with regard to clarity and lucidity, description of methodology, presentation of results, treatment of the do-nothing alternative, and the need for monitoring environmental impacts. Appraisal may also concern data quality and data uncertainty, and treatment of lack of information. An appraisal is also made to find whether attention has been given to the critical environmental impacts.

  • 18.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Miljömål och mått avseende landskap inom väg- och järnvägsplaneringen: sammanställning och analys av skrivningar från sex länder1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    here is a lack of well defined environmental goals for the countryside in foreign literature. Similarly, there are few means of measuring the natural and cultural values of the countryside. This has been found in a review of goals and measures in the literature on road and railway planning in Finland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, the UK and Canada. The work also indicates the need for research and development focusing on:– developing methods for identifying and evaluating the collective natural and cultural values of the countryside,– further developing countryside-oriented environmental goals for different planning levels which take into account the entire landscape instead of being limited to individual areas of interest,– developing relevant indicators and traceable measures for the environmental goals,– integrating the environmental goals in the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in the transport sector,– studying the consequences of the recently introduced environmental legislation in Sweden.Goals are often expressed in very general terms. The most exact formulations are found in the literature from the UK and Norway. Descriptions of goals are more commonly found for the natural environment than for the cultural environment, but in some cases both are included in the same text. Few goals are provided with measures, which makes follow-up difficult. Landscape-oriented environmental goals are more common for planning new infrastructure projects than for actions involving the existing infrastructure. The goals for the existing infrastructure are often oriented towards the cultural environment, in particular the cultural values of the infrastructure. The small number of goals concerning the existing infrastructure indicates a problem since the volume of the existing infrastructure is much larger than that of the planned infrastructure. The aim of the project is to analyse foreign descriptions of environmental goals and measures for the landscape and its natural and cultural values. The work is limited to rural conditions and the interest of the natural and cultural environment or preservation schemes, in addition to recreation, outdoor life and tourism. Relevant material has been found in 50 out of about 120 documents studied. The descriptions of the goals have been divided into seven groups: the general environment, the countryside as a whole, the rural scene, the natural environment, the cultural environment, historic sites, recreation areas. The formulations have been processed from three aspects: a) the degree of concreteness in the actions or the degree of active adoption of standpoints required from decision makers; b) whether the goals apply to existing or planned infrastructure; c) intended decision level. The work is intended to constitute an aid in the work of the Swedish National Road Administration and the Swedish National Railway Administration for operationalisation of the general environmental goals for transport policy. More precise environmental goals for the countryside will require method development for identification of its natural and cultural values. Measures need to be developed for follow-up purposes. However, the lack of measures and measuring methods should not prevent the creation of environmental goals. The establishment of environmental goals will lead to increased demands on the content of the environmental consequence analyses performed prior to infrastructure projects. This is an important aspect in meeting the high demands of the new Swedish environmental legislation on consideration for the environment.

  • 19.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljöeffekter av vägprojekt: behov av utveckling och erfarenhetsåterföring2001Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Helldin, Jan Olof
    SLU.
    Planners' views on cumulative effects: A focus-group study concerning transport infrastructure planning in Sweden2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 243-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative effects (CE) still receive little attention in the Swedish processes for road and railway infrastructure planning. This article seeks to analyse how CE are treated by professionals engaged in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment of roads and railways. The aims were (i) to analyse views of CE held by professionals with long planning practice, (ii) to analyse how planners experience the handling of CE in their daily planning practice, and (iii) to identify means to strengthen the assessment of CE in the Swedish road and railway planning process. The study was performed as an international literature review and two focus groups among planners. Discussions revealed little knowledge and use of the term CE, partly due to lack of incentives and guidance. Little mention was made of research. Participants said EIA work was much directed towards the environmental compartments/aspects listed in the Environmental Code. Environmental impacts designated as significant demanded much work. The discussions revealed a need of more collaboration between various actors in EIA and of novel methods of public participation. Spatial and temporal scales were chosen with little concern of CE. The European Landscape Convention was hoped to enhance CE treatment in EIA. Improvement suggestions include (i) use of the term CE in regulatory instruments, (ii) development of the interplay between CEA practice and CE science, (iii) co-ordination of management of baseline, monitoring and follow-up data, (iv) assessment of CE in relation to project-specific environmental objectives, developed in a bottom-up process, (v) inclusion of CE, within and across environmental aspects, in determining the significance of environmental impacts, (vi) advice on CE treatment in EIA guidelines, (vii) requirement of CE assessment in EIA procurement, (viii) strengthened generalist competence in environmental assessment, and (ix) enhancing skills in stepwise analyses and indirect environmental effects. Research needs include adaptation of the Swedish EIA procedure to international state of the art, knowledge support of quantification in CE assessment, and development of innovative means of public consultation in transport infrastructure planning.

  • 21.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Boughedaoui, Ménouer
    University of Blida.
    Joumard, Robert
    French National Research Institute for Transport and Safety.
    Ortega Pérez, Emilio
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
    Wäger, Patrik
    Camusso, Cristian
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Pronello, Cristina
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Arapis, Gerassimos
    Agricultural Univiversity of Athens.
    Karkalis, Konstantinos
    Agricultural Univiversity of Athens.
    Goger, Thierry
    Chiron, Mireille
    Dimopoulou, Stavroula
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
    Assessment of some indicators within an impact2010In: Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport: An interdisciplinary approach to methods / [ed] Joumard, Robert & Gudmundsson, Henrik, Bron: INRETS , 2010, p. 141-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter 5 'Assessment of some indicators within an impact' looks in detail at indicators for seven impacts on the environment: direct toxicity of air pollutants, natural habitat fragmentation, non-renewable resource use, loss of cultural heritage due to land take, noise as annoyance to humans, greenhouse effect, and waste. A review of potential indicators for each impact is undertaken using criteria and other elements provided in chapter 4 as a basic framework.

  • 22.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    State of preparedness for climate change adaptation in operations and maintenance of transport infrastructure in eight Swedish municipalities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the preparedness for climate change adaptation (CCA) of transport infrastructure in eight municipalities in Sweden. The study focused on municipal officials’ role in organizing and implementing CCA measures. The interviews were done in 2011. Many respondents confused CCA with climate change mitigation. Three of the municipalities had performed vulnerability analyses but apart from that, well-documented decision support in long-term adaptation was largely lacking. Adaptation measures were often based on day-to-day problems and recently experienced weather incidents. Strategic work with long-term CCA seemed to be largely lacking. The placing of the responsibility for CCA in the municipal organization was often unclear. Six of the respondents found there were no actual hindrances to their work with CCA and no conflicts with other municipal aims. However, several responses indicated budgetary competition with environmental aims or other societal strivings. The planning and implementation of CCA measures seemed to be highly dependent on individual officials, their engagement, their passivity/activity regarding this issue, their defined responsibility and the boundaries for their current position in the municipality organization. 

  • 23.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ljungström, Martin
    Sweco Civil AB.
    Miljökonsekvenser av 2+1-väg: fokusgruppsstudie väg 23 och 47/1952015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of methodology to assess environmental consequences of so-called 2+1 roads. During recent years, many existing roads in Sweden have been upgraded to 2+1 roads, i.e. roads where on-coming traffic is separated by a barrier (wire or guard rail). These roads comprise stretches with two lanes in one direction and one in the opposite direction, with road stretches alternating between one- and two-lane sections. Two roads, upgraded to 2+1 roads in 2009, were chosen for the study. The roads were Road 23 between Sandsbro and Drättinge and Road 47/195 between Hedenstorp and Habo, both in southern Sweden. The study revealed a number of environmental consequences that are not usually addressed in ordinary Environmental Impact Assessment of a road-separation measure. Much focus-group discussion was devoted to consequences of re-routing traffic to alternative roads during occasions when the 2+1 road is closed. Even uncomplicated operations and maintenance measures cause re-routing. This re-routed traffic gives rise to various kinds of inconvenience to people living close to the road receiving the re-routed traffic and to people who have their daily activities close to it. In addition to disturbance and decreased safety, also pollution, noise emission and vibrations were experienced as inconveniences arising from this traffic. Informants also mentioned that some re-routing roads have a standard not sufficient enough to carry the traffic volumes sometimes occurring. Environmental consequences attributed to the 2+1 road itself concerned barrier effects to people living close to the road, insecurity of families with children, the need of car transportation to children’s activities, and limited access to agricultural and forestry properties on the other side of the road. Temporary road closures can lead to decreasing revenues and inconveniences in connection with delivery delays. When it came to cycling, the informants identified the need of good signage to cycleways, sufficient technical standard of the pavement and continuity of the cycleways without interruptions forcing cyclists onto the car road.

  • 24.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    SLU.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    SLU.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Angelstam, Per
    SLU.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Perceived landscape values and public participation in a road-planning process: A case study in Sweden2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 631-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Landscape Convention indicates that assessment of different dimensions that exist in landscapes should be taken into account in planning. In this study, we first investigated ecological, cultural and social values as perceived by the local people in a highway-planning process in Sweden. Next, we explored which factors influenced the local people’s participation in the road-planning process. We used questionnaires, planning documents and the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate the relations between different factors and local people's participation in the planning process. The results showed that people presumed the ecological values in the landscape to be adversely affected by the new road, while the social values would remain the same. Landowners had heard of the participatory-process, but few participated. Those who lived within 300 m of the road were more active in the planning process than people living further away. The findings suggest that people living within a few hundred metres of the road should be treated as key stakeholders in the planning process. The involvement of other stakeholders, and when in the public participation process stakeholders should be involved, is also discussed.

  • 25. Joumard, Robert
    et al.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Framework for assessing indicators of environmental impacts in the transport sector2011In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2242, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following questions were addressed in this study: How can environmental impacts of transport be identified? How can the impacts be represented by operational indicators? How can several indicators be considered jointly? How can indicators be used in planning and decision making? First, a definition of the phrase "indicator of environmental impacts in the transport sector" was derived. The concept of a chain of causality between a source and a final target was developed as a common reference for indicators and their assessment. Criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators were derived in terms of measurement, monitoring, and management. Finally, examples of the application of the criteria for individual indicators of seven chains of causality and for selected aggregated indicators were developed and are presented in this paper.

  • 26.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Andersson, Hans B
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Planering och beslutsprocesser för energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning i svenska kommuner2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been considerably more energy-efficient road and street lighting available on the market than the light fixtures that dominate in Swedish municipalities today, there are relatively few investments and re-investments in energy-efficient and modern fixtures. This report summarizes an interview-based study of planning, decision making processes, responsibilities, and stakeholder involvement in 12 Swedish municipalities of different sizes to identify factors that constitute barriers or incentives for more energy efficient road and street lighting. The municipalities have highly variable share of mercury lights remaining. The municipalities differ considerably in how they have organized responsibilities and decision-making and how they work strategically with energy issues. Small municipalities had the most energy efficient lighting and all of them stated that energy savings were the main reason for their substitution of mercury lamps. In medium-sized and large municipalities the European Ecodesign Directive was seen as the main motive for renewal of road and street light equipment by four municipalities, and the remaining four municipalities mentioned technically-based reasons for the replacement of old road and street lights. Outsourcing of management, operation and maintenance may constitute a barrier for renewal whereas costs for renewal and lack of knowledge do not seem to be any significant barriers. From the results of this study, the strategic context–in this case strategic work aiming at energy savings–seems to be of great importance for decisions regarding investment in new road and street lights.

  • 27.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Briel, A
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Bo
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 475, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km(2) catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning

  • 28.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE) Mark- och vattenteknik .
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE) Mark- och vattenteknik .
    Road drainage in Sweden: current practice and suggestions for adaptation to climate change2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    Road drainage in Sweden: Current practice and suggestions for adaptation to climate change2013In: Journal of Infrastructure Systems, ISSN 1076-0342, E-ISSN 1943-555X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes current practice in road surface and subsurface drainage in Sweden and analyzes the necessity for adaptation of the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and monitoring of road drainage measures to climate change. Based on a survey of professionals working with various aspects of road drainage, the study sought to identify: (1) problems experienced concerning road drainage, focusing on the current Swedish climate; (2) future problems regarding climate change impacts such as flooding and high flows; and (3) suggestions for adaptation measures concerning road drainage systems, taking future climate change into account. Suggested improvements concerning management and planning included clarification of responsibility for drainage issues, better overview of the location and condition of drainage facilities, inclusion of drainage system maintenance in procurement of operation contracts, maintenance plans for drainage facilities, and monitoring and inspection of drainage measures. Suggestions concerning drainage system construction, operation and maintenance included increasing the capacity of drainage facilities, stabilizing ditch slopes and various measures to prevent clogging of culverts

  • 30.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    French, Helen K
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Insitute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Bioforsk, Soil and Environement division, Ås, Norway.
    Evaluating the effects of simulated land use changes on peak discharge of a catchment adjoining a road2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning) (Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning och Biogeofysik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Insitute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Bioforsk, Soil and Environement division, Ås, Norway.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    French, Helen K
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Usefulness of four hydrological models in simulating high-resolution discharge dynamics of a catchment adjacent to a road2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms universitet.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    French, Helen
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB .
    Quantifying the hydrological impact of simulated changes in land use on peak discharge in a small catchment2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 466/467, p. 741-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE) was used to quantify overland runoff in response to four extreme rain events and four types of simulated land use measure in a catchment in Norway. The current land use in the catchment comprises arable lands, forest, urban areas and a stream that passes under a motorway at the catchment outlet. This model simulation study demonstrates how the composition and configuration of land use measures affect discharge at the catchment outlet differently in response to storms of different sizes. For example, clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff resulting from a 50-year storm event in summer, but the effects on peak discharge were less pronounced during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of the catchment area was the most effective measure in reducing peak flows for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Introducing grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet for the 50-year storm event. Overall, the results indicate that the specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and timing of storm events.

  • 33.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms universtitet.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    French, Helen
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB .
    Modeller subjectivity and calibration impacts on hydrological model applications: an event-based comparison for a road-adjacent catchment in South-East Norway2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 502, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying a ‘best’ performing hydrologic model in a practical sense is difficult due to the potential influences of modeller subjectivity on, for example, calibration procedure and parameter selection. This is especially true for model applications at the event scale where the prevailing catchment conditions can have a strong impact on apparent model performance and suitability. In this study, two lumped models (CoupModel and HBV) and two physically-based distributed models (LISEM and MIKE SHE) were applied to a small catchment upstream of a road in south-eastern Norway. All models were calibrated to a single event representing typical winter conditions in the region and then applied to various other winter events to investigate the potential impact of calibration period and methodology on model performance. Peak flow and event-based hydrographs were simulated differently by all models leading to differences in apparent model performance under this application. In this case-study, the lumped models appeared to be better suited for hydrological events that differed from the calibration event (i.e., events when runoff was generated from rain on non-frozen soils rather than from rain and snowmelt on frozen soil) while the more physical-based approaches appeared better suited during snowmelt and frozen soil conditions more consistent with the event-specific calibration. This was due to the combination of variations in subsurface conditions over the eight events considered, the subsequent ability of the models to represent the impact of the conditions (particularly when subsurface conditions varied greatly from the calibration event), and the different approaches adopted to calibrate the models. These results indicate that hydrologic models may not only need to be selected on a case-by-case basis but also have their performance evaluated on an application-by-application basis since how a model is applied can be equally important as inherent model structure.

  • 34.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nickman, Alireza
    KTH.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    A method for mapping flood hazard probability along roads2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 133, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways

  • 35.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, Berit
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    Environmental management systems in rail operation and maintenance: Current practice and potential improvement2005In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 433-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental management systems (EMS) require performance evaluation of significant environmental aspects. Much has been published on how to achieve environmental performance evaluation but little information is available on applications in practice. The Swedish National Rail Administration, Banverket, initiated the implementation of EMS in 1998, at about the same time as many other rail administrations. In this paper an overview of the application of EMS at rail administrations in selected countries is presented and systems for environmental performance evaluation within the EMS used by Banverket are analysed. The use of EMS by rail administrations was found to vary from the absence of environmental management to fully implemented EMS, mainly ISO 14001. At Banverket, EMS is widely used but the environmental performance evaluation could be improved by introducing indicators and merging all types of environmental monitoring, currently reported separately, into a common system.

  • 36.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    Identification of environmental aspects in an EMS context: A methodological framework for the Swedish National Rail Administration2007In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 385-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental aspects are basic elements in an Environmental Management System (EMS). The identification of environmental aspects is, however, recognized as one of the most complicated parts in establishing an EMS and has been subject to criticism concerning, e.g., lack of transparency and reproducibility. This paper evaluates the Swedish National Rail Administration's (Banverket) current practice for the identification of environmental aspects. A better link between activity, aspect and impact is needed. A more stringent identification procedure would improve Banverket's environmental management. The paper proposes a structured framework for the identification of environmental aspects at Banverket.

  • 37.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).
    SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans: Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience2010In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 30, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Kristina L
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Larsson, Anders
    SLU Alnarp.
    Hantering av natur- och kulturvärden genom hela vägplaneringsprocessen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 39. Schmidtbauer Crona, Jan
    et al.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Balfors, Berit
    Blev det som det var tänkt?: en internationell kunskapsöversikt om miljöuppföljning av väg- och järnvägsprojekt2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Were the results as intended?" The question encapsulates the main purpose of

    environmental follow-ups of road and railway projects. Documenting how far

    the real environmental effects and consequences agree with those that were

    described in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the main purpose of

    an environmental follow-up. Another of its purposes is to identify unforeseen

    effects and consequences, so that appropriate countermeasures can be taken.

    Describing the extent to which any adaptive or mitigation measures had the

    desired effect may be yet a further purpose of making an environmental

    follow-up. An environmental follow-up can also aim to describe whether the

    environmental consequences of the infrastructure project was kept within the

    framework laid down at the time the investment decision was made. This

    overview reports how an EIA follow-up is organised and carried out in other

    countries, principally Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, the

    USA, Canada, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong. Procedures are

    presented for selecting infrastructure projects to follow up, together with

    the environmental effects that are to be followed up. The importance of

    clarifying the purpose of the follow-up is emphasised, as is the importance

    of the follow-up activities being carried out according to a defined

    programme. Among other things, the follow-up programme describes the various

    players' responsibilities, access to baseline data, the timing of the

    follow-up, the methods to be used, and how the results are to be reported and

    used. The overview also takes up the follow-up's linkage to an environmental

    management system. Examples are also given of a method known as adaptive

    environmental management. Finally, the review looks at how experience gained

    from follow-ups can be disseminated and transferred to the planning of future

    infrastructure projects. The review shows that inspiration for more effective

    approaches and methodology for EIA follow-ups in the road and railway sector

    can also be sought in experience from follow-ups in other sectors.

  • 40.
    Sowerby, Chris
    et al.
    CH2M Hill.
    Langstraat, James
    CH2M HILL.
    Harmer, Clare
    TRL.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    DTU.
    SUNRA: a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations (SUNRA) project aims to provide a common way of defining sustainability, identify how to measure sustainable development at a strategic level and integrate sustainable decision making into key intervention points. The project has developed a series of sustainability frameworks that allow NRAs to develop a tailored approach to sustainability based on national priorities, significant issues, stakeholder concerns and individual organisational structures.

  • 41. Tyler, Germund
    et al.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Chemical and biological effects of artificially increased nitrogen deposition of the ground in a Swedish beech forest1993Report (Other academic)
1 - 41 of 41
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