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  • 1.
    Amato, Fulvio
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Cassee, Flemming R.
    Centre for Sustainability & Environmental Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Gehrig, Robert
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hafner, Wolfgang
    Department of Environmental Protection, Municipality of Klagenfurt on Lake Worthersee.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    University of Birmingham.
    Jozwicka, Magdalena
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    King's College London.
    Moreno, Teresa
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC.
    Prevot, Andre S. H.
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona.
    Querol, Xavier
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 275, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: en metodutveckling, huvudrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in

    environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed

    in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for

    road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage

    assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for

    nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been

    studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas. The method has

    been developed with reference to a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and

    supranational handbook and educational literature, investigation material

    from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. The method is

    designed as a checklist which deals with a number of planning stages, i.e. a

    number of questions each of which must be answered before proceeding to the

    end of the checklist where an assessment - no damage, damage or pronounced

    damage - has to be made. At the same time, those completing the checklist

    must also answer a number of relevant questions in order to motivate their

    standpoint regarding the assessment of damage, both to themselves and to

    others. The method has been tested on a newly produced EIA and has been

    judged by external reviewers to work well.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: ett kunskapsunderlag inför en metodutveckling2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas.

    The study is based on a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and supranational handbook or educational literature, investigation material from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. From this review, the following aspects were highlighted: the environmental aspects which are listed as capable of being damaged, the way damage is assessed, the way environmental pressure, change in environmental state and related impacts are described, the evaluatory principles to be used, and the legal basis for the conservation of assets deemed worthy of conservation. These aspects have been used as building blocks in constructing a method.  

  • 4.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Identifiering av samband i landskapet: ett pilotprojekt för tillämpning inom transportinfrastruktur. EKLIPS-rapport, kulturmiljö och kvartärgeologi2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eklips är ett samarbetsprojekt med många inblandade parter. VTI:s del har

    varit att undersöka vissa samband i landskapet utifrån ordinära fält och

    kartstudier. Därefter har forskare vid Metria Miljöanalys försökt identifiera

    dessa samband automatiskt. De studerade sambanden är kända sedan länge inom

    kulturgeografisk och agrarhistorisk forskning. Det är samband mellan olika

    företeelser i landskap, exempelvis mellan olika bebyggelsekategorier såsom

    mellan herrgård respektive bondgård och dess underlydande torp. Därefter har

    simulering och analys av hur vägar bryter sambanden genomförts. Att försöka

    visualisera sambanden har också varit viktigt i arbetet samt att försöka

    förstå hur sambanden uppfattas när man lyfter blicken från kartan till det

    faktiska landskapet. Vi har kommit fram till slutsatsen att sambanden måste

    vara konkreta för att kunna uppfattas, dvs. om man skall kunna förstå måste

    man också kunna se. Det räcker således inte med att sambanden går att

    grafiskt visualisera på en karta. De måste kunna upplevas i landskapet för

    att kunna pekas ut som exempelvis bevarandevärda eller hänsynsvärda.

  • 5.
    Antonson, Hans (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportrelaterad miljökvalitet: rapport från workshop den 10-11 september 20012001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 10–11 september 2001 möttes 31 representanter från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället på Scandic hotell Hasselbacken i Stockholm för att lyssna till föredragningar om och diskutera kring begreppet transportrelaterad miljökvalitet.Initiativet till workshopen togs av VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut) genom en delansökan i en bred ansökan kallad Tema miljökvalitet ställd till Vägverket, Banverket och KFB.Workshopens syfte var att diskutera begreppet miljökvalitet i relation till transportsektorn och att rekognosera intresset för bildandet av ett nätverk för transportrelaterad miljökvalitet. För att underlätta urvalsarbetet och göra workshopen hanterbar inbjöds ett antal gäster från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället som alla hade relevanta kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området.

  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Patterns of residual salt on road surface: Case study2005In: Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council , 2005, p. 602-608Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    A field study was performed in order to investigate the patterns of residual salt on a road surface and the mechanisms involved in transporting the salt off the road into the roadsides. The residual salt was measured in nine segments across a road and repeated in 2-24 hour intervals, depending on the road surface conditions. The results will be implemented in a winter maintenance management model under development by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The results showed clearly that the vehicles are important for redistribution of the salt from the wheel paths. A light snowfall increased the salt content in the roadway, probably because of redistribution of salt from outside the road border lines by passing vehicles due to increased wetness. The amount of residual salt in the wheel paths could be modeled rather well using an exponential function, where the amount of salt was depending on the accumulated number of vehicles after each salting occasion. A model constant was suggested to be related to the road surface conditions.

  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model from real world data to a modelled scenario2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The use of salt in the winter maintenance operations has both desired and undesired consequences. Many studies have been made regarding different environmental problems related to road salt. Most of the studies regarding salt damaged vegetation have however been concerned with the concentration of sodium and chloride in plant tissue, an indicator not very useful for the road administrator. The main purpose of the environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model is to increase knowledge regarding the relationship between salting (amount, method, technique and timing) and the roadside exposure at different distances. Given known or assumed dose-response relationships for certain types of vegetation, the damage can also be modelled. And, by setting a cost for this damage, at least parts of the environmental costs can be estimated. Since the model works in a high time-resolution (one hour) during the winter season, it can be used to test scenarios where for instance the maintenance regulations, the traffic composition or the climate have changed.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model: updated algorithms for the description of salt damage to roadside environment2010In: Sustainable winter service for road users: 13th international winter road congress, Paris: La Défense , 2010, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti-/deicing on the roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. The results presented in this paper are the first tentative test runs of the environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter model. The environmental cost will in this case study be the cost for vegetation damage larger than a chosen accepted level of damage, and a cost for groundwater protection installations. The total environmental cost in this small case study will roughly be between 1.5 and 2.5 MSEK.

  • 9.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Winter model: roadside salt exposure under different weather conditions2008In: Surface transportation weather and snow removal and ice control technology, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, TRB , 2008, p. 159-170Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental model is a submodel in the Swedish winter maintenance management system, the Winter Model. The Winter Model will make it possible to assess the most important effects and their monetary value of changes in winter maintenance strategies and operations in Sweden. The effects are assessed for road users, road administrators, and the environment. Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti- and deicing on roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. In this paper, research results from some recent field studies are used to illustrate how the transport mechanisms responsible for the roadside exposure to deicing salt is working under different weather conditions. In order to improve the current model describing the roadside exposure to salt for even better prediction, the occurrence of plowing actions is also suggested to be incorporated into the model. Further it is suggested that, if also the presumably small depositions of dry salt aerosol particles on larger distance are to be described, the transport mechanism of dry salt crystals, breaking up into small airborne fragments and transported by the wind is also to be incorporated into the model describing the roadside exposure to deicing salt. The results in this paper are beeing incorporated into the Swedish Winter Model.

  • 10.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from individual trains in tunnel environments2016In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Dun Eaglais, Kippen Stirlingshire, FK8 3DY, UK: Civil-Comp Press , 2016, 2016, Vol. 110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles that were generated by individual moving trains on an underground railway platform, a series of real-time measurements were undertaken. The measurement range covered the ultrafine (less than 100 nm) and partly the fine (100 nm to 2.5 μm), but not the coarse fraction (2.5 to 10 μm). The results show that the individual trains with stop and start at the platform elevate substantially the particulate number concentrations with a diameter size greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations are obtained. One mode peaks around 170 nm when a train stopped/started, while the other is around 30 nm when no train operated in the station. By using principal component analysis, four components are extracted from the thirty two-analyzed particulate sizes, indicating four different contributors in those detected particles. It is revealed from this study that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains (mainly through mechanical wear and turbulent resuspension) is a key contributing source of the fine particles on underground railway platforms, which can be separated from the background by their different size distributions.

  • 11.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from moving trains in a tunnel environment2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 59, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention is being paid to airborne particles in railway environments because of their potential to adversely affect health. In this study, we investigate the contribution of moving trains to both the concentration and size distribution of particles in tunnel environments. Real-time measurements were taken with high time-resolution instruments at a railway station platform in a tunnel in Stockholm in January 2013. The results show that individual trains stopping and starting at the platform substantially elevate the particulate concentrations with a mobility diameter greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations were obtained. A mode of around 170 nm occurs when a train moves, while the other mode peaks at about 30 nm when there is no train in the station. By using principal component analysis (PCA), three contributing sources were identified on the basis of the classification of the sizes of the particles, namely railway-related mechanical wear, suspension due to the movement of trains and sparking of electric-powered components. It is concluded that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains is a key contributor to fine particles (100–500 nm) on the railway platform in a tunnel.

  • 12.
    Dahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Div Ergonom & Aerosol Technology.
    Gharibi, Arash
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University.
    Bohgard, Mats
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface2006In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1314-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7 x 10(11) and 3.2 x 10(12) particles vehicle(-1) km(-1) at speeds of 50 and 70 km h(-1). This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Denby, Bruce R.
    et al.
    The Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET).
    Ketzel, M.
    Aarhus University.
    Ellermann, T.
    Aarhus University.
    Stojiljkovic, A.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Kupiainen, K.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Niemi, J. V.
    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY).
    Norman, M.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholm University,.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sundvor, I.
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Road salt emissions: A comparison of measurements and modelling using the NORTRIP road dust emission model2016In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 141, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    De-icing of road surfaces is necessary in many countries during winter to improve vehicle traction. Large amounts of salt, most often sodium chloride, are applied every year. Most of this salt is removed through drainage or traffic spray processes but a certain amount may be suspended, after drying of the road surface, into the air and will contribute to the concentration of particulate matter. Though some measurements of salt concentrations are available near roads, the link between road maintenance salting activities and observed concentrations of salt in ambient air is yet to be quantified.

    In this study the NORTRIP road dust emission model, which estimates the emissions of both dust and salt from the road surface, is applied at five sites in four Nordic countries for ten separate winter periods where daily mean ambient air measurements of salt concentrations are available. The model is capable of reproducing many of the salt emission episodes, both in time and intensity, but also fails on other occasions.

    The observed mean concentration of salt in PM10, over all ten datasets, is 4.2 μg/m3 and the modelled mean is 2.8 μg/m3, giving a fractional bias of −0.38. The RMSE of the mean concentrations, over all 10 datasets, is 2.9 μg/m3 with an average R2 of 0.28. The mean concentration of salt is similar to the mean exhaust contribution during the winter periods of 2.6 μg/m3. The contribution of salt to the kerbside winter mean PM10 concentration is estimated to increase by 4.1 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for every kg/m2 of salt applied on the road surface during the winter season. Additional sensitivity studies showed that the accurate logging of salt applications is a prerequisite for predicting salt emissions, as well as good quality data on precipitation. It also highlights the need for more simultaneous measurements of salt loading together with ambient air concentrations to help improve model parameterisations of salt and moisture removal processes.

  • 14.
    Denby, Bruce Rolstad
    et al.
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Sundvor, Ingrid
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Johansson, Christer I.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pirjola, Liisa H.
    Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Aarhus Universitet.
    Norman, Michael A.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kauhaniemi, Mari
    Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI).
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI.
    A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling2013In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 81, p. 485-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture submodel of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described.

    We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PMio with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R-2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 16.
    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.
    et al.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Bokkers, Bas G. H.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Sachse, Hannes
    IDIADA Fahrzeugtechnik.
    Reijnders, Jos J. E.
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Boere, A. John F.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Fokkens, P. F. H.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Leseman, Daan L. A. C.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Augsburg, Klaus
    Technical University Ilmenau.
    Cassee, Flemming Ralph
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Inhalation toxicity profiles of particulate matter: a comparison between brake wear with other sources of emission2019In: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is substantial evidence that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) from road traffic is associated with adverse health outcomes. Although it is often assumed to be caused by vehicle exhaust emissions such as soot, other components may also contribute to detrimental effects. The toxicity of fine PM (PM2.5; <2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter) released from brake pads was compared to PM from other sources.

    Materials and methods: PM2.5 of different types of brake pads (low-metallic, semi-metallic, NAO and ECE-NAO hybrid), tires and road pavement, poultry as well as the combustion of diesel fuel and wood (modern and old-fashioned stove technologies) were collected as suspensions in water. These were subsequently aerosolized for inhalation exposures. Female BALB/cOlaHsd mice were exposed for 1.5, 3, or 6 hours by nose-only inhalation up to 9 mg/m 3 .

    Results: Neither cytotoxicity nor oxidative stress was observed after exposure to any of the re-aerosolized PM2.5 samples. Though, at similar PM mass concentrations the potency to induce inflammatory responses was strongly dependent on the emission source. Exposure to most examined PM2.5 sources provoked inflammation including those derived from the poultry farm, wear emissions of the NAO and ECE-NAO hybrid brake pads as well as diesel and wood combustion, as indicated by neutrophil chemoattractant, KC and MIP-2 and lung neutrophil influx.

    Discussion and conclusions: Our study revealed considerable variability in the toxic potency of brake wear particles. Understanding of sources that are most harmful to health can provide valuable information for risk management strategies and could help decision-makers to develop more targeted air pollution regulation.

  • 17.
    Grigoratos, Theodoros
    et al.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Martini, Giorgio
    European Commission Joint Research Centre.
    Experimental investigation of tread wear and particle emission from tyres with different treadwear marking2018In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 182, p. 200-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Treadwear Rating (TWR) provided on the sidewall of the tyre is a marking intended to inform the customer about the expected durability of the tyre. The current study explores whether there is a correlation between the TWR and tyres' tread mass loss. Furthermore, it explores the possible correlation between the TWR and tyre wear dust emitted in the form of PM10 and PM2.5. For that reason, two tyres of the same brand (B) but with different TWR and three tyres of different brands (C and D with the same TWR as one of the B tyres and A with a lower TWR) were tested at a constant speed of 70 km/h by means of the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) road simulator. Tyres of the same TWR but of different brands showed different behaviour in terms of material loss, PM, and PN emissions under the selected testing conditions. This means that it is not feasible to categorize tyres of different brands in terms of their emissions based on their TWR. The test performed on the two tyres of the same brand but with different TWR showed instead a substantial (not statistically significant) difference in both total wear and PM10 emissions. The tyre with the higher TWR (B2) showed less wear and PM10 emissions compared to the B1 tyre having a lower TWR. Since only two tyres of the same brand and with different TWR were tested, this result cannot be generalized and more tests are necessary to confirm the relation within the same brand. In general, the tyre tread mass loss showed no obvious statistical relation to PM10, PM2.5 or PN concentration. In all cases approximately 50% (by mass) of emitted PM10 fall within the size range of fine particles, while PN size distribution is dominated by nanoparticles most often peaking at 20-30 nm.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Emissioner av slitage- och resuspensionspartiklar i väg- och gatumiljö: litteraturstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles from wear and resuspension in the road environment are difficult to handle in emission modelling for many reasons. Primary wear emissions are affected by a large number of factors related to material properties, traffic characteristics and temporal and spatial variations in the composition of the vehicle fleet. Estimations made from measurements in ambient air need source apportionment studies, while laboratory tests are made on pinpoint samples taken under non-realistic conditions.

    Resuspension depends, apart from the addition of primary wear particles, also on the addition of particles from exhaust and the environment. Road surface characteristics and meteorology are important factors affecting the resuspension process.

    This report summarises how some different models handle wear- and resuspension particles and provides an overview of factors affecting the emission of these particles as well as an overview of relevant emission factors. The models considered are the American AP-42, the Swedish Dispersion and the Norwegian VLuft.

    The report concludes that it is important that data used for particle emissions from tyres and brakes are as up-to-date as possible, since the composition varies over time. Relatively good data are available and probably generalizable. The situation for pavement wear and resuspension is more complex. These particle sources depend on a large number of factors and are difficult to separate from each other. Model development should therefore focus on pavement wear and resuspension processes. For Swedish conditions the Dispersion model (SMHI), which has great development potential through e.g.  coupling to current maintenance models, is a suitable starting point.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Emissionsuppskattning med hjälp av bränsleleveransstatistik: förslag till metodförbättring samt uppdateringar för åren 1980-19992000Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Icke-avgasrelaterade partiklar i vägmiljön: litteraturöversikt2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust particles in the road environment originate from wear of asphalt road pavement and corrosion of vehicle components such as tyres and brakes. Other sources are road maintenance, road equipment and particles originating in the road surroundings. This literature survey aims at giving an overview of the current knowledge about airborne particles from these different sources in the context of characteristics and emissions as well as health and environmental effects.

    In Sweden, the wearing of road pavement due to the use of studded tyres is by far the most important source of non-exhaust particles. Today, about 110 000 tonnes of asphalt pavement are worn down every year, which is about one magnitude higher than the wearing of tyres. This, in turn, is about a magnitude larger than the wearing of brakes. How much of this wear that is airborne and inhalable (PM10) is today unknown for Swedish conditions, but the chemical composition is rather well known. Road pavement particles primarily consist of the rock material of the pavement and a few per cent of bitumen and have been shown to be an important source of heavy metals. Tyre-wear particles mainly consist of different kinds of rubber but also a quite large number of chemicals, e.g. Zinc and PAH. Today there is no concordance about the size of the emissions of, or the hazards with, tyre particles. In a few Swedish investigations, based upon calculations, wear particles from brakes have been shown to be a possibly important source of heavy metal (especially Cu) pollution in large cities. A brief overview of the road-dust modules of two air-pollution models points out a need for verification and further development of these modules.

    Most of the medical literature agrees that smaller particles are more hazardous for the health than are larger particles. Nevertheless, many exceptions show that particle size is only one among several important characteristics to be considered for a more univocal knowledge about particles and health. Many environmental studies focus on the effects of road-dust chemistry, mainly heavy metals and PAH, and the environmental effects in surface waters, groundwater and soil. The effects of the particle characteristics of pollution is rarely investigated.

    Research efforts on non-exhaust particles are considered large, both due to the growing concern about particle related health effects and due to the lack of knowledge about particle characteristics and emissions in Sweden.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Non-exhaust particles in the road environment: A literature review2002In: PIARC 2002 XIth International Winter Road Congress 28-31 January 2002 - Sapporo (Japan): Reprints from proceedings of oral presentations, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2002, , p. 10p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Väg- och gaturengöring som åtgärd mot höga partikelhalter orsakade av vägdamm2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resuspended road dust has, during the last years, proved to be a contributive

    cause to high concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) in ambient air.

    The connection of PM10 to negative health effects has lead to an

    environmental quality standard which will be in force from 1 st of January

    2005. This calls for local and road authorities to investigate if the

    standard is reached and if so, what measures have to be taken to reduce

    concentrations. This study aims at investigating what methods and strategies

    are in use in Swedish municipalities, their awareness concerning the dust

    mitigating effectivity of measures taken and to investigate the knowledge on

    road dust and sweeping in our neighbouring countries. The method was a

    questionnaire to 103 municipalities and 7 regional road authorities as well

    as literature and contacts with various road authorities in Norway, Denmark,

    Finland and California. The results show that dusting from road are

    considered a large problem among road authorities and that the problems are

    worst during spring. The main cause to sweeping is comfort and sanitary

    concerns followed by safety and health concerns. Wet sweeping is the most

    common method and today no methods are in use especially intended for

    reducing PM10 concentrations. Only 10 % of the respondents plan to improve

    methods or strategies. In Helsinki the road dust problem is mainly blamed on

    winter sanding and has been addressed since the late 80s. An ambitious

    sweeping method consisting of four co-operating units is used. In Oslo, road

    dust is blamed on studded tyres and the efforts have been focused on reducing

    studded tyre frequency. Sweeping methods has been evaluated and the results

    have been implemented in road and street sweeping. Neither in Helsinki nor in

    Oslo have the sweeping methods and strategies yet proved to reduce PM10

    concentrations. In California the "Rule 1186", demanding sweepers to be PM10

    efficient, has resulted in some development, e.g. regenerative air sweepers

    and vacuum assisted dry sweepers. All in all this report shows that the

    knowledge about the contribution of road dust to PM,o and assumed

    possibilities for more efficient sweeping to reach the environmental standard

    is low among local and road authorities. In combination with the lack of PM10

    data for Swedish municipalities and the near compliance with the

    environmental quality standard, this is a potentially large problem.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägdamm: små partiklar - stora problem : en kunskapsöversikt2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inandningsbara partiklar i vår omgivningsluft är ett av våra svåraste föroreningsproblem. Partiklarna har många källor, som till exempel trafikavgaser, slitagepartiklar, utsläpp från uppvärmning och industrier och långtransporterade föroreningar från kontinenten. I Sverige infördes 2005 en miljökvalitetsnorm med syfte att reglera halterna av dessa partiklar. Mätningar visar att normen överträds rejält i trafikintensiva väg- och gatumiljöer främst under vinter och vår. Orsaken är i huvudsak slitagepartiklar från vägbana, däck och bromsar, det vill säga vägdamm. Det mesta av vägdammet bildas då våra dubbdäck sliter på beläggningen, men det härrör även från vintersandningen. Är vägdammet farligt? Vad består det av? Vilka faktorer påverkar dammbildningen? Vilka åtgärder kan tänkas vara effektiva för att minska höga dammhalter? Frågorna är många och forskningen inom området livlig. Denna skrift ger en överblick över problemområdet vägdamm och kunskapsläget kring hur man kan komma tillrätta med problemet.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from pavements and tyres: properties, controlling factors and mitigation measures2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åtgärder mot höga halter av PM10 i Norge och Finland2004Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åtgärder mot höga halter av PM10 i Stockholm2004Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys and Stockholm University.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Particles in road and railroad tunnel air: sources, properties and abatement measures2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of air pollution are a common problem in both road and railroad tunnels. Sources and emission processes however differ significantly, as reflected by aerosols physical and chemical properties. As particle concentrations and properties affect exposure of and health effects for people on platforms and in vehicles, effective ways to reduce emissions and exposure are important. This study aims to improve the knowledge of the differences between PM10 in the rail and road tunnel environments, their sources and the possibilities to address problems with high particulate levels. Measurement campaigns were carried out at Arlanda Central, a railroad tunnel station below Arlanda airport and in Söderleden road tunnel, a road tunnel in central Stockholm.

    The results show large differences in concentration levels, size distributions and in composition of the particles. The railroad tunnel aerosol consisted of coarse particles with high iron content, while the properties of the coarse particles in the road tunnel were strongly influenced by whether the road surface was wet or dry. In wet conditions, concentrations were relatively low and iron and sulfur dominating elements, while silicon, potassium, calcium and iron from suspension and road wear dominated during dry conditions. The content of elemental carbon, most likely from the pantograph, were unexpectedly high in the railroad tunnel. An older type of train with a large proportion of mechanical brakes were suggested to be responsible to the main particle emissions in the railway tunnel. The report concludes with a discussion and proposals for action against particle sources in the various underground environments.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Sjövall, Billy
    SLB-analys.
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga att minska PM10-halter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project three road sweepers' effect on PM10 concentrations in ambient air and on the road surface has been tested. Two studies have been carried out; one in street environment at Sveavägen in central Stockholm, Sweden, and one with controlled trials at Barkarby airport.

    The tests at Sveavägen showed that the sweepers' effect on total PM10 concentrations was small. In particularly favourable meteorological conditions, however, significant decreases in the local PM10 contribution of up to 20% could be found. Sweeper A contributed more often to elevated PM10 concentration during drive-by than sweeper B, while sweeper B more frequently contributed to elevated NOx levels. The dust depot on the road surface proved difficult to evaluate. In sweeper A's road stretch was, however, the main depot along the roadside, while it was greatest along the road center in sweeper B's stretch.

    Tests at Barkarby showed that sweeper B, under dry conditions (sweeper A was deleted) managed to clean up an applied material to about 85-95% (slightly lower for PM10). In moist conditions (sweeper B was deleted) the efficiency of sweeper A was slightly over 40% for the entire material, while significantly lower (approx. 5%) for PM10. Sweeper C, which only took part in the moist test, cleaned approximately 99% of the applied material and the efficiency for PM10 was the same.

    Overall, this project shows that road sweepers can contribute to decreased concentrations of PM10 in environments where road dust suspension is an important source of particulate matter, but also that sweeping technology and sweeping strategy need to be developed to work well under different meteorological conditions.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jacobson, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Christer
    Ljungman, Anders
    Nordström, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter av vinterdäck: en kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Choice of winter tyres has, from mainly being a matter of safety and economic costs for wearing of road pavements, during later years also become a matter of inhalable particles formed during pavement wear from studded tyres and their negative effects on public health. Further, the tyres' effects on environment and noise have been illustrated in several studies. The issue is also complicated by the fact that tyre choice effects on traffic safety have several components, including such diverging parameters as friction and behaviour. Finally all aspects have to be evaluated from a socioeconomic point of view for society to be able to decide which kind of distribution of tyre types that is the most profitable. This report is a summary of current knowledge in this complex research field.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Modeling the exposure of roadside environment to airbone salt: Case study2005In: Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council , 2005, p. 296-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was performed in order to investigate the relationships between the salt use, the mechanisms affecting the salt emission, dispersion and the salt exposure in a modeling approach. The salt was collected on gauze filter salt vanes at distances of 2.5 m to 100 m from the road, allowing a time resolution of 30 minutes to 24 hour exposure time. The results will be implemented in a winter maintenance management model under development by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The results showed that the roadside exposure to airborne salt is strongly related to the wind direction. The road conditions of packed snow and thin ice seemed to temporarily abate the roadside exposure by capturing the salt on the road surface. Even at a distance of 100 m from the road a positive relation of the wind sum and chloride deposition showed on days with strong winds. The modeling approach indicate the importance of residual salt, traffic, road surface characteristics, and wind for roadside exposure but also that there are several aspects of these variables that need further investigations.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Slitagepartiklar från vägbeläggningar med gummiinblandad bitumen: jämförelser med referensbeläggning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dubbdäcksslitage av vägbeläggningar orsakar emissioner av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) vars tillåtna halt i omgivningsluften är reglerad enligt en miljökvalitetsnorm. Ett sätt att minska partikelemissionen är att anpassa beläggningarnas egenskaper. Föreliggande projekt har undersökt betydelsen för partikelbildningen av inblandning av gummi från bildäck i två beläggningars bitumenfas. Undersökningen genomfördes i VTI:s provvägsmaskin där två gummiinblandade beläggningar av olika konstruktion (GAP11 och GAÖ11) och en referensbeläggning (ABS11) undersöktes. De bildade partiklarnas halter och storleksfördelningar studerades.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from road pavements with rubber mixed bitumen: comparison with reference pavement2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyre wear of road pavements causes emissions of inhalable particles (PM10). Allowed concentration of PM10 is regulated by an EU directive which is implemented in an environmental quality standard in Sweden. One way of reducing pavement wear particles is to adjust the properties of the road pavement. In the present project the effect on particle emission from mixing milled tyre rubber into the pavement bitumen has been investigated. Tests were made by the VTI road simulator using two pavement constructions containing rubber (GAP11 and GAÖ11) and one reference pavement (ABS11). GAP=GAR (Gap Graded Asphalt Rubber), ABS=SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) and GAÖ=OGAR (Open Graded Asphalt Rubber). The concentrations and size distributions of the emitted particles were measured.

    The results show that GAP11 causes lower PM10 concentrations (in this laboratory environment 20–25%) than the reference pavement ABS11, while the GAÖ11 does not differ from the reference. Size distributions show that PM10 has a bi-modal distribution with two mass maxima at 4–5 and 7–8 μm. GAP11 decreases the mass size distribution mainly in the finer mode, while GAÖ11 seems to affect mainly the coarser mode. Ultrafine particles are emitted during all tests and have number distribution maxima at around 20–30 nm. These particles are formed in the interaction between tyre studs and pavement and/or tyre rubber. Higher speed generates higher concentrations of ultrafine particles.

    All in all, the results indicate a lowering effect on PM10 emissions caused by GAP11, while the GAÖ11 does not seem to lower the emissions as compared to the reference pavement ABS11.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lunden, Eva
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    NanoWear: nanopartiklar från slitage av däck och vägbana2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles from road and tire wear have in recent years come to the fore as an important and relatively unexplored contribution to air particulate pollution. Mechanically generated wear particles are relatively coarse (>0.5 microns), but in controlled trials in VTI's road simulator it has been found that an ultra-fine fraction (< 100 nm) of particles is formed from tyre and pavement wear. This project was initiated to identify the source of these nanoparticles. The results show that the nanoparticles of the size 30-50 nm occur only from tests with studded tyres. One of the two tested Nordic unstudded winter tyres produced an even finer particle fraction (<10 nm), while the other unstudded winter tyre type did not give rise to nanoparticles. Tests with summer tyres did not result in the formation of nanoparticles. It is clear that the fine particle fraction contains higher relative concentrations of sulphur, which is present at relatively high levels in both bitumen and tyres. It is unclear whether the ultrafine particles formed from studded tyre wear of road pavement in the road simulator also occur in real traffic. If so, this may affect the assessment of health effects from different traffic related particle sources.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Ljungman, Anders
    Lindbom, John
    Rudell, Bertil
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Inandningsbara partiklar från dubbdäcksslitage av vägbana: egenskaper och inflammatoriska effekter i mänskliga luftvägsceller. utdrag ur WearTox-projektet (VTI rapport 520)2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aims of this project have been to describe PM10 from studded tyre wear and to study their inflammatory effects in human airway cells. The VTI circular road simulator has been used to generate "clean" wear particles from two different pavements; asphalt concrete (ABT) and stone mastic asphalt (ABS), with granite respectively quartzite as the main stone materials. The advantage of using the road simulator is that the contribution from other sources can be minimised. During the project time, the project was expanded also to study particle generation by non-studded winter tyres (friction tyres) and two kinds of winter sanding agents, namely washed crushed stone and unwashed natural sand in combination with both studded and friction tyres. Most of these parts of the project are presented in VTI report 520. The results show that pavement wear by studded tyres generates about 40-50 times as much PM10 as that by friction tyres, but also that the ABT pavement generates several times more PM10 than the ABS pavement. The size distribution within PM10 has a maximum around 3-4 ?m and more than 95 % of the mass is larger than 1 ?m. PM10 is totally dominated by fresh stone material. A fraction of very small particles, with a number concentration peak at around 30-40 nm, was also discovered. Their origin is unknown, but since the number distribution shifted depending on which tyre type was used, a possible origin is the tyres. In the cell studies the inflammation potential of the wear particles was compared with PM10 from Hornsgatan in Stockholm and PM10 from a Stockholm subway station. Later on in the project, diesel particles were made available for comparison. The cell study results show that PM10 from the ABT pavement is at least as inflammatory as diesel particles and more inflammatory than PM10 from the subway. The PM10 from Hornsgatan generally had the highest potential, but PM10 from the ABT pavement was often in parity. This despite the fact that the Hornsgatan PM10 were the only particle sample where endotoxin could be detected. Endotoxin causes an additive effect in studies of inflammation potential. PM10 from the ABS pavement generally had a lower potential than PM10 from the ABT pavement.

  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Ljungman, Anders
    Lindbom, John
    Rudell, Bertil
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Inandningsbara partiklar från interaktion mellan däck, vägbana och friktionsmaterial: slutrapport av WearTox-projektet2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The aims of this project have been to describe PM10 from studded tyre wear and to study their inflammatory effects in human airway cells. The VTI circular road simulator has been used to generate "clean" wear particles from two different pavements; asphalt concrete (ABT) and stone mastic asphalt (ABS), with granite respectively quartzite as the main stone materials. The advantage of using the road simulator is that the contribution from other sources can be minimised. During the project time, the project was expanded also to study particle generation by non-studded winter tyres (friction tyres) and two kinds of winter sanding agents, namely washed crushed stone and unwashed natural sand in combination with both studded and friction tyres. The results show that pavement wear by studded tyres generates about 40-50 times as much PM10 as that by friction tyres, but also that the ABT pavement generates several times more PM10 than the ABS pavement. The size distribution within PM10 has a maximum around 3-4 ?m and more than 95 % of the mass is larger than 1 ?m. PM10 is totally dominated by fresh stone material. A fraction of very small particles, with a number concentration peak at around 30-40 nm, was also discovered. Their origin is unknown, but since the number distribution shifted depending on which tyre type was used, a possible origin is the tyres. In the experiments using sanding material, the unwashed natural sand caused the highest PM10 concentrations. Friction tyres on natural sand caused higher concentrations than studded tyres on washed crushed stone. Studded tyres generated more PM10 than friction tyres but the difference was not as large as when no sanding material was used. In the cell studies the inflammation potential of the wear particles was compared with PM10 from Hornsgatan in Stockholm and PM10 from a Stockholm subway station. Later on in the project, diesel particles were made available for comparison. The cell study results show that PM10 from the ABT pavement is at least as inflammatory as diesel particles and more inflammatory than PM10 from the subway. The PM10 from Hornsgatan generally had the highest potential, but PM10 from the ABT pavement was often in parity. This despite the fact that the Hornsgatan PM10 were the only particle sample where endotoxin could be detected. Endotoxin causes an additive effect in studies of inflammation potential. PM10 from the ABS pavement generally had a lower potential than PM10 from the ABT pavement.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Avdelningen för ergonomi och aerosolteknik, Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Avdelningen för ergonomi och aerosolteknik, Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Lindbom, John
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Rudell, Bertil
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Avdelningen för kärnfysik, Fysiska institutionen, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    WearTox: effekter på alveolmakrofager och epitelceller av slitagepartiklar från vägbana och däck2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under slutet på 90-talet genomfördes mätningar av luften partikelhalter i sex svenska städer där syftet var att studera vilka halter som förekommer i gatu-, respektive taknivå och studera partiklarnas ursprung (Areskoug m. fl. 2001). Något förvånande visade det sig att den tydligt dominerande källan till partiklar i gatunivå under vinterhalvåret då halterna är som högst, inte är avgasrelaterade partiklar utan härrör från slitage av vägbana, däck och bromsar. Slitage av vägbanan orsakad av dubbdäcksanvändning bidrar mycket starkt till partikelhalterna, men även vintersandningen är en bidragande orsak. Den nyvunna kunskapen om slitagepartiklarnas betydelse för partikelhalterna kräver ökad kunskap om vilka faktorer som styr bildningen, om partiklarnas egenskaper, om deras eventuella betydelse för hälsoeffekter och om vilka åtgärder som kan bidra till att sänka bidraget.

    Projektet WearTox är ett av de första som Vägverket initierade för att fylla dessa kunskapsluckor. Projektet har utförts av VTI i samarbete med Lunds universitet och Linköpings universitet.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att studera den toxiska potentialen hos slitagepartiklar från beläggning och däck hos exponerade mänskliga luftvägsceller. slitagepartiklarnas fysikaliska, kemiska och morfologiska egenskaper. Under arbetets gång tillkom önskemål om karaktärisering av ytterligare kombinationer av däck vägbana och även från försök med sandad vägbana. Dessa tilläggsbeställningar inkluderade dock inte toxikologiska studier utan begränsade sig till karaktäriseringen av partiklarna.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Inandningsbara partiklar i järnvägsmiljöer2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Airborne particles from railroad traffic have been identified as an air pollution problem mainly in tunnel environments. As a result of the introduction of the environmental quality standard for inhalable particles in Sweden 2005, the interest in railroad particle pollution has increased. The present report focuses on the variation of PM10 (inhalable particles) in some railroad environments under and above ground, the way these relate to traffic and on the particles' size distributions and elemental composition. The results show that particle concentrations in above ground railroad environments do not exceed the environmental quality standard during the campaigns. Diurnal mean values of PM10 range between 19 to 25 microg/m3. On the contrary, the diurnal mean concentrations on the platforms of the underground stations Arlanda Central and Arlanda South are far above the limit value (237 and 88 microg/m3 respectively) and clear diurnal and weekly patterns in PM10 concentration, co-fluctuating with traffic, can be identified. The particle mass size distribution has an obvious peak around 5-7 ?m at Arlanda C, and slightly smaller, 2-3 microm, at Arlanda S. The concentrations of both PM10 and ultrafine particles (< 0,1 microm) vary a lot depending on different trains. Especially the ultrafine particles seem to be emitted from certain trains, but it has not been possible to identify the source of these particles. The elemental composition of the particles in the tunnel environments was dominated by iron (84 % and 74 % respectively in Arlanda C and Arlanda S), but also other metals, like Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Sb (only at Arlanda C) have relatively high concentrations. The tunnel measurements also give some interesting results regarding possible measures against high particle concentrations. Washing of the tunnel walls and floor was carried out on two consecutive nights, but it had no noticeable results on particle concentrations. This implies that a dominant proportion of the particles is directly emitted rather than resuspended. On certain nights, the concentrations of all particle size fractions sank to very low levels, lasting till the morning traffic began. This implies effective self ventilation during these hours. Measurements in several different environments on Stockholm central station show that PM10 vary several tens of microg/m3. Activity, related to both traffic and people, increases particle concentration. The highest concentrations were measured inside the waiting hall. Nevertheless, the concentrations on the platforms were generally at least as high as in the busy street environment outside the station. During a railroad travel, the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations were generally low, but increase at stops and, most prominently, on entering the Arlanda airport railroad tunnels. The PM2,5 proportion is considered high, contributing to approximately 50-80 % of PM10. The sources of railroad emitted PM10 are likely to be rails, wheels and brakes, but a source apportionment has not been accomplished in this project.

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2016/20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm City has been working to reduce the impact of road dust through improved and specific street operations to reduce particulate levels in the air. Since its inception, effects on dust load and air quality have been investigated by VTI and SLB-analys at the Environmental Management in Stockholm. Specific measures have mainly included dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning with a Disa-Clean sweeper. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is maintained for the fourth year in a row in Stockholm, which is partly due to operational measures. Additional daytime dust binding could be shown to lower the daily average PM10 concentration by 6%, while blockwise CMA treatment could not be shown to have any clear effect. Road dust load, measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm), tend to have increased slightly compared to the previous season, especially in between the wheel tracks. The repaving of Folkungagatan has resulted in heavily increased dust load levels, but also lower PM10 levels than previous seasons. Evaluation of the possibilities for optimizing dust binding shows that several days with exceedances in autumn are missed, while several days in January are treated with CMA without an actual need to reach the limit value. Higher precision with forecast-based measures is needed to further optimize the efforts.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Franzén, Lars
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rudell, Bertil
    Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping.
    Föroreningsnedfall från järnvägstrafik2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and health hazards, caused by exposure to particulate matter, have received increased attention in recent years. Railways can also be a source of particulate matter, which has been highlighted for instance where problems with dusting along railways have been reported. This is the case especially in built-up areas where the railway traffic has to reduce its speed before stations. Examples of the problems are odours in the surroundings and dust deposition onto parked vehicles, damaging car finishes. The dust is in this case assumed to have its origin in the brakes, wheels, rails, and electric conductors but may also be caused by resuspension of the wear particles of the same origins which had been deposited on the railway embankment.

    In this study three field sites were established for thecollection of deposition using funnels and bottles, complemented by verticalfilters at the same positions in order to collect airborne particles. Alsothe peat samples were collected at one site in order to study theaccumulation of pollutants in the railway surroundings. The length of eachmeasuring period was about two weeks, and a total of nine measuring periodswere performed.  In order that the results may be generalized to be valid for the entirerailway network, more detailed knowledge of the mechanisms involved in thewear and spreading of the metals is required. 

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studies of wear particles using the VTI road simulator/particle generator2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The high costs of maintenance related to pavement wear have caused many countries to prohibit the use of studded tyres. In Japan and Norway, regulations have also been based upon the health aspects of the road dust. In Japan studded tyres are prohibited and in Norway, restrictions have been placed on the use of studded tyres in some larger cities. In Sweden, wear particles from pavements, tyres, brakes and winter sanding/salting, have received a lot of attention the last few years. The reason for this is that measurements have shown that these particles are the main reason that the upcoming environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM10) will not be reached in many cities. The problem mainly occurs during dry episodes in winter and early spring and is mainly a result of studded tyre use and winter maintenance. A lot of new knowledge about wear particles is needed in order to develop cost-effective measures to deal with them. A great advantage is the possibility to study aerosols from each source both separately and in different combinations in a controlled environment. At VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute) a road simulator (PVM), previously used for pavement and tyre wear studies, is used as a wear particle generator. The PVM can be equipped with different pavements and tyres and even friction materials such as sand can be applied. The PVM can be used at speeds up to 70 km/h and the pavement can be dry or wet. Also the temperature in the hall can be regulated below zero degrees centigrade. In this paper some results from the WearTox project will be presented. The production of PM10 from two pavements worn by studded tyres and friction tyres has been studied as well as the physical and chemical properties of the wear particles produced.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Vägbeläggningars damningsbenägenhet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2005 Sweden has an environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM10), based on an EC directive. In Sweden, road dust is an important local source of norm exceedance, which has highlighted the negative effects of studded tyres, but also initiated research and development for other ways to reduce the formation and distribution of road dust to our ambient air. More than 100 000 tons of road pavement is worn each season. Some of this material is PM10 from the start, while other material has the potential to be ground down by the traffic to PM10. Reducing road pavement dust formation propensity is therefore a potential measure studied in this project. Eight surfaces of SMA-type (stone mastic asphalt) were tested in the VTI road simulator for particle formation to determine both the impact of the largest stone size and the influence of rock material properties. As a complement to analyze the impact of technical properties of different stone materials, data from nine additional pavements tested in other projects were used. The results show that larger largest stone size generally leads to lower particulate emissions and that the stone material Nordic ball mill value is a useful measure for estimating a stone material dust formation propensity. In the pavements with 11 mm largest stone size, the Nordic ball mill value can explain 70% of the variation in PM10 at 50 km/h. The results are not conclusive, suggesting that some material may be more sensitive for changes in the largest stone size than others. Elemental analysis shows that particles larger than about 1 micron are completely dominated by elements originating in the aggregates of the pavement. Sulfur, which may originate from tyres and/or bitumen is usually a significant contribution to particles below 1 micron, while zinc, which can be traced to tyre rubber, is found in relatively small amounts mainly in the coarser fractions. Special tests in the Norwegian part of the project show that increased studded tyre percentage increases particle formation and that when non-studded winter tires and summer tires are tested on one of the Norwegian pavements, this results in about 15 times lower PM10 concentrations than with use of studded tyres and a higher proportion of fine particles. In all tests with studded tyres also ultrafine particles are formed. The source is still unknown, but tests with the porphyry pavements result in higher concentrations than for quartzite and mylonite pavements.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hultqvist, Bengt-Åke
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Slitage av och partikelemissioner från betongbeläggning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to study wear and the formation of inhalable particles from concrete coating, concrete coating with mixed in titanium dioxide (TiOmix) and from a reference asphalt (SMA16) under controlled conditions in the VTI road simulator (PVM). All coatings used the same rock material, a granite with ball mill value 6. Wear tests showed that the TiOmix wore most, due to the poor strength properties caused in manufacturing the slabs. The asphalt was initially more worn than the concrete, but after about 250 000 rounds in the PVM it was at the same wear rate as the concrete. Particle formation was higher for the concrete that that of the asphalt. PM10 from concrete contained substantially more calcium than PM10 from asphalt, indicating that the cement in the concrete is an important particle source. Ultrafine particles emitted, after initial high emissions at any speed increase, to a lesser extent from the concrete and TiOmix than from asphalt. The concentrations of PAHs are lower in samples from concrete coating, which may indicate that a part of the PAHs are derived from bitumen. However, the difference may also be due to different PAH content from the tires used.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Håkansson, Karsten
    Geo Innova.
    Lindeberg, Johanna
    SGI.
    Nilsson-Påledal, Sören
    SGI.
    Järnvägens föroreningar - källor, spridning och åtgärder: en litteraturstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föroreningar i järnvägsmiljön är dels förknippade med trafikens mer eller mindre diffusa utsläpp, dels mer påtagliga föroreningar, förknippade med behandling av banvallar för att till exempel förhindra att syllar ruttnar och att banvallen växer igen. Under senare år har partikelbildningen från tågtrafik särskilt uppmärksammats, främst då i tunnelmiljöer där halten av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) visat sig kunna vara mycket höga.

    Föreliggande rapport är en internationell litteraturstudie med syftet att sammanställa och syntetisera befintlig kunskap om källor till, spridning av och åtgärder mot järnvägens föroreningar, samt att utifrån denna diskutera åtgärders effektivitet. Studien tar inte upp punktutsläpp i samband med olyckor och fokuserar generellt på eldriven järnvägstrafik.

    De viktigaste järnvägsrelaterade föroreningarna identifieras som inandningsbara partiklar, bekämpningsmedel, PAH:er och metaller. Förutom en genomgång av kunskapsläget kring dessa föroreningar har ett antal kunskapsluckor inom området identifierats. Mer övergripande studier av järnvägens föroreningar och hur deras spridningsmönster ter sig i luft, mark och vatten saknas helt i litteraturen. För vattenrecipienter och andra känsliga miljöer som kan påverkas av järnvägens föroreningar eller för järnvägssträckor där emissionerna kan förväntas vara betydande är sådana studier befogade. Studierna skulle kunna ge en bild av hur emission, spridning och exponering i olika medier hänger samman. En viktig kunskapslucka är bildning, egenskaper och eventuella hälsoeffekter av partiklar från järnvägstrafik. Inandningsbara partiklar i vår omgivningsluft bedöms idag som ett av våra viktigaste hälsorelaterade miljöproblem. Ökad kunskap om järnvägens bidrag till halter och hälsoeffekter i olika miljöer samt vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att minska bidraget är därför central.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mätning av luftkvalitet vid TestSite E182015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of air quality (PM10 and NOx (NO and NO2)) were made during the period 2013-03-16 to 2014-03-26 at TestSite E18, situated along the E18 highway between Västerås and Enköping. At TestSite E18 continuous measurements of traffic (eastbound direction) and meteorology are made. On the site, optical equipment for measuring road wetness was used during the campaign. The main purpose of the surveys is to create a data base for a highway traffic environment, which can be used for modeling air quality and calculation of exposure and health effects at a later stage. The results show that the concentrations do not exceed the relevant EQS. PM10 and NO2 are highest during the spring and autumn and lower in the summer period. The correlations between PM10 and nitrogen oxides are high in spring, low in summer and moderate in autumn and winter, suggesting that the summertime sources for PM10 at TestSite E18 are essentially others than traffic. Road surface moisture reduces PM10 levels strongly during spring when road dust is a major particle source. On a daily basis nitrogen dioxide and PM10 concentrations follow traffic variation, but with a clear secondary minimum at midday for nitrogen oxides. TestSite E18 generates large amounts of traffic and meteorology data, which can be used to analyze the correlation between these factors and air pollution at the site, and provide appropriate data for input to as well as validation of emission models.

  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2015–20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm has made special efforts to reduce PM10 levels in the city. The efforts mainly include dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) and vacuum suction with a powerful dry vacuum suction machine. This report summarizes effects on particulate matter and road dust storage, as the actions taken by Stockholm City during the 2015–2016 season and discusses how measures can be further improved. The limit value for the environmental quality standard was not exceeded for the 2015–2016 season for the third consecutive year, but the number of days with PM10 levels over the environmental quality standard was higher than in the previous season, which had a record low number of exceedances. The evaluation of daytime dust binding was complicated by the fact that the CMA was also used on the reference street, which caused to much uncertainties to provide quantitative analysis of its effect this season. Block-wise dust binding and vacuuming could not be evaluated due to dust contamination from a construction site. The dust load on the streets varies from a few g/m2 to about 250 g/m2 depending on the street and season and is highest during the winter (Dec–Jan). A trend towards lower dust loads is broken this season on several streets, which may be due to the damper streets in spring. Analyses made on the connection between dust load, PM10 and impacting factors, as well as a condition-based calculation method suggests that dust binding in spring is important for keeping the levels down, while dust binding in autumn and winter is more often “unnecessary” (the levels would probably not have exceeded the limit value also without dust binding).

  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2012–20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is exceeding the limit values in the EU air quality directives and an important cause is the high concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) that occurs during winter and spring. Wear of road pavements and winter operation like sanding are important sources for these high concentrations. The city of Stockholm has the largest air quality problems due to many badly ventilated street canyons with high traffic flows. Since 2011 an intensified mitigation work is intended to reduce PM10 concentrations. In this work, some streets are used as test streets for different measures and the resulting PM10 concentrations are compared to concentrations on un-treated reference streets. The results of the season 2011–2012 showed that dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) was the most effective measure, while cleaning with an advanced sweeper with vacuum, could not be proven to give any reducing effects on PM10. The trials have been extended with two more test sites during the season 2012–2013, presented in this report. The reason for this was to be able to evaluate a new kind of vacuum sweeper, which does not use water and therefore can be used also during sub-zero conditions. The results show that dust binding with CMA is still the most effective method to reduce high PM10 concentrations resulting from road dust suspension and that the effect can be seen also the day after treatment. Cleaning the streets with the new vacuum cleaner could not be shown to give a significant reduction of PM10 concentrations, even though samples showed that the machine actually picked up fine particles. As during the previous season, the amount of road dust has been sampled and analyzed. The road dust depot increases during winter and reaches a maximum in early spring but is very low in the beginning and at the end of the winter season. This shows the importance of pavement wear and winter operation measures for the road dust depot. The dust binding effect is reflected in higher dust amounts with finer particle size distributions on the treated streets. As CMA might give reduce friction, friction measurements were performed, but no friction problems could be detected. Road surface texture was detected and this indicate that texture is an important parameter for the size of the road dust depot and therefore also for the dust suspension potential.

  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2013–20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce levels of PM10 in Stockholm, where the problems are extensive. This report includes the results and evaluation of the measures taken during the winter season 2013–2014. The lowest PM10 levels since records began in Stockholm, were measured during the season and the limit values for the environmental quality standard is managed by a wide margin, which at least partially can be attributed to the intensified measures. The winter was unusually mild and snow-free and this has probably contributed to that, the typically large quantities of road dust that accumulates on the road surface in winter were able to leave the system through suspension, cleaning and drainage without high particulate levels resulting. During dry periods, frequent dust binding has helped to suppress high PM10 levels. The usually sharp PM10 peak in spring did not appear to the same extent as previous years. The block-wise CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) treatment was shown to provide additional reducing effect on PM10 levels, while the CMA + KF (potassium formate) treatment did not appear to have any impact. The measurements of the road dust load show the same seasonal fluctuations as in previous years, with large amounts during winter and early spring and lower in fall and late spring. All streets, except Hornsgatan, show a gradual decrease of road dust load over the three seasons with available data. The proportion of particles smaller than 10 microns in the dust increases from autumn to winter and decreases again in the spring. The organic proportion varies between 10 and 20 per cent by weight of DL180 (dust load less than 180 μm)and also exhibit a seasonal variation, where the proportion is higher in autumn and lowest in early spring. In a specific evaluation of the cleaning machine, a reduction of the road dust load could be observed.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2014–20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce the levels of PM10 in Stockholm. This report presents results and evaluation of the efforts made during the winter season 2014–2015. The season has the lowest PM10 concentrations and the lowest number of exceedances of the environmental quality standard for PM10 since measurements started in Stockholm in 2000. Calculations using the NORTRIP model shows that both increased dust binding, reduced use of studded tires, lower background concentration and differences in meteorology are all factors that contributed to reduced levels from 2013 to 2015. Treatment with CMA + KF (potassium formate) did not appear to give any impact on PM10 levels, while block-wise dust binding gave an additional, but not significant, positive effect.

    The dust load on the road surface has a declining trend in all streets except Hornsgatan over the past three years and has, as in previous seasons, a seasonal variation with large amounts in winter and early spring and low in October and May. Detailed measurements showed a strong variation in the dust load across streets, with large accumulations outside the driving lane. Road surface texture is considered to play an important role in the accumulation of dust as it affects both the suspension from traffic, as well as the ability to clean off the dust. The report provides, based on the season’s results, combined with data on measures and meteorology, some suggestions for how measures can be improved and also provides examples of how additional needs or unnecessary efforts can be retrieved from the existing data.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet .
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 på Hornsgatan och Sveavägen i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2011–20122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Swedish cities have problems with complying with the environmental quality standard for inhalable particulate matter in air (PM10). Stockholm has a number of problematic traffic environments with narrow street canyons and high traffic flows, where the limit values are exceeded practically every year. An important source for PM10 is road dust forming from wear of road pavements and use of winter sanding. Different measures have been tested to mitigate the particle concentrations but to reach the limit values, no single measure is enough, but needs to be combined. During the winter 2011–2012, the city of Stockholm has tested a combination of measures, including dust binding with CMA, powerful street sweeping and street flushing with water to, if possible, reach the PM10 limit values. During the season, 31 applications of CMA, 25 road sweepings and 42 road flushes, were conducted. The results show that the number of PM10 directive exceedances on both streets were considerably fewer than on the reference streets. The single measure having a significant effect, though, was dust binding with CMA, while sweeping and flushing did not reduce PM10 concentrations. The road dust depot increased during the winter months on the test streets and reached a maximum in March, during the most intense dust binding efforts. An obvious relationship between road surface texture and road dust depot could be identified. The ion content on the street surfaces reflected the use of road salt (NaCl) and CMA

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